One of the first prototypes of the tank "Object 432"
Serial model tank "Object 432"
Combat weight - 35 t; crew - 3 people; weapon: gun - mm 115, smooth-bore, 1 machine gun - 7,62 mm; armor protection - counterbalance; engine power - 538 kW (700 hp); maximum speed - 65 km / h.
Combat weight - 35 t; crew - 3 people; weapon: gun - mm 115, smooth-bore, 1 machine gun - 7,62 mm; armor protection - counterbalance; engine power - 538 kW (700 hp); maximum speed - 65 km / h.
General view of the tank "Object 432" release to July 1964.
In accordance with the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 395-141 of 28 in March of 1963. V.A. Malysheva set about assembling the installation batch for conducting military tests, as well as preparing for the production of the 432 Object tank according to the drawing and technical documentation of the chief designer. Simultaneously with the release of the installation batch in the period from November 1963 to July 1964, two previously manufactured factory samples passed the third stage of forced tests. The first ten machines of the installation batch were ready for the beginning of March 1964, of which three tanks from May to June 1964 were subjected to control tests, which showed unsatisfactory results. However, continuing to release the machine, by January 1, the 1966. V.A. Malysheva manufactured the 254 tank 432 (three of them were intended for the B-45 diesel engine installation and were subsequently named the 436 Object).
Tank "Object 432" had a classic layout scheme with a transverse engine and a crew of three. A feature of the layout was its high density, as well as the minimum overall performance of the tank, especially in height (2,17 m), which provided him with the smallest reserved volume of all domestic medium tanks. This was achieved due to the exclusion of the charging crew from the crew and the use of a loading mechanism, a specially designed low-level engine and the presence of a stamp in the bottom of the hull to accommodate the driver’s seat.
Office management located in the bow of the hull. The driver’s seat was located in the center of the control compartment (along the longitudinal axis of the machine), in front of which were placed the steering levers, the fuel pedal and the transmission pedal (the pedal for disengagement pedal) on the bottom of the case. On the upper sloping front section of the hull, in front of the driver’s seat, there was a gyropolupask GPK-59, a distribution relay switch box КРР-2 and an automatic switchboard АС-2 of the UA PPO system, a stop brake pedal, a crane with a valve for hydropneumatic cleaning of monitoring devices, an engine starting valve with compressed air, blower fan mechanic-driver, two warning lights exit the gun for the dimensions of the body and the lamp lighting selector gear.
Branch Office of the tank "Object 432". The instrument panel of the mechanic-driver of the tank "Object 432".
To the right of the driver's seat on the bottom were installed the selector gear (gear lever), water trap, air bleed valve, as well as the right fuel tank and tank rack with part of the gun ammunition. In front of the voter under the right fuel tank were placed two cylinders with compressed air. In addition, the KUV-5 supercharger control box, the DP-3B X-ray meter, the RTS-27-4 X-ray temperature controller for electric heating devices, the dynamic braking box CD-1 and the control box of the ESD system were mounted on the right fuel tank.
To the left of the driver's seat on the bottom of the case were the handles of the manual fuel supply and cooling system louvers, the bow centrifugal bilge pump with electromotive drive and switching valve, fuel filter, distribution valve, manual fuel pump RNM-1 and the fuel supply valve to the heater. In addition, on the left were the left fuel tank, the control panel and the batteries, over which the control gear and the battery switch were attached. Behind the batteries there were three cylinders of the UA PPO system.
Diagram of the hydropneumatic cleaning system of the inspection devices of the tank driver “Object 432” (left) and its operation (right)
To observe the battlefield and driving the vehicle in front of the driver in the upper frontal and zygomatic armor plates of the hull, three TNC-160 periscopic viewing instruments were mounted, which provided the general horizontal 192 ° viewing sector. Surveillance devices had electrical input and output windows. During the night driving of the tank, instead of the central viewing device in the mine, a binocular night vision device TVN-2BM was installed. Cleaning mechanic-driver viewing devices from dust, dirt and snow was carried out with the help of a hydro-pneumatic cleaning system. A tank with a liquid and a dispenser for hydro-pneumatic cleaning of viewing devices, as well as a TVN-2BM device in a case were placed in the forward part of the body in the control compartment.
There was an access hatch in the roof of the driver’s compartment above the driver’s workplace. The swivel armor hatch was opened (raised) and closed using a closing mechanism (opening and closing the hatch, both from the inside and the outside, was possible only under certain tower positions). To exclude the rotation of the tower from the electric drive when the driver's hatch is open, there was a lock associated with the position of the hatch cover. If necessary (with the stabilizer running), the driver could turn the tower into a position that enabled him to open the access hatch by turning on a special toggle switch.
To the left of the driver's access hatch there was a ventilating hatch, on the back of the turret sheet there was a courtesy illumination lamp and a driver's unit TPUA-4.
The design of the driver’s seat ensured its fixation in two positions: the bottom (when driving a tank in combat) and the top (when driving a tank in a traveling fashion), as well as height adjustment and along the vehicle’s body to set the seat to convenient for the driver position. When driving a tank in a marching way, depending on the weather conditions, a protective cover with a visor could be installed on the driver’s hatch.
Behind the seat of the driver in the bottom of the case there was an emergency exit hatch, the lid of which opened to the outside (it fell to the ground).
Entrance hatch and closing mechanism of the hatch of the driver of the tank "Object 432" (the hatch of the entrance hatch is open)
Placement of the ventilation flap at the tank driver “Object 432”. Manhole of the emergency exit of the tank "Object 432". Manhole cover open (lowered to the ground).
