Military Review

The struggle of Moscow and Tver. The tragic consequences of the religious revolution in the Horde

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The struggle of Moscow and Tver. The tragic consequences of the religious revolution in the Horde One of the controversial figures in Russian stories is prince Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (ca. 1283 - March 31 1340 or 1341). Some researchers consider him a creator, whose man laid the foundation of the Moscow state. Others call him a traitor of Russian interests, a renegade prince who, together with the Tatar troops, destroyed the land of Tver.


The beginning of the political activities of Ivan Danilovich

Ivan was the second son of Prince of Moscow Daniel Alexandrovich of Moscow, the founder of the Moscow line of Rurik, the grandson of Alexander Nevsky. His brothers were Yuri, Alexander, Afanasy and Boris. After the death of his father, the brothers immediately had to join the political struggle. Yury Danilovich (the Moscow prince in 1303 — 1325) was not even able to attend the funeral of his father. He was in Pereyaslavl, and the townspeople did not let him in, because they feared that the Grand Duke Andrei Alexandrovich Gorodetsky would seize the moment and seize the city. Under these conditions, Danilovichi made an unusual decision: they did not divide the land among themselves and decided to stick together. The younger brothers, apparently, did not agree with this decision, but gave in to the will of the older brothers.

In 1303, Danilovich won their first victory. Together they appeared at the princes' meeting in Pereyaslavl and kept this city behind them. Although Mikhail Tverskoy, to whom the Grand Duke Andrei Alexandrovich Gorodetsky promised to give way to the Vladimir table, he tried to keep the city behind him as part of the great reign. In the spring of 1304, the brothers captured Mozhaisk and annexed it to their possessions. Now the principality of Danilovich covered the whole Moscow River from its source to the mouth. To begin the 14 century it was a great success.

In the summer of 1304, Grand Duke Andrei passed away, and Danilovich went into battle for the Vladimir table with the Prince of Tver. They could not “look for” a great reign. Danilovich were the direct descendants of Alexander Nevsky, his grandchildren, and the Prince of Tver, Michael, a nephew. To refuse to fight, or at least not to denote their claims, meant to admit that they and their children are not eligible for the Vladimir table. As a result, the entire Danilovich family would have been thrown to the side of Russian politics. Yuri went to Horde to seek a label from Khan Tokhta. Ivan went to defend Pereyaslavl. Boris was sent to capture Kostroma.

Mikhail of Tverskoy, going to the khan, sent outposts along the roads so that they would intercept Danilovich (Yuri escaped from the Tver detachments). He also in advance, without waiting for the decision of Khan Tokhta, sent his boyars to Novgorod, Kostroma and Nizhny Novgorod. The cities were supposed to recognize Michael as the Grand Duke, to surrender the grand princely taxes and the gifts accompanying the event. Michael needed a lot of money to "solve the problem" in the Horde. In addition, he ordered the army to collect and capture Pereyaslavl.

In Russia, a wave of clashes and troubles. Novgorod wealthy, well versed in monetary policy, realized that the prince of Tver was cheating and did not want to fork out. Without the label of Michael in Veliky Novgorod they did not recognize the Grand Duke. In Nizhny Novgorod, it was even sadder for Tverches. Here they didn’t like Michael, and the convocation of the assembly was outraged, the envoys of the Prince of Tver, who tried to start collecting money by force, were killed. In Kostroma, the envoys of the Prince of Tver were also expelled, two were killed. However, Prince Boris Danilovich on the way to Kostroma was intercepted and taken to Tver.

A real battle took place near Pereyaslavl. Ivan Danilovich, having learned that a army was coming from Tver, sent him to Moscow for help and brought the Pereyaslavts towards the enemy. Prince Ivan was able to contain the attacks of the Tricheans until reinforcements arrived. Voivode Rodion Nesterovich with Moscow's host struck an unexpected blow to the enemy. When the Tver governor Akinf died, the army ran.

