Military Review

The struggle of Moscow and Tver. Part of 2

Tver fight with Moscow

For most of the Russian principalities, the coup in the Horde responded with rather moderate troubles. The Golden Horde order was well known to everyone, they did not undergo major changes. Although strategically, Russia has lost a lot. Pagan belief in the Horde was more profitable than harsh and intolerant Islam. In addition, the prospect of a gradual transition of the Horde to Orthodoxy, which gradually strengthened its position in the steppe state, was lost.

Russian princes expressed obedience to Khan Uzbek, went around with gifts from his wives, Khan's dignitaries. They distributed silver, furs, expensive items, received new khan labels on their possessions and went home. Metropolitan Peter also successfully visited the Horde. But the Grand Duke Mikhail Yaroslavich new Khan detained. Tver prince was promoted to Tokhta, was associated with dignitaries who were executed, so the Uzbek was thinking about whether to keep him a great reign?

Uzbek was a cruel, clever and calculating ruler. In Russia, he wanted to see a ruler who would maintain order, and not make distemper. The devastated lands could not pay the “way out” on time. From internecine wars, people died, scattered, the land was empty. And Russia had to pay tribute, put up squads to fight the enemies of the Horde, have enough strength to be a counterbalance to Lithuania and the Catholic world. At the same time, the Khan did not want excessive strengthening of one center, in particular, of Tver, which could lead the resistance.

Khan wanted to appreciate Michael, and was in no hurry to let the Russian prince go. Mikhail spent more than a year and a half in the Horde. The Grand Duke was in Saray, traveled with the khan's court. Although Uzbek has already violated many traditions, it has kept the custom in the spring to leave the city in the steppe with the whole court in the spring. Khan and his retinue slowly moved to Azov, visited the North Caucasus. Between the hunt and the feasts, resolved and government issues.

Mikhail Tverskoy was a powerful, ambitious man, the expectation drove him out of himself. He was nervous, trying to speed up the decision of the Khan, to incline Uzbek and his dignitaries to his side. To do this, I resorted to the usual method - I wasted money. The money quickly ran out. To the Horde usurers, Prince Mikhail did not yet pay the old debt. He regularly demanded money from Tver. In order to get them, ordered to "shake" Veliky Novgorod. The governors of the Grand Duke clicked on Novgorod. However, Novgorod was indignant. Just a year ago, Mikhail Yaroslavich already ripped 1,5 thousand hryvnas off of them.

Novgorodians decided to ask for help from Moscow Prince Yuri Danilovich. He was not against helping the Great Novgorod against Tver, but he was cautious. Grand Prince Mikhail could blame Moscow for violating the treaty, which was concluded with the participation of the Golden Horde. However, Prince Yury Danilovich quickly found a way out - he decided to launch a figure in his stead. He turned to one of the friendly princes of Smolensk - Fedor Rzhevsky. Likhom Fedor was bored of sitting in a small Rzhev, and he gladly agreed to head the Novgorodians. With his retinue, he arrived in Veliky Novgorod and arrested the governors of Tver. Novgorod was greatly offended by Michael, the militia was assembled. Prince Fyodor Rzhevsky led the Novgorod army to the land of Tver.

In Tver, in the absence of Mikhail Yaroslavich, his 14-year-old son Dmitry ruled. He gathered an army. Novgorod and Tverichi met on different banks of the Volga. It was late autumn, the cold river divided the opponents. Rati stood opposite each other for six weeks, until frost. Novgorodtsev was more, they were determined, therefore the command of the Tver army decided to enter into negotiations. A peace agreement was signed on the “will of Novgorod”. Tver refused Novgorod and recalled its governors.

As a result, the Moscow prince received the legal right to accept invitations from Novgorod. Yuri left Moscow for Ivan Kalita, while he himself and his brother Athanasius arrived in Veliky Novgorod. Grand Prince Mikhail Yaroslavich filed a complaint to Uzbek. Tver prince again got into huge debts, gave a commitment to increase output from the Russian principalities. He began to say that without him a distemper began in Russia, the people of Novgorod and Muscovites fought off their hands. Yuri also nayabnichal, said that he hides part of the Horde tribute. Uzbek immediately summoned Yuri to himself. Yury Danilovich did not see guilt for himself, he left at once. Tverichi again put gates on the roads. However, Yuri passed. But the Novgorod embassy intercepted and Novgorod, instead of Saray were in Tver prison.