Isolation of the driver from the rest of the crew by the loading mechanism of the gun
Commander's turret, installation of the TKN-3 device in the commander's turret and the holding mechanism of the commander's turret of the "432 Object" tank
It should be noted that due to the adopted design of the loader mechanism, the driver was isolated from other crew members by a cabin and a rotating conveyor. The transfer of the driver from the control compartment to the combat compartment was possible only when the turret and gun were in the back position and two trays were dismantled with shots from the conveyor of the loading mechanism.
The fighting compartment was located in the middle part of the body in a special cabin and turret of the tank. The cabin was an aluminum frame, which was attached to the upper shoulder strut of the tower through intermediate brackets and rotated with it relative to the hull of the tank. It provided protection for the tank commander and gunner (their jobs were, respectively, to the right and left of the gun) from the rotating conveyor of the loading mechanism. To move the crew members from the command and control department into the fighting compartment and back, it served as a hatch in the aft part of the cabin (along the longitudinal axis). The openings of the cabin between the uprights, as well as its upper shelves, were covered with lining.
The tower housed: the main and auxiliary weapons of the tank, components and aggregates of the stabilizer, the loading mechanism of the tank gun with the control panel, aiming and aiming devices, external and internal communications, as well as some of the devices of the ESD, TPL, electrical and ammunition systems.
Over the seat of the tank commander, a commander's turret was installed on the turret roof with an access hatch closed with an armored lid. In the commander's turret there were two observation devices TNP-160, a combined (day and night) commander observation device TKN-3 and an illuminator OU-3GK (on the turret roof).
The workplace of the gunner and the installation of the VNM viewing device at the gunner of the tank "Object 432"
Air intake flap of the tank tower "Object 432". The entrance hatch gunner tank "Object 432"
To facilitate the retention of the crosshair of the TKN-3 device on the selected target, when targeting the gunner, a mechanism to hold the commander's turret was used. It was in the same building with the stopper of the tower and included a pinion gear connected with the teeth of the lower ring of the ball bearing of the tower, an electromagnetic clutch with a delivery link (friction clutch) and a drive connecting the mechanism with the toothed crown of the internal shoulder strap of the commander’s turret. In addition, a cosine potentiometer mounted on the holding mechanism was used to amend the rangefinder sight when the tank was moving at a target angle. Rotation of the commander's turret when pressing the button on the left handle of the TKN-3 device (on the right handle of the TKN-3 device there was a button for turning on the OU-3HK searchlight) was performed at the tower transfer speed (18 degrees / s), but in the opposite direction.
During the day, the gunner had a monocular, stereoscopic, with independent stabilization of the field of view in the vertical plane with a TPD-43 tank sight-rangefinder or a VNM periscopic observation device, and a TPS-1 monocular periscope sight (TPN1-432) during the night. -6-26М and L-2AG infrared illuminator (mounted on the bracket on the left on the frontal part of the tower). To clean the protective glasses of the rangefinder sight and its base pipe from dirt, dust and snow, a hydropneumatic cleaning system was used, which is similar in design to the hydropneumatic cleaning system of the viewing instruments of the driver. However, this system used a separate two-liter air tank (mounted to the left of the gunner’s seat, on the cabin wall) and a gearbox that lowered air pressure to 1,37MPa (14 kgf / cm2). In addition, to eliminate misting and frosting of the protective glasses of the range-finder sight and its base pipe, there was also a system for blowing them with air. It consisted of a centrifugal supercharger that took air from the fighting compartment and fed it through special air ducts through the output nozzles to the protective glasses of the sight head, the left head of the base pipe and the left window of the tower, as well as the right head of the base pipe and the right window of the tower.
Installing a night sight TPL-1-432 and an infrared searchlight L-2AG on the turret of the tank "Object 432"
Diagram of the system of hydropneumatic cleaning of protective glasses for a range-sight sight
For landing and exit of the gunner over his workplace in the roof of the tower there was a hatch, closed armor cover. In the middle part of the hatch cover, a hatch was made to install the OPVT air supply pipe, which was closed with a hinged lid on two hinges and locked with a lock, which could only be opened with a special key. To facilitate the opening of the covers of the access hatches of the tank commander and the gunner, beam torsions made of steel plates were installed in their hinges.
In the fighting compartment, in the hull behind the cab and the conveyor at the MTO partition, there were two rear internal fuel tanks. Between the right rear fuel tank and the side was installed the heater of the engine heating system with a heater. Above it, a blower with a PAZ system filter was attached to the engine bulkhead, and an exhaust fan was mounted in a special window of the left rear fuel tank. On the left side of the battery was mounted hydraulically horizontal pickup stabilizer.
Removal of powder gases from the tank during firing, as well as blowing the crew with fresh air in the hot season were provided with a ventilation system of habitable compartments. This system included a hand-operated supercharger for opening and closing valves, an easily removable electric fan (in front of the driver), an air draw of the tower (on the aft roof sheet of the tower), an air supply of the body (on the zygomatic leaf of the roof to the left of the driver) and an exhaust fan. The inclusion of the exhaust fan was carried out by pressing the "Start" button on the box KUV-5, located in the fighting compartment of the commander.
MTO was located in the aft part of the tank and was separated from the fighting compartment by an airtight partition. In the compartment across the hull, an engine was installed with power output to the drive wheels at both ends of the crankshafts through the right and left OPF mounted in a block with coaxial planetary final drives. Between the engine and the engine bulkhead were located tanks engine lubrication systems (left) and transmission (right).
An air cleaner was located above the engine at the left side of the hull, and on the bottom under the air cleaner there was a feed pump for pumping water when the tank was overcoming water obstacles along the bottom. On the starboard side, the expansion tank of the engine cooling system and the gas flue pipe were attached, which were connected with an annular compensator to the engine gas turbine housing. Between the engine and the hull rear stern was installed a stern fuel tank. MTO also housed control drives, an engine stop mechanism (MOD), thermal smoke apparatus (TDA), thermal sensors of the UA PPO system, sensors of control devices, and a high-voltage torch heating coil. Due to the dense layout, the MTO volume was only 2,62 m3.