In the Golden Horde, at that time, there was a “battle of wallets” between Mikhail and Yuri, which lasted until next year. Princes showered gifts of the khan, his wives, gave bribes to dignitaries. Tohta devastated the treasury in the war with Nogai, and he needed money to continue the struggle, so the khan was in no hurry with the decision. Lean Daniel saved up a hefty treasury, the money was taken from Yuri. Michael spent a lot, even got into debt to the Horde usurers, without waiting for money from Russian cities. The prince of Tver was even ready to promise the khan to increase the tribute from the Russian land. Here, Yuri, struck by the irresponsibility of his opponent, agreed to abandon his “homeland” so that Russian land would not perish. He withdrew his candidacy.

Michael received a label for a great reign. After the Metropolitan of Vladimir laid a grand prince crown on his head, Mikhail Yaroslavich decided to punish his opponents. He sent his ward Prince Mikhail Gorodetsky with Tver troops to Nizhny Novgorod. All the "Vechniki" who staged a revolt were executed. Kostromichi were also punished. With Danilovich Mikhail was going to fight. Initially, the Metropolitan kept him from the war, but in 1305, he died. In 1306, Michael and the Allied princes went to Moscow. However, the campaign was not successful. In 1307, Michael organized a second march to Moscow. Tverichi "create many evil" on the land of Moscow. 25 August began storming the city. The fight was fierce. Muscovites knew that there would be no mercy, they fought hard. The attack reflected, Michael was forced to retreat again. Michael and Novgorod did not get along. They were in no hurry to give money to the Grand Duke. They also refused to fight with Moscow. When the great prince of Vladimir and Tver began to give, the people of Novgorod promised to call the princes of Moscow to their table.

Michael was forced to call for help Horde. In the autumn of 1307, the Tairov army arrived. True, this time the Horde disfigured a little, not a single city was hurt. But a hint in Moscow understood. Yuri Daniilovich was forced to cede Pereyaslavl. Novgorod also submitted to the new grand duke. In addition, there was a split among the Danilovich themselves. Boris and his brother Alexander drove off to Tver as a result of contradictions with their elder brother.

Yuri and Ivan had a very fruitful relationship. Yuri was more concerned with military issues, led foreign policy, and Ivan took over the internal management of the principality. Ivan Danilovich solved economic issues, was in charge of collecting taxes, conscientiously played the role of judge. The chronicles note that Muscovites fell in love with the prince for his high responsibility, intercession for "widows and orphans." The prince did not neglect the distribution of alms. He was even given the nickname - Good. It was also called Kalita (from the word "kalita" - a small belt money bag), but less often. Already at a later time, the authors of the chronicles, to distinguish the prince from other rulers, left a more rare nickname - Kalita.

How Ivan made friends with Metropolitan Peter

Ivan made friends with the new metropolitan. Peter was marked by the art of icon painting, he is the author of the first Moscow miraculous icon, called Petrovskaya. The Grand Duke Galitsky Yuri Lvovich, dissatisfied with the fact that the Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia Maxim left Kiev and settled in Vladimir-on-Klyazma, wanted to create a second metropolis in Russia. As a new metropolitan, he chose Hegumen Rathensky Monastery of Peter, who was famous for his asceticism. The Patriarch of Constantinople had already decided to create a new metropolis, when it became known about the death of Metropolitan Maxim, and the candidate from the Prince of Tver, the abbot of one of the Tver monasteries Gerontius, arrived. Then the patriarch returned to the idea of ​​reviving the metropolis in Kiev.

But the decisive word in Russia then was for the Golden Horde king. In 1308-1309 Peter went to Sarai for the label. Tokhta betrayed him, but for some reason he preferred (apparently, it was understood that Kiev and Galich were increasingly under the influence of the West) so that the rate of the metropolitan would remain in Vladimir. Mikhail of Tver, offended by the decision of the patriarch, decided to “dump” the new metropolitan. He persuaded the Tver Bishop Andrew to write a denunciation to Constantinople. There were other disgruntled ones who supported the accusation. Patriarch Athanasius sent his cleric to sort out the situation.