At the same time, the Uzbek still gave Michael a label on the great reign and the Horde detachment in reinforcement. They arrived in Vladimir, where Mikhail Yaroslavich was established on the throne. At this time, the Horde many ugliness perpetrated in the possession of the Grand Duke. Mikhail, having received the Vladimir table, did not calm down. He decided to fight. In addition, he needed a lot of money for the Horde usurers. Money could be taken from Veliky Novgorod.

At the end of 1315, the Grand Duke of Vladimir and Tver raised the army of Tver, a squad of princes' henchmen, and together with the Horde marched on Novgorod land. The residents of Torzhok, having learned about the movement of the enemy army, called upon the Novgorodians for help. However, as is often the case, disputes boiled in Novgorod. Mikhail's supporters started talking about the need for peace. Others, having learned that Mikhail received the support of the Horde, decided not to fight. They began to insist that the "golden belts" begin negotiations and buy off. As a result, the princes Afanasy Danilovich and Fyodor Rzhevsky went to Torzhok without the Novgorod militia, only with their own squads, the squads of the boyars who stood for an alliance with Yuri and volunteers from the “black people”.

They managed to arrive in Torzhok before the arrival of the army of Michael. But seeing that in the siege they could not sit for a long time, the princes decided to take a desperate step - to attack themselves. In a heavy, unequal section, many husbands, merchants and boyars of Novgorod fell. The remains of the broken rati retreated behind the walls. The princes and the boyars suggested that Michael begin negotiations. Michael of Tver demanded to start to give him the princes Athanasius and Fyodor. The besieged were ready to give Fedor, but Athanasius, behind whom stood the Moscow princes, refused to give. Finally, it was decided that instead of the princes, the people of Novgorod would pay a contribution to 5 in thousand hryvnia of silver. An oath was taken to guarantee the integrity of the negotiators. Prince Athanasius Danilovich with the Novgorod boyars came to the negotiations. But the Grand Duke Michael deceived them. He put forward obviously unacceptable conditions, and when representatives of Novgorod began to argue, they were seized, and the soldiers of Michael broke into the city. Michael ordered the best artisans to be led away from Torzhok to Tver. The rest of the inhabitants had to pass all weapon and paid a big ransom in order to save freedom. Prisoners of Novgorod were sold into slavery.

Novgorod, having suffered a defeat, was forced to accept a difficult agreement. Novgorodians recognized Mikhail Yaroslavich as their prince. For the termination of the war and the redemption of captive boyars, Novgorod paid a huge tribute to 12 thousand hryvnia.

Veliky Novgorod was insulted to the depths of the soul. The predatory treaty, the capture of the boyars, the sale of Novgorod to slavery increased the hatred of Michael even more. Tver governors gave rise to an uprising almost immediately. Began to host in the city, as winners, shake money for the prince and himself. "Black people" revolted. Tver governors expelled. Those representatives of the nobility, who previously played for Michael, were drowned in Volkhov.

The Grand Duke again gathered troops in 1316 and went to punish the insurgent city. Along the way, Volok-Lamsky was looted. Novgorod this time was not going to give up. Pskovs, Karelians, Izhorians, Vod, detachments from Staraya Russa, Ladoga pulled up to the Novgorodians for help. Around Novgorod began to build external fortifications in the district walls. Michael stopped in 50 versts from Novgorod, did not go further. Ivan Kalita in the rear held a military demonstration. He picked up the Moscow regiments and pretended to be ready to hit Tver. Mikhail, having decided that his fate was in grave danger, turned back. And he decided to shorten the way through unfamiliar terrain, swamps and forests. As a result, the army just got lost in the endless Russian forests. Forage and food ran out. People began to starve, many warriors died of starvation.