MTO tank "Object 432". View of the MTO tank "Object 432" with a raised roof.
The main weapon of the tank was the X-NUMX-mm smooth-bore D-115 tank gun stabilized in two planes of separate-sleeve loading with a wedge semi-automatic horizontal-displacement shutter and an ejection mechanism for cleaning the bore of powder gases after a shot. The cannon shutter was equipped with a re-cocking mechanism of the striker and mechanisms that protect against mechanical self-timer when the tank is moving with a loaded gun and from a shot when the shutter is not fully closed. Right on the cradle of the gun in a special bracket set paired 68-mm PKT machine gun.
For aiming the gun and the machine gun coupled to it when firing direct fire served as a range finder TPD-43 and night sight TPL-1, and when firing from a cannon from closed firing positions - side level and azimuth pointer. The error in measuring the range with a rangefinder sight in the 1000-4000 m range was 3-5%. The aiming of the coupled weapon installation into the target was carried out with the help of the 2E18 “Lilac” electrohydraulic stabilizer from the handles of the control panel of the range-finder sight or the handles of the hydraulic lifting mechanism of the gun and the manual mechanism of the turret rotation. Vertical pickup angles with the stabilizer turned off ranged from -6 to + 14 °.
Installation of the D-68 cannon in the turret of the “432 Object” tank
Installing a twin PKT machine gun in the turret of the “432 Object” tank
Placement of knots and instruments of the stabilizer 2E18 "Lilac" in the tank "Object 432"
The mechanism of rotation of the tower with a manual drive tank "Object 432"
The pick-up speeds of the coupled unit from the remote control of the range-finder sight (when the drive is working) using hydraulic mechanisms were: vertical - from 0,05 to 3,5 degrees / s, horizontal - from 0,05 to 18 degrees / s. The turret was rotated both in stabilized and semi-automatic (unstabilized) pickup modes. When the electric drive was not working, the tower could be turned with the help of a hand-operated turn mechanism located to the left of the gunner. Turning off the hand-operated turret mechanism during operation of the hydraulic steering mechanism and its activation were carried out by an electromagnetic clutch with power from the on-board network of the tank. In the flywheel of the mechanism of rotation of the tower with a manual drive housed the azimuth pointer, and its drive - in the upper housing of the mechanism.
The shot from the cannon could be carried out using both electric (galvanozapala) and mechanical (manual) descents. The electrical release was carried out by pressing the button located on the right-hand grip of the remote control of the rangefinder sight, or on the key located on the handle of the flywheel of the gun's hoisting mechanism. The mechanical (manual) descent lever went outside the left shield of the cannon fence. For firing a machine gun, a button was used on the left handle of the remote control of the rangefinder sight or a button on the handle of the flywheel of the turret rotation mechanism.
The conveyor of the loading mechanism of the tank gun "Object 432". Right - Location of sub-caliber and high-explosive fragmentation projectiles.
The control panel of the loading mechanism of the tank "Object 432". To the right is the Catcher of the 432 Object Tank Cannon Loading Mechanism with a metal tray of a partially combustible shell.
For firing from a cannon, separate loading shots with a partially burning cartridge were used: 3ВБМ1 (with an armor-piercing piercing projectile 3БМ5); 3BBK4 (with a cumulative projectile 3BK8 or 3BK8M) and 3BOFX18 (with a high-explosive fragmentation projectile 3OF17). The largest scope of operations m) was equal to 43, 3 and 5 m, respectively. The armor penetration capability of the 4000BK3М projectile was 8 mm, and the 3BM8 at the 3 m distance was 17 mm (3300 mm under the 1 ° angle from the vertical).
To increase the rate of fire of the gun, the tank was equipped with an electrohydromechanical loading mechanism (MH) of the conveyor type. For loading the gun was brought to a constant angle of elevation 2 ° 48 '. The structure of the Ministry of Health included: a conveyor, a mechanism for rotating the conveyor, a feeding mechanism, a mechanism for trapping and repacking the pallet, a discharging mechanism, hydraulic actuators and hydrodistributors, a hydrostop gun, a hydrostop mechanism for rotating the conveyor, a relay block for the loading mechanism, a control panel, a console for loading and unloading shots. The speed of rotation of the conveyor was 24 degrees / s, the minimum duration of loading of one shot was 6 s, the maximum (full turn of the conveyor) was 20 s.
The conveyor was a welded ring structure, which was stirred outside the cabin. With its upper ring, it was attached to the inner crown of the tower shoulder strap and rotated on a ball bearing. The conveyor housed 30 trays loading mechanism with shots, which were displayed on the loading line using the mechanism of rotation of the conveyor (hydraulic motor mechanism located to the right of the commander's seat) and the lever feed mechanism. The filing of a shot into the chamber of the barrel of the gun after it was brought to the line of loading was provided by the mechanism of filing with a reversible hydraulic motor mounted on the bottom sheet in the rear of the tower. Holding the cannon at the loading angle during the operation of the feed and dismounting mechanisms was ensured by a hydromechanical stopper mounted on the right side of the cannon in front of the tank tower roof.
Tray loader mechanism with high-explosive fragmentation shot on the milling line
After the shot was fired, the extracted pallet (the metal part of the partially burning sleeve) was captured and held by a cable-operated trapping mechanism (mounted on the back of the left shield of the cannon fence), which after another loading of the gun shifted it to the empty tray of the conveyor. Combat rate with the use of the loading mechanism reached 8-9 shots / min.