In 1311, a council was convened in Pereyaslavl for the trial of Peter. The Russian clergy, princes, children of Grand Duke Michael and the boyars gathered at it. Tverichi began to accuse the Metropolitan, the passion came almost to assault. However, it turned out that Metropolitan Peter was already able to find great respect among the common people. In Pereyaslavl for his defense, the metropolitan himself was of a meek disposition, tried to teach people a kind word and an example, a lot of monks, priests and ordinary people arrived. They did not give Peter an offense. The Moscow delegation headed by Ivan the Good stood up behind him. As a result, the court acquitted Petr, the accusation of Andrew was called slander. Peter was really a peace-loving man, he even let his main prosecutor Andrei go in peace.

In 1311, there was a new reason for the clash between Moscow and Tver. In 1311, Prince Mikhail of Nizhny Novgorod died. He left no heirs. Michael was the grandson of Alexander Nevsky, his closest relatives were the Moscow princes. Yury immediately captured the principality of Nizhny Novgorod principality. Grand Duke Michael became furious and sent troops to Nizhny Novgorod. Here the metropolitan showed himself. He, on pain of excommunication, forbade the Tverches to fight. Peter already saw with his own eyes the horrors of a fratricidal war in Southern Russia and did not want to repeat them in the north. He offered the Grand Duke a compromise variant - to plant Prince Boris in Nizhny Novgorod, one of the Danilovich brothers who fled to Tver. This agreement suited everyone. On the one hand, the birth of Alexander Nevsky remained belonging to his family, and on the other, did not fall under the authority of Moscow, since Boris became Michael's loyal companion.

Peter worked tirelessly. The Grand Duke of Vladimir and Tver was unhappy with the decision about Nizhny Novgorod. New complaints and denunciations poured into Constantinople. Peter had to go to Byzantium to justify himself personally. He also traveled constantly in North and South Russia. In the official residence in Vladimir was rare, the city lost its former glory, desolate. Peter, returning from his travels, preferred to live in a more comfortable Pereyaslavl. Visited and Tver, but did not stay. Michael was cold to him. Being meek with personal opponents, Peter knew how to be strict when it came to matters of principle. For non-order of abuse, Sars and Rostov bishops were deprived of their rank. To combat the heresy that penetrated Russia through Novgorod, it was supported by the Tver bishop Andrew, a local council was convened. During the disputes, Ivan Danilovich again fully supported the Metropolitan. Novgorod's archpriest Vavila, who spread heresy, was cursed. Tver bishop metropolitan again forgiven.

In Moscow, Peter became the most expensive guest. Ivan the Good met him cordially, tried to talk more with him, listened to instructions and advice. Metropolitan increasingly liked Kalita: energetic, intelligent and pious. He seemed to him a prince, with whom together it would be possible to revive the Russian land.

Revolution in the Horde

At this time, negative events were brewing in the Horde. The "cosmopolitan" stratum of the Horde - Muslims and Jews - was unhappy with the politics of Tokhta. He acted in accordance with the traditions of Genghis Khan. Tokhta pursued a policy of strengthening the central government and supporting cities. Carried out monetary unification reform and streamlined the administrative system. He defeated Nogai, who actually created his state in the west of the Horde - he managed to subjugate a vast territory along the Danube, the Dniester, the Dnieper, and Byzantium admitted his vassals as Serbia and Bulgaria. Thus, the unity of the Golden Horde was restored.