The defeat and death of Michael of Tver

Unsuccessful Novgorod campaign was only the beginning of the misfortunes of Michael of Tver. Having spent two years in the Horde, Yuri Moskovsky achieved very brilliant successes. Before Khan he justified himself, he had an agreement where Tver rejected Veliky Novgorod. Moscow affairs on exit payment, led by Ivan Kalita, they were also in perfect order. In addition, Yuri liked Uzbek more than Michael. Perhaps he decided with the help of the Moscow prince to restrain the ardor of Michael of Tver. The Moscow prince was a widow, and the Horde king decided to marry him to his sister Konchaka. This was an event significantly raising the clan of Moscow princes in the hierarchy of the Golden Horde. In the descendants of Yuri the blood of Rurikovich and Chingizids was combined.

Obviously, the Moscow prince understood all this and did not refuse. Uzbek did not object to the baptism of the bride and the last obstacle disappeared. The princess received the name Agafya. At the beginning of 1317, the wedding was played. The Horde prince made a magnificent gift - a grand ducal label. The khan ambassadors Kavdygai, Astrabyl and Ostrev went with him as a “support group” for the new grand prince.

For Michael, this event meant a complete collapse. However, the prince of Tver was a persistent man and decided not to give up. Pulled time, hoping that everything can change. Suddenly, Uzbek will change his mind or die? Built around Tver walls of the new Kremlin. Yuri realized that the world did not solve the matter, began to collect troops. The same princes who went with Novgorod to Novgorod now went under the banner of Yuri against Tver. The army camped at some distance from Tver. Yuri was still trying to solve the case by negotiations, he sent Horde residents to Mikhail. The troops stood for five weeks, and in order to feed them, the leaders began to send troops around the neighborhood. Numerical superiority was for the warriors of Yuri, from time to time negotiations were resumed. This relaxed the warriors, which was a big mistake. In the evening of December 22, 1317, near the village of Bortenevo, Mikhail’s squad delivered a sudden blow to the troops of Yuri. Muscovites did not have time to get ready for battle, and they were crushed. Yuri with a small retinue was able to leave, and his wife Agafya, brother Boris were captured. The Khan ambassadors found themselves in a difficult situation, they had to break into the Horde through hostile territory. And they themselves surrendered to Michael. Kavdagy and his people began to lie and said to the prince of Tver: “We are yours now; and we came to you with Prince Yuri without the command of the Khan, and we are to blame for this, and we are afraid of opals from the sovereign, that this is the work that was done and shed much blood. " Mikhail apparently understood that the Horde people were lying, pretended to believe. The ambassadors and their warriors were not touched, they were even seated at the feast tables in honor of the victory, they were richly bestowed, before being sent to the Golden Horde. He hoped that Kavdygay would put in a word for him in Sarai. But it was a big mistake. Kavdygay harbored a grudge against Michael.

The struggle of Moscow and Tver. Part of 2

Memorable granite cross on the site of the Battle of Bortene.

Yuri Moskovsky moved to Veliky Novgorod. Novgorodians had big scores for Michael, therefore they agreed to help. Novgorod-Pskov army moved to Tver. However, before the battle this time it did not come. Neither of them decided to enter the battle. Agreed on a truce, that the dispute will be resolved in Sarai. Mikhail agreed to give the prisoners, but the wife of Yuri on the eve of the transfer died unexpectedly. The chronicles report that they killed her: “predestinated death,” “they were killed by potions.” Obviously, Mikhail Tverskoy was hardly the organizer of the murder. He first came under suspicion. And it's not a princely thing to fight with women. The murder was organized either by too diligent courtiers who did not understand that they were doing a great deal of stupidity, or Michael's hidden enemies.

Thus, Michael was framed. Kavdygay already did everything to blacken the prince of Tver. The Horde grandee, realizing that he was guilty of not fulfilling the order of the Khan, began to slander Mikhail Yaroslavich, calling him a dangerous rebel. The death of Agafi-Konchaki only confirmed his words.

In 1318, Yury, Athanasius and the Novgorod Embassy arrived in Sarai. Moscow Yuri left on Ivan. Michael hesitated. First sent the son of Constantine. He collected money himself. In August, the Horde ambassador arrived to him with the demand to hurry. I must say that Michael can not refuse courage. He could have escaped to the West. But he did not do this, because it meant admitting that he was wrong and subject Tver to pogrom. Mikhail Yaroslavich went to the Horde.