In the event of a failure of the MV, the loading of the gun with shots from the conveyor could be carried out with the help of manual (redundant) MV drives (turning the conveyor and lifting the feeder lever). For this purpose, a special removable handle was used, mounted on the shank of the manual gear drive gear (a three-stage helical gear). The loading of the cannon could also be done manually with shots taken from a non-mechanized tank pack.
The gun ammunition included 40 shots, 30 of which were located in the trays of the conveyor of the MOH, where they fit into three types in any proportion. The remaining ten shots with only high-explosive or cumulative projectiles were placed in non-mechanized racking in the control compartment and in the fighting compartment. In the department of management there were six charges and eight projectiles, of which four charges and eight projectiles were placed in special sockets of the storage tank, and two charges were installed vertically near it and were held with clamps. In the fighting compartment housed four charges and two shells. Three charges were placed in front of the commander’s seat on the cab floor: one charge and one projectile — in the left niche of the turret, and one projectile — behind the commander’s seat.
Placing ammunition in the tank "Object 432"
Laying ammunition (in the rack tank) in the department of the tank "Object 432"
[center] [center]Laying ammunition in the cockpit and turret of the tank "Object 432"
The ridge stopper of the tank tower “Object 432” on the right - Vyshtampovka in the board (right) of the tank hull “Object 432” of the release of the first half of 1964.
Ammunition for the twin PKT machine gun consisted of 2000 cartridges. Machine gun cartridges were loaded into ribbons of 250 pcs. and placed as follows: one tape in the store - on the installation of a machine gun; three tapes in three stores - in the right niche of the stern of the tower; Four ribbons in two drawers - on the cab floor under the gun.
Inside the tank also lay-ups were provided: for the AK-47 (mounted in a cover in the fighting compartment on the cockpit wall behind the commander’s seat) with 120 cartridges, 26-mm SSPS signal pistol (in a holster on the left removable cockpit back of the gunner’s seat) with 12 signal cartridges and 10 F-1 hand grenades with fuses (in four bags on the cab floor behind the gunner’s seat).
In the stowed position, the gun was locked with a special thrust, which allowed it to be fixed relative to the tower in one of three vertical positions. The stopping of the turret relative to the tank hull in any position was ensured by a ridge stopper of the turret with eight teeth. To prevent the electric drive from turning on when the tower was locked, there was a blocking of the electric drive with a tower stopper.
The armor protection of the tank is counter-missile, using combined armor barriers in the hull and turret construction. It provided protection for the crew and internal equipment against the impact of all types of projectiles of foreign 105-mm rifled tank guns from a range of 500 m at course shelling angles ± 20 °.
Frontal and zygomatic armor plates of the nose of the hull had a large slope from the vertical. The angle of inclination of the upper frontal part of the hull, which had a multi-layer combined structure, was 68 ° from the vertical. Between the outer and inner armor plates were located two sheets of fiberglass. This relatively light material, without causing a large increase in the mass of the tank hull, effectively weakened the effect of the cumulative jet and the flux of fast neutrons.
Two towing hooks with spring latches, two brackets with barriers for fastening headlights and tubes for supplying electric wires to headlights and tail lights, two brackets for fastening tow cables were welded to the upper inclined plate. A dirt deflector was attached to the headlight brackets to prevent water and dirt from leaking into the hull when the tank was moving.
The hull sides are vertical armor plates that had a stamp in the middle part, made to increase the internal volume of the hull (for installing the MV with the placement of the maximum possible number of shots). In the upper part of each stamping there were two local depressions: under the upper branch of the caterpillar and under the welding of a sub-armor lining. In addition, the arms of the cranks of the guide wheels (in the front part), four arms of the supporting rollers (along the middle part), the balancer stops (one for the front and two for the fifth and sixth nodes of the suspension), for mounting shock absorbers on the first, second and sixth nodes of the suspension, as well as fenders with dust and mud shields (front and rear). At the installation sites of shock absorbers in the hull sides, grooves were made, which, together with the grooves under the upper branches of the tracks, formed weakened armor protection zones.
The aft part of the hull was a welded assembly of stamped armor aft sheet, the sloping part of the rear sheet of the bottom and the gearbox housing welded to the sides. On the stern sheet, left and right, in the upper part, one bracket was welded for fastening the rear position lamps, in the middle part - brackets for fastening the self-pulling logs, and also brackets for fastening the engine exhaust louver at the bottom of the ejector, closer to gearbox housings - spring-loaded tow hooks. In the middle of the stern sheet there was a hole for the installation of an adjusting screw for twisting the torsions of the MTO roof, which was closed with a protective cylindrical cap.
Scheme of armor protection tank "Object 432" release of the first half of 1964.
The roof of the hull consisted of front and rear armor plates, a removable part of the roof above the MTO and two armored under-lining plates. In the front roof sheet along the longitudinal axis of the hull there was a cutout under the driver's access hatch, to the right of it there was a hatch for refueling the front fuel tanks, to the left there was a hatch of air supply. On the rear roof sheet on the left, at the side, there was a hatch for the discharge of water by the aft pump, a hatch for refueling the rear fuel tanks, and a branch pipe that connected the external fuel tanks to the internal ones was welded. To the right of the board were the air intake hatch of the supercharger and the hatch for discharging the separated dust. To protect them, bulletproof strips were welded.
The welded construction of the MTO roof was made of rolled armor plates and cast sidewalls, from the inside of which an ejector box was welded. In the front part of the removable roof, there were jalousie above the radiators, on the left, on the side, the jalousie above the air cleaner. All blinds were covered with protective nets. In addition, on the roof of the MTO there were hatches for filling the oil tanks of the engine, transmission and cooling system, as well as hatches for installing the valve during underwater driving of the tank and for mounting the receiver of the exhaust system and blinds of the bypass duct. In the hollow of the removable roof hatch was located for the intake of air cooling of the compressor. All hatches closed armor covers.