The Tokhta wars in the east, in the Siberian and Ural steppes, violated trade with China and Central Asia. In addition, Tokhta decided to put in place of participants in the then commercial "International" - the Genoese. Italians have long forgotten about the original agreements with the Khans. Their colonies seized the surrounding lands, lived according to their own laws, did not pay tribute, grew fat in the slave trade. Tokhta decided to bring them to their senses, to establish a general order throughout the territory of the state. In addition, the war with the Genoese was a profitable event from an economic point of view. So it was possible to replenish the treasury, generously reward the soldiers. The Golden Horde king threw an army on Cafu, the city was captured and pogromlen. However, this was a challenge to the Horde merchant group, tied to the Genoese common interests. Tokhta was signed a death sentence. However, it was not only a change of ruler, the question was of a more strategic nature, calculated for centuries to come. The peoples of the Horde decided to Islamize. For this purpose, a suitable "international" Khan - Uzbek was prepared, who was already inclined to Islam. He was the nephew of Khan Tohta.

In August, 1312, Tohtu was poisoned. His son Iksar (Ilbasar), who was supported by the powerful emir Kadak, became his legal heir. However, when, in January, 1313, Uzbek, together with backlit Kutlug-Timur came from Urgench, allegedly to say words of consolation to the relatives of the late Khan, they killed Ixar and Kadak. This act is very poorly combined with the laudatory speeches of Muslim and Arab writers against Uzbeks. Obviously, this is another example when history is written for winners. Uzbek, who killed a relative and the legitimate ruler, but put the vast territory of the Eurasian Empire under the rule of Islam, became a hero for Muslims.

Major Horde merchants, the Horde "International" became the support and advisers of Uzbek. Uzbek declared Islam to be the state religion of the Golden Horde. Part of the elite was outraged, especially the steppe military nobility. They refused to accept the "faith of the Arabs", advocated the traditional order and the faith of their ancestors. Thus, the opposition leaders Tunguz, Taz and declared to the new Khan: “You expect obedience and obedience from us, and what do you care about our faith and our confession and how will we leave the law and the charter of Genghis Khan and turn into the faith of the Arabs?” Therefore, for several years The Uzbek had to fight the traditionalist party. Several dozen representatives of the highest nobility of the Golden Horde were executed (in various sources there are numbers from 70 to 120 people) who advocated the preservation of the old orders. Thus, in the Horde "cosmopolitan", the trade party won and partially destroyed the military, pagan elite. The common people, especially at the beginning, did not touch this revolution. So, there is a message that even during the Kulikov battle, the warriors of Mamai professed both Islam and paganism.

The adoption of Islam as the state religion of the Golden Horde marked the beginning of the end of this steppe empire. Islam was alien to most of the Horde’s population. Many accepted Islam formally. The extermination of the military aristocracy and the strengthening of the positions of the mercantile circles undermined the foundation of the Horde. By inertia, it flourished for some time, its previous successes affected, including the reforms of Tokhta, but the virus has already hit the body of the empire. No wonder that later tens of thousands of "Tatars" went to the service of the Russian princes and accepted Orthodoxy, it, edited by Sergius of Radonezh, turned out to be more congenial than the "Arab faith."

The rule of Uzbek led to a large and bloody internecine war in Russia. In Russia, Islam was not introduced, but in the Horde "all renewed," so the labels of the former Khan lost their significance. The metropolitan, the princes were forced to give up everything and rush to the Horde, re-confirm and buy their posts.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
The struggle of Moscow and Tver. The tragic consequences of the religious revolution in the Horde
The struggle of Moscow and Tver. Part of 2
The death of the princes Yuri of Moscow and Dmitry the Terrible Ochi. Tver uprising 1327 of the year
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  1. core
    core 15 March 2013 08: 12
    +9
    Under the Khan of Uzbekistan, a mass exodus of Tatar princes from the horde, including to Russia, began, thanks to this the Russians received the Tatar cavalry, which in turn helped Russia gain a huge number of victories in the future.
  2. core
    core 15 March 2013 08: 13
    0
    Under the Khan of Uzbekistan, a mass exodus of Tatar princes from the horde, including to Russia, began, thanks to this the Russians received the Tatar cavalry, which in turn helped Russia gain a huge number of victories in the future.
  3. predator.3
    predator.3 15 March 2013 08: 22
    +2
    The main merit of Ivan Kalita is that he stopped the feud, but pacified the Principality of Tver, thereby eliminating the main competitor. And he began the unification of Russia, by the way in a very simple way, he bought labels from low-power princes, i.e. he himself paid the Horde tribute for them, but he himself collected taxes in these principalities (how much he collected was another matter) thus the Rostov and Yaroslavl principalities were attached, later Dmitrovsky, he also bought land (patrimonial lands) mainly in the north, but also his policy was continued by his son Semyon Ivanovich.
    1. vladsolo56
      vladsolo56 15 March 2013 09: 13
      +4
      Do not you think that all the historical associations of Russia were very similar to modern American democratization, i.e. a strong prince came with a team killed all the rebellious remaining united, very similar. There is strength, no mind needed. After all, unite without war and killings is how smart you have to be
      1. BruderV
        BruderV 15 March 2013 10: 45
        +7
        Quote: vladsolo56
        the historical associations of Russia were very similar to modern American democratization,