Khan's court was held, where the same Kavdygay was the chairman. On it, the prince of Tver was accused of disobedience to the khan's will, armed rebellion, poisoning of Konchaki, concealment of the Horde exit and even in secret contacts with the Germans and Rome. Virtually any accusation was deadly. Prince of Tver concluded in the pads. However, they did not immediately execute them. Uzbek, as usual, was in no hurry. The convict was taken for a while for Khan, mocked, humiliated, then amused with a vain hope of pardon. 22 November 1318 Mr. Michael was brutally murdered.

His body was given to Yuri, they gave him the son of Tver's lord Konstantin, the Tver boyars from the retinue of Michael. The remains of an opponent and captives Yuri brought to Moscow. Constantine was treated well, he later became a friend of Moscow. After the talks, the coffin with the remains of Michael was given to the Tverchyans in exchange for Agafya’s coffin. Yuri received from Khan a label for the great reign of Vladimir. He put his brother Athanasius on the Novgorod table.
Articles from this series:
The struggle of Moscow and Tver. The tragic consequences of the religious revolution in the Horde
The struggle of Moscow and Tver. Part of 2
The death of the princes Yuri of Moscow and Dmitry the Terrible Ochi. Tver uprising 1327 of the year
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  1. predator.3
    predator.3 18 March 2013 08: 04 New
    СTatya is good, but somehow one-sided - in chronological order, all events are correctly described accurately, BUT, why Tver is shown in negative color, Mikhail inherited the Grand Duke’s throne legally, but the Moscow prince’s house did not have the right to this throne (according to the ladder ), because mos. Prince Danila Alexandrovich did not have time to visit the Grand Princely throne (he died in 1303 before Prince Andrei Gorodetsky led his brother), thereby his descendants were deprived of the right to the Grand Princely throne, i.e., Yuri Danilych was already acting as a troublemaker and usurper.
  2. Goga
    Goga 18 March 2013 08: 36 New
    Once again I remember the now deceased writer D. Balashov and his brilliant series of novels "The Sovereigns of Moscow" - such books have a direct place in the school curriculum, but where there ... what
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 18 March 2013 09: 37 New
      "Once again I remember the now deceased writer D. Balashov and his brilliant series of novels" The Sovereigns of Moscow "
      I agree with you. And there Balashov just asks the question what would happen if Tver whitened. Would Russia as a European state, a small compact, etc., or as in Moscow would be spread beyond the Urals.
      Balashov was a wonderful writer. It is a pity his son killed a geek, not for a horseradish dog.
      1. Yura
        Yura 18 March 2013 12: 49 New
        Quote: Nagaibak
        what would happen if Tver whitened.

        Perhaps this is the main question that arises when comprehending the moment in the history of Russia described by the author. After all, Khan Uzbek was essentially a very tough ruler extending his power and, accordingly, Islamic religion, to put it mildly radical (although it should be noted that times did not suggest otherwise). For Russia, however, the moment was a turning point and the likelihood of Islamization of most of the Russian principalities was great, and here the policy of Ivan Kalita found within Russia probably a greater response in the sense of maintaining identity, and therefore was supported by the people of Veliky Novgorod and other principalities, which made it possible to prevail. Sometimes one is surprised at the insight and systematic purposeful policy of Ivan Kalita with his brothers. The article is good just because it describes this time accurately and is not biased. Article plus, Author well done.
    2. predator.3
      predator.3 18 March 2013 16: 37 New
      Quote: Gogh
      Once again I remember the now deceased writer D. Balashov and his brilliant series of novels "The Sovereigns of Moscow" - such books have a direct place in the school curriculum, but where there ...

      You are right, I have all the volumes of Balashov (though battered), I probably re-read it five or six times, a really great writer !
  3. radio operator
    radio operator 18 March 2013 13: 58 New
    Good article!
    Thank you!
  4. toldanger
    toldanger 18 March 2013 19: 50 New
    Good article