To provide access to components and assemblies of the power plant and transmission, the roof was raised at an angle of 29 ° 30 using a lever-torsion lifting mechanism.
The bottom of the tank hull was welded from three stamped armor plates that had a trough-shaped form in cross section. For compact placement of torsions and increase of rigidity in the bottom, longitudinal and transverse stamping were made. In the front sheet of the bottom there was also a stamping that provided the necessary height to accommodate the driver in combat. Along the sides of the hull in the bottom on each side were welded six brackets for the suspension units. In the bracket of the sixth node of the left-side suspension assembly there was a hatch for the release of combustion products from the preheater, which was closed with an armor cover. Opposite the brackets along the longitudinal axis of the body, six supports of the torsion shafts were welded into the notches in the bottom. In the bottom of the hull there were also hatches that were closed with armored plugs and covers and intended for access to the components and assemblies of the tank during its maintenance. In the MTO partition, two round holes were made: in the right part, at the bottom at the bead - for outputting the flame tube of the heater boiler, in the left upper part - for welding the flange to install the fan. In addition, there were holes in the bulkhead with guide sleeves and seals (to ensure the required tightness) for the passage of control drives, pipelines and electrical wires.
The tank turret was a shaped casting of armored steel with a powerful frontal part, the stamped roof and the body of the base tube of the range-finder were welded to the upper part, and the bottom sheet in the underside of the lower part. In the right and left halves of the frontal part of the tower there were special cavities filled with aluminum alloy inserts. In front of the tower was an embrasure with a closed perimeter for the installation of the gun. Arc cheeks were welded to the side surfaces of the embrasure, which were designed to protect the internal case from the lead spray of the inner case, sealing the embrasure of the gun, and lowering the pressure of the transmitted shock wave acting on the case. In the upper part of the embrasure to the welded strips attached upper protective shield. To fasten the outer cover of the gun, the grooves were welded on the top and sides of the embrasure, and at the bottom of the embrasure there was a strip with holes for the bolts. To the right of the embrasure there was an oval hole for the coaxial machine gun, to the left were welded the bracket for installing the L-2AG searchlight and the tube for supplying the electric wire to it. In the case of the tower in front of the output windows of the range-finder, there were special notches that provided the necessary visibility.
Tower tank "Object 432"
In the right half of the roof of the tower there was a round hole in which the antenna mounting flange was welded, and a cut-out for welding to the tower of the base of the commander's turret was welded.
In the left half of the roof were made two round holes for fastening the sight of the rangefinder sight and the installation of the gunner’s observation device, as well as two semicircular notches. A flange for mounting the TPN-1 sight and the gunner base were welded into the cutouts. In the upper part of the stern of the tower there was a threaded hole for fastening the socket of connection with the landing force, two bonnets for fixing the headlight pipe and an opening for the output of the electric wire to it, as well as a hatch for the air supply of the tower.
The tower was mounted on a ball bearing, which was a angular contact bearing with a covered movable shoulder strap, touching balls with treadmills at two points. The upper shoulder of the tower support was fastened with bolts with cushioning (rubber) sleeves to its bottom sheet, the bottom one - in the annular recess of the front and rear sheets of the roof of the hull, and under-braced strips. The bottom shoulder joint with the details of the roof was sealed with a rubber ring. A rubber cuff, tightened with a nylon ring, prevented dust from getting inside the fighting compartment when the tank was moving, water during underwater driving, a shock wave, and radioactive dust during a nuclear explosion, was installed between the tower and the lower shoulder strap.
For mounting and dismantling the tower in its front and rear parts were welded on two hooks, and on the sides of the tower - on one landing railing. In addition, in the stern of the tower there were brackets, brackets, brackets for fastening the tarpaulin, louvers sealing covers over the air cleaner and the L-2AG searchlight, as well as hooks for fastening the cable for discharging the OPVT pipe for exhausting engine exhaust gases.
The tank was equipped with a PAZ system, which, together with the armored design and permanently installed sealing devices, provided protection for the crew and internal equipment from the impact of a shock wave of a nuclear explosion due to additional sealing of the machine with automatic closure of all openings (vents, blinds over the radiator and air cleaner, flue flaps and an ejector box, supercharger valves). Permanent seals had: an embrasure of a cannon and a machine gun, ball bearing tower, partition MTO, manhole covers of crew members and an emergency exit, as well as the installation location of surveillance and aiming devices.
Placement of the PAZ system equipment in the “432 Object” tank
Seal loophole tank gun "Object 432". Center - Sealing the cocked PKT machine gun "Object 432". Right - The closing mechanism of the air inlet of the driver.
Armor protection supercharger tank "Object 432". On the right, top is the Automaton of the АС-2 UA PPO system, which was installed in the control compartment on the upper front hull plate. Right, bottom - Install the supercharger in the tank "Object 432".
Installation of cylinders with fire extinguishing composition "3,5" of the UA PPO system in the fighting compartment behind the shelving with batteries. On the right is the Smoke Curtain Production by the “432 Object” tank using the TDA system.
Protection against fast neutrons was provided by installing a special anti-radiation material (tamping) based on polyethylene inside the machine. Additional protection for the commander and the gunner were also vertically arranged charges of artillery shots, and for the driver, diesel fuel, located in the left and right front tanks. All this ensured 16-multiple attenuation of penetrating radiation. In addition, a “falling” seat was introduced to protect the tank commander. When the PP-3 squib of a special mechanism is triggered, the seat together with the commander went down under the protection of the thickest armor of the tower.