        Well? All world history - this is the conquest by peoples and groups of faces of each other. The fact that now we have been instilled with pacifist pacifism from childhood since Soviet times — that we would have to keep our own, and that someone else doesn’t need to lead to the fact that all the conquests of grandfathers to western Europe have pissed off. The best defense is an attack, and now we have all the tolerastics, people of the world, universal people, identical bunnies. Where did the men go? How did the Slavs in Russia appear? Did you come with bouquets of daisies? They do not die for their homeland, but they kill. If you just died for your homeland, then you did not bring it any good. You were taught, armed, you spent money on you, and you took it just died and did not cause damage to the enemy. Late Soviet ideology drew a vagina between the legs for all men. In the days of Stalin, there were export plans on the bayonets of the global revolution, so half of Europe was raped, and now it's disgusting to look.
        1. vladsolo56
          vladsolo56 15 March 2013 11: 12
          +1
          And what does everything you have to do with it? I'm talking about the fact that the Slavs, Rusich killed and mutilated each other only for the whim and megalomania of the princes. While there would be a smart prince would unite the principalities in a smart, without blood. And what does pacifism have to do with it, would you kill and capture everything, and then what?
          1. BruderV
            BruderV 15 March 2013 11: 23
            +4
            Quote: vladsolo56
            there would be a smart prince would combine the principalities in a smart

            Well, unite now all the former Soviet republics in a smart way without blood. Weak? To beat the Baltic states out from under NATO without war? Or it’s just nice to imagine that ignoramuses, barbarians and cavemen lived before you, and not sages.
            1. Setrac
              Setrac 15 March 2013 14: 50
              0
              Quote: vladsolo56
              I'm talking about the fact that the Slavs, Rusich killed and mutilated each other only for the whim and megalomania of princes

              Probably the rulers of the past had good reasons for wars, do not consider the ancestors as stupider than themselves.
              1. vladsolo56
                vladsolo56 15 March 2013 15: 03
                0
                Who needs good reasons, those who are killed, maimed, maybe their families? You may be justifying the NATO policy in Yugoslavia, Libya, Syria. Any war can be "Justified" with good reasons.
              2. s1н7т
                s1н7т 15 March 2013 18: 34
                +1
                Quote: Setrac
                good reasons for war
                it is a thirst for power and money, nothing new.
            2. vladsolo56
              vladsolo56 15 March 2013 15: 01
              0
              But does Russia need all this? and what do you think if Russia had power today, could it be possible to bring all the breakaway republics back with it? you have strange ambitions.
              1. BruderV
                BruderV 15 March 2013 15: 24
                +5
                Quote: vladsolo56
                But does Russia need all this?