To protect the crew from radioactive dust when the tank overtook areas of radioactively contaminated terrain, supercharged air was supplied to the fighting compartment and purified overpressure (backwater) was created inside the habitable compartments to prevent dust from penetrating through the leakage of the vehicle’s hull and tower. The supercharger was a centrifugal fan with inertial cleaning of dusty air in the rotor. He ensured the creation of an overpressure of at least 0,29 kPa (0,003 kgf / cm2) and air purification from dust by about 98%.
Layout of the equipment of the UA PPO system in the tank “Object 432”
In addition to this equipment, the radiological protection unit RBZ-1М, X-ray meter DP-3B, MOD, as well as electrical equipment of the system (blower motor MB-67, control box for fan and blower KUV-5, electromagnet MOU, fuses for the closing mechanisms of the PP mechanisms -3 and others.).
Fire extinguishing that occurred in the tank was carried out using a triple-action UA PPO system, which could operate in automatic, semi-automatic or manual modes. The system consisted of: automatic machine AC-2, relay distribution box КРР-2, two boxes КУВ-5 for fan and supercharger control, eight thermal sensors ТД-1 with sprays, as well as three two-liter cylinders with the composition "3,5", two lines pipelines, four check valves, remote button (in the fighting compartment at the tank commander), electric drive and MOU. To extinguish minor fires, there was an OU-2 manual fire extinguisher (mounted behind the seat of the tank commander on board the cockpit).
For the production of smoke screens in order to disguise the tank, it was equipped with a multiple-action TDA system. The smoke suppressor was allowed to turn on only when the car was moving and the engine was well heated.
The basis of the power plant of the tank was a two-stroke high-speed diesel 5TDF with 515 kW power (700 hp) at a rotational speed of 3000 crankshafts min-1. The engine was fastened at three points with the help of two rigidly mounted trunnions and one pivot bearing. Installing the engine did not require alignment and adjustment relative to the transmission units. The engine was started using a SG-10 starter-generator with an 10 kW power (main method) or compressed air from two five-liter air cylinders (stand-by method). The cylinders were charged from the AK-150С compressor, which was driven by the engine. If necessary, the engine could be started by a combined method (simultaneously starter-generator and air-inlet) or from the tug.
Scheme of the air launch system of the tank “Object 432”. Center - Cooling and heating system of the “432 Object” tank engine. Right - Air cleaning system of the 432 Object tank engine.
The electric torch heater of the engine intake air of the “Object 432” tank. Center - Lubrication system of the engine “Object 432”. Right - Centrifugal bilge pump with a shift valve used to refuel the 432 Tank fuel tanks. Lubrication system of the tank engine "Object 432".
To warm up the power plant before starting the engine and keep it in a state of constant readiness for starting at low ambient temperatures, a heating system combined with the engine cooling system was used. The heating system consisted of a small-sized nozzle heater, a flame tube of the oil tank, water jackets for the engine and the oil charging pump MZN-2, a fuel switching valve and pipelines. When the heater was turned on, the engine and the power unit were heated
heated liquid, and the oil in the oil tank - exhaust gases heater. In addition, to facilitate engine start-up, the air entering the engine cylinders was heated with electric torch heating (the electric torch heating switch was installed on the driver’s instrument panel). For heating the air in the fighting compartment of the tank in the winter time, the heater (heater) of the combat compartment was used, which was installed on the heater bracket of the heater and made up a single unit with the heater. The heater was turned on using the “W / O Heater” switch on the driver's instrument panel.
The capacity of the main (internal) fuel tanks was 815 l (left front - 170 l, right front - 165 l, tank rack - 170 l, rear left - 178 l, rear right - 132 l), additional (three fuel tanks on the left nadgusenichnogo shelf) - 330 l. The front fuel tanks and the tank rack were the front group of tanks, the rear fuel tanks and the outer one - the rear group of tanks. In this case, the external fuel tanks could be disconnected from the rear internal tanks with the help of a crane on the front wall of the left rear fuel tank. Internal fuel tanks were welded from stamped steel sheets and covered with bakelite varnish inside; The exterior fuel tanks were aluminum.
The production of fuel in the first place was made from external tanks (connected in series) and was carried out through the rear tank, the pipeline of which was connected to the valve to turn off the external tanks. The production of fuel from the front group of tanks was allowed as a last resort due to the need to provide anti-radiation protection for the driver.
Fuel system of the engine tank "Object 432"
The filling of tanks with stationary and mobile special filling means was carried out with a closed jet of fuel. In this case, the front group of tanks was refueled through the neck of the storage rack tank, the internal tanks of the rear group through the filling neck of the left rear tank, and the external fuel tanks through their filler caps.
A fueling device consisting of a forward centrifugal bilge pump, a switching valve (“water” - “fuel”), a refueling fuel filter and a removable fueling device, which was lowered into the fuel tank, could also be used to fill the tank's fuel tanks. The cruising range of the tank on the highway at one gas station reached 550-650 km.
The air cleaning system used a single-stage tapeless cluster air cleaner of cyclone type (145 horizontal cyclones) with ejection dust removal from the dust collector, which was installed in the MTO at the left side. As shown by the operation, it did not provide the proper degree of air purification, which was one of the reasons for the 5TDF engine to go out of order before testing the specified resource.
In the compulsory lubrication system of the engine (refill capacity of the 75 system of l) with a dry sump, a full-flow centrifugal oil filter was used, which was mounted on top of the engine block. The continuous supply of oil to the moving parts was provided by an injection oil pump. To create a predetermined pressure in the system in a wide range of engine speeds, the performance of the oil pump was 120 l / min.
Engine cooling system - liquid, closed type, with forced circulation of cooling fluid and ejection sucking of cooling air through radiators. The use of an ejection cooling system in the air path ensured the compactness of the cooling system, its good self-regulation and a decrease in the amount of heat emitted by the tank. The filling capacity of the cooling system was 65 l. Two tubular-plate radiators connected in series and similar in design were installed in the same plane in an ejector body insulated from the MTO with an angle of inclination to the horizon 4 ° towards the bow of the tank. The slope of the radiators ensured complete drainage of the coolant from the system.
Scheme of lubrication and hydraulic control of the transmission of the "Object 432"
Ejector cooling system of the engine tank "Object 432". Center - Transmission unit (right) of the tank "Object 432". On the right is the Airborne gearbox and drive wheel with fixed gear rims of the 432 Object tank.
Chassis "Object 432"
The structure of the mechanical planetary transmission consisted of two BKP (left and right), two planetary onboard gearbox and lubrication system, combined with the system of hydraulic control. The transmission provided a high average speed, good maneuverability and tank maneuverability. Its high efficiency contributed to obtaining a large power reserve, and the use of a hydraulic transmission control system greatly facilitated the management of the movement of the tank. Changing the speed of movement and traction, turning, braking and switching off the engine was made by turning on and off certain friction devices in the BKP. The principle of rotation of the tank was to change the speed of rotation of one of the tracks by switching on the gear one notch lower in the BKP from the side of the lagging side.
Planetary BKP with three degrees of freedom and with friction elements, working in oil, provided seven forward gears and one reverse gear. The left and right BKP were not interchangeable. The onboard gearbox (left and right) was a planetary coaxial downshift of an unloaded type (i = 5,454). Each OPF was rigidly connected to an onboard gearbox and constituted a transmission unit. The transmission of torque from the engine to the drive shafts of the BKP was carried out using gear couplings. The average speed of the tank on dirt roads reached 40-45 km / h.
The hydraulic control system of the transmission units included hydraulic servos from the transmission pedal and the steering control levers, which functioned according to the pressure regulator principle, and a hydraulic servos actuator from the gear selector lever, which worked according to the “On-Off” principle. Drive stopping brakes - mechanical, with a servo-mechanism.
In the suspension in the suspension system, an individual torsion suspension with coaxial torsion shafts and double-acting piston hydraulic shock absorbers on the first, second and sixth suspension nodes, as well as rigid stops for the first, fifth and sixth suspension nodes were used. The shafts of the left and right suspension nodes were non-interchangeable.
The crawler propulsion unit consisted of two drive wheels for pinching with caterpillars, two cast guide wheels with crank worm tension mechanisms for caterpillars, 12 dual support rollers, and eight single-band supporting rollers with internal damping, as well as two small-scale tracks with RMSH of parallel type.
The drive wheels had cast hubs, to which gear rims were welded, which had tides that restricted lateral movement of the tracks on the drive wheel and prevented the tracks from dropping. In addition, to prevent dropping the tracks from the drive wheel to the side of the hull, two bump stops were welded to the rear of the hull. To clean the drive wheels from dirt and snow on the brackets of the limit stops on the balancers of the rear road wheels, mud cleaners were attached.
View of the drive wheel with fixed gear rims, drive wheel mud cleaner, travel stop of the sixth track roller, support rollers and support rollers with internal shock absorption and telescopic shock absorber of the right side of the tank “Object 432”. Sarava - View of the all-metal steering wheel, the stroke limiter of the first track roller, the support and support rollers and the telescopic shock absorbers of the starboard side of the “Object 432”.
Support roller with internal depreciation of the tank "Object 432". On the right is the track tracks from the RMSH of the 432 Object tank.
Installing a louver seal over the air cleaner and a mechanism to discharge the exhaust pipe from the OPVT kit of the “Object 432” tank. Right - Aft centrifugal bilge pump and its installation in the logistics of the tank "Object 432".
Placement of electrical equipment in the turret and in the body of the tank "Object 432"
Overcoming the tank "Object 432" water obstacles with installed OPVT
Placement of the removable part of the OPVT kit on the tower and roof of the MTO tank of the “Object 432” for transportation
Steel two-disk cast box-shaped guide wheels were mounted on the short axes of the cranks of the tension mechanisms of the caterpillar of a globoid worm gear. The left and right crawler tension mechanisms were non-interchangeable. A gearbox with a tachogenerator was mounted in the right tensioning mechanism, and a gearbox with an electro-speedometer sensor was mounted in the left-hand mechanism.
Each support roller consisted of a steel hub, a steel stamped rim (welded from two halves), two outer discs (to reduce weight, the discs were made of an aluminum alloy) with vulcanised rubber rings (shock absorbers) and a coupling nut. On the inside of the track roller, a labyrinth seal washer welded to the hub around the perimeter. In order to increase the strength, the rims of the road wheels were specially processed by knurling with a roller to form the outer layer “peeking”. On the balance bar axis, the track roller was mounted on a double row conic unregulated bearing, which was locked to the axis with a nut and closed with an armored lid on the outside.
The supporting roller consisted of a steel band and a rubber ring (shock absorber) vulcanised from the inside. The ring had eight holes for the fingers of the cap bolts, in the bores of which two ball bearings were installed when mounting the roller on the bracket axis.
Tracks 540 mm wide were assembled from 78 tracks each. Track caterpillar consisted of two steel stamped links and two fingers with rubber rings vulcanized on them. Between themselves, the tracks were connected with the help of two brackets, a ridge, a shoe, two locking wedges and four bolts, stopping from the spontaneous unscrewing of the bolt rivet (1 variant) or the bolt headrest unfolding (2 variant). The average ground pressure was 0,079 MPa (0,79 kgf / cm2).