                I thought so answer so. Tpic modern resident of Russia. Do we need the Far East? Well, a lot of narrow-eyed people have already come to them there - let them take them for themselves, there will be less problems. Chechens want to disconnect - well, let them live in their own land, but we don’t need someone else. Here in such a way and the union prosrali. I don’t need someone else’s, I have my own one-room apartment and a car, everything else is foreign, not mine, I don’t need to protect it, if only they would not touch me. With such views, they would still have lived in the Moscow, Tver and other principalities, but most likely would have been some Polish-Lithuanian backwater within the borders of the beginning of the reign of Ivan the Terrible. Those who themselves do not know how to fight and expand borders - they conquer and turn into slaves, which we now observe.
                1. vladsolo56
                  vladsolo56 15 March 2013 19: 43
                  0
                  Is everything all right with your head or what? I’m talking about Thomas, you’re talking about Yerema, I’m talking about the fact that smart people can come to an agreement, but they’ll surely wave their fists. But you don’t seem to understand
                  1. Atash
                    Atash 15 March 2013 23: 47
                    0
                    Give an example when it is clever to something effective agreed. This is good only for talk shows. War is the main human occupation and engine of history. The world will be in paradise, not in this life.
          2. amp
            amp 15 March 2013 21: 04
            0
            and call Nuka where and when did they unite the country without civil war?
            Bismarck, for example, was clearly a smart person, and he said that the issues of unification are not decided by the chatter in the parliament, but by iron and blood.
          3. radio operator
            radio operator 15 March 2013 21: 34
            0
            And why do you think many idolize Stalin, although he destroyed millions of Russian souls?
            And they themselves answer: there was such a time, it was impossible in a different way.
            Someone accepts this, others do not.
        2. s1н7т
          s1н7т 15 March 2013 18: 32
          0
          Quote: BruderV
          How did the Slavs in Russia appear? Did you come with daisy bouquets?

          Are you studying at the central vocational school ?! laughing
          1. BruderV
            BruderV 15 March 2013 20: 25
            0
            Quote: c1n7
            Are you studying at the central vocational school?

            Is your name Agafon?
  4. Earthman
    Earthman 15 March 2013 08: 28
    +1
    Alexander Samsonov can not decide whether the Golden Horde or not. Earlier, he firmly assured that there was no horde and Mynkol yoke and protectorate of Russia.
    1. Skills
      15 March 2013 09: 20
      +3
      You have studied poorly the articles on the "Mongol" invasion. The invasion was, the Horde was. The question is in the racial and cultural-ethnic origin of the "Mongol-Tatars".
      1. Earthman
        Earthman 16 March 2013 01: 19
        +1
        Quote: Skill
        You have studied poorly the articles on the "Mongol" invasion. The invasion was, the Horde was. The question is in the racial and cultural-ethnic origin of the "Mongol-Tatars".

        no, he assured that there wasn’t. then the only thing that is close to the term Mongols, which are not in the Russian chronicles, is self-proclamation or the nickname of the Turkic peoples. and the current market is just like a geographic region
  5. Nesvet Nezar
    Nesvet Nezar 15 March 2013 08: 38
    +4
    I read with interest everything on the history of Russia. But the more I read, the more I see absurdities and frankly propaganda. I am an economist. Tribute is a tax. Tax - file with the treasury. Treasury - statehood. Is statehood a yoke? Have we been fed separatism since childhood?
    1. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 15 March 2013 09: 23
      -2
      Quote: Nesarya Nesvet
      I read with interest everything on the history of Russia. But the more I read, the more I see absurdities and frankly propaganda. I am an economist. Tribute is a tax. Tax - file with the treasury. Treasury - statehood. Is statehood a yoke? Have we been fed separatism since childhood?

      Then the racketeers are also "civil servants" according to this logic ... They also collect tribute
      1. Atash
        Atash 15 March 2013 23: 53
        0
        Of course, civil servants when there is no state, as in the 90s. They also played the role of arbitration among "commerce" environments. If you can throw it with impunity, it slows down business.
    2. YuDDP
      YuDDP 16 March 2013 00: 21
      0
      And I was always interested: where the authors of such historical articles take materials for writing. Do they work with chronicles? Or is it a free retelling and compilation of someone’s contemporary work?
      It would be interesting to read the author’s answer ...
      N.L. - nothing personal :)
      1. Earthman
        Earthman 16 March 2013 01: 22
        -1
        Quote: YuDDP

        And I was always interested: where the authors of such historical articles take materials for writing. Do they work with chronicles? Or is it a free retelling and compilation of someone’s contemporary work?
        It would be interesting to read the author’s answer ...
        N.L. - nothing personal :)

        nonprofessionals just will not be allowed into the archives. these lay people like Chudinov and Roosters sucked nonsense from their fingers
  6. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 15 March 2013 09: 21
    +2
    In these conditions, the Danilovichi made an unusual decision, they did not divide the land among themselves and decided to stick together.