The electrical equipment of the machine was made on a single-wire circuit, except for emergency lighting. The rated voltage of the onboard network was 24-28,5 V (in starter mode - 48 B). The sources of electricity were four starter batteries 12CT-70М with a total capacity of 280 Ah and starter-generator SG-10 with a power of 10 kW when operating in generator mode. Switching batteries from 24 to 48 B and back to the starter-generator circuit when the engine was started was carried out by the relay RSG-10М.
The consumers of electric energy were: starter-generator SG-10 when operating in starter mode; weapon stabilizer; loading mechanism; electric motors of the exhaust fan, the fan of the driver's mechanic, the oil-charging pump of the engine and the tug, the bilge pumps, the heater and the heating of the crew compartment and the TPD; night surveillance devices; heaters of viewing devices; lighting and light-signaling devices; sound signal; light bar; PAZ and UAPO systems; means of communication; starting coil and candle of electric torch heating, etc.
For external radio communication, a tank ultra-shortwave radio station P-123 (located in the fighting compartment ahead of the commander's right) was used in the tank, and for internal communications - TPU P-124.
To overcome the water obstacles on the bottom of the reservoir to a depth of 5, the tank “Object 432” was equipped with OPVT, which included removable and permanently installed units. The latter included hull and turret seals, gun armor protection, exhaust gas bypass flue gas dampers, actuators to the flue gas damper and air cleaner ejector sealing valve, two bilge pumps (performance of each 100 l / min), gyro semi-compass and electrical equipment. The set of OPVT also included three insulating apparatus AT-1, placed in the tank.
In preparing the tank to overcome the water obstacles, it was additionally mounted on: an air supply pipe, an engine exhaust pipe (exhaust), an exhaust valve, a louver seal over the air cleaner, an air cleaner ejector seal, a MTO ventilation hole seal, a gun muzzle seal, a twin machine gun seal, valve drain water from the flue, check valves of water pumps, clips fixing the handle backstage blind shutters. The crew required 45 min to install this equipment. The movement of the car along the bottom of the reservoir was carried out on the first gear. Maintaining a given direction of movement was provided with the help of the gyro-semi-compass GIC-59 and radio communication with the leader of the crossing on the bank.
After forcing a water barrier, the time required to prepare the tank for immediate firing was just 1 min.
Under normal operating conditions, removable OPVT assemblies were placed and fastened outside the tank at the designated places.
During production in 1964-1965. The tank “Object 432” was continuously subjected to modernization, aimed at improving the reliability of work and increasing the service life of its main components and assemblies, as well as combat and technical characteristics. We give the main implemented activities.
- the exclusion of the "sinking" of the gun and its sticking to the ground;
- improvement and refinement of the design of the stabilizer of the main weapon "Lilac";
- introduction of the scale for high-explosive fragmentation projectile in the sight-rangefinder TPD-43;
- improving the reliability of the loading mechanism (with the exception of non-trapping of the pallet and its jamming in the catcher, falling out of the pallet from the trap, as well as fuzzy operation of the disassembly chain lock);
- reduction of dust loading mechanism;
- increase the strength of the trays loading mechanism;
- elimination of ammunition meter failures;
- change the ventilation system of the fighting compartment.
General view of the tank "Object 432" release from September 1964.
Tank "Object 432" release since September 1964.
General view of the tank "Object 432" release 1965 g.
For armor protection:
- increase of armor protection (exclusion of ricochet shells into the turret when the machine is fired) due to the introduction of an armor lining on the upper front hull sheet (from July 1964) and on the zygomatic sheets of the roof of the management compartment, the so-called “eyebrows” (from September 1964) );
- the introduction of armor plates to enhance the front of the punching of the hull sides (since July 1964);
- installation of anti-cumulative plates (screens) from 1965 (mounted on a tank only in combat conditions). Three right and three left side plates (pivotal) were mounted on the respective fencing shelves in the front of the tank, front (left and right) plates were on the front folding mud shields, and rear plates (left and right) were mounted on the front dust flaps mounted on fencer shelves. In the working (combat) position, the pivoting side plates were set at an angle around 70-75 ° to the fender track of the tank.
On the engine:
- improving the reliability of the supercharger, ratchet coupling, fuel supply equipment, sealing water pump and other units and components;
- ensuring reliable start-up of the engine in conditions of low ambient temperatures;
- increase the engine life from 150 to 300 h;
- improvement of the air cleaning system;
- improving the reliability of the heater at low ambient temperatures;
- reduction of oil and fuel consumption (exceeded the one set by 20-30%).
- improving the reliability of the BKP (for friction elements ФХNUMX, Ф2 and Ф6);
- improved sealing gears onboard.
On the undercarriage:
- elimination of damage to the teeth of the drive wheel and the transition to a removable gear rims (from the second half of 1964);
- improving the reliability of the support rollers (with the exception of the destruction of rubber shock absorbers and steel rims) and wear resistance of the rims of the supporting rollers;
- reduction of track tracks wear (elimination of cracks on brackets and breakage of bolts and pins);
- elimination of the tracks dropping from the drive wheels, over-heating of the hydraulic shock absorbers and breakdowns of the torsion shafts and tearing out their supports (1, 5 and 6).
In addition, a number of activities were carried out on the UA PPO system, wherever possible, the driver's transition from the control section to the combat position in any position of the tower, as well as to increase the ford depth to be overcome without prior preparation of the machine.
For a more convenient location of the landing on the sides of the tower instead of one began to install two handrails.
The design of the drive wheel with removable gear rims tank "Object 432". Right - Installation diagram of the onboard anti-cumulative flaps (screens) on the “432 Object” tank.
Tank "Object 432" with protivokumulyativnymi shields (screens) installed in the stowed position
Tank "Object 432" release 1964 g. A. Shepsa
Tank "Object 432" on military trials. 1964-1965 Fig. A. Shepsa