    That was the main advantage of Moscow over the rest of the Russian principalities ...
    1. philippov
      philippov 15 March 2013 13: 49
      +2
      Quote: Trapper7
      That was the main advantage of Moscow over the rest of the Russian principalities ...


      Not only. They were the first to understand the significance of Orthodoxy as a powerful uniting factor, and began to "make friends" with the metropolitans, all the metropolitans lived in the Moscow principality.
  7. Stiletto
    Stiletto 15 March 2013 10: 11
    +2
    Guys, the article is harmful. You and I were not then, the author, too, and hell breaks who was right there and who was to blame (and what, by the way). Now on this basis it is only possible to agree on a new separatism.
    1. alebor
      alebor 15 March 2013 10: 55
      +2
      Quote: Stiletto
      the devil’s leg will break who was right there and who was to blame (and what, by the way).

      As you know, winners are not judged. Who won is right.
      The "founding fathers" of the united Russian state were those who defeated many other potential "founding fathers". smile
      1. BruderV
        BruderV 15 March 2013 11: 02
        0
        Quote: alebor
        The "founding fathers" of the united Russian state

        The Founding Fathers are the Jews who laid the star-striped gundosia. The Russian state has founders.
    2. Kostya pedestrian
      Kostya pedestrian 15 March 2013 19: 00
      0
      Who will break a leg? By the way, the devil, in folklore, has a hoof. Serious comrade.

      And the article is historical, and, by the way, the value of this resource is that the article is not just an opinion or valuable information, but also food for discussion and debate. And in disputes, one finds true.

      I personally liked the article, and the conclusion, by the way, was made opposite to yours, namely that everything in the world is moving, and the better we control the process, the less collisions, and safer for all participants in the movement. And the story is a story about various drivers and their driving.
  8. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 15 March 2013 11: 00
    +1
    Cases of bygone days. Why delve into this business today, Russia already lacks the trends that disconnect the country. But whether Tver could gather Russia around itself, nobody knows. The story is what it is, and there can be no other. I consider the article in today's situation extremely harmful.
    1. xan
      xan 15 March 2013 11: 12
      +1
      Quote: Jurkovs
      Cases of bygone days. Why delve into this business today, in Russia there are already enough trends disconnecting the country ................... I consider the article in today's situation extremely harmful.


      History is always useful to know what it really is. Then it will be possible to draw conclusions from it. It is important that among the rulers of Russia there were people who could unite it, and the fact that they turned out to be Muscovites, not Tverichs or Novgorodians there, so it’s violet to me, one Russian figs.
      1. s1н7т
        s1н7т 15 March 2013 18: 38
        0
        Quote: xan
        History is always useful to know what it really is. Then it will be possible to draw conclusions from it

        The fact is, my dear fellow, that historians themselves do not know exactly "what she really is" laughing
  9. xan
    xan 15 March 2013 11: 02
    0
    "The adoption of Islam as the state religion of the Golden Horde was the beginning of the end of this steppe empire. Islam was alien to the majority of the Horde's population. Many accepted Islam formally. The extermination of the military aristocracy and the strengthening of the positions of the merchant circles undermined the Horde's foundation."

    A serious remark. At that time, the military aristocracy meant much more trade. Maybe in vain in the Horde they took up the imposition of Islam by force. All the allegations can be called into question, but one thing is clear - something went wrong in the Horde. And it’s not clear whether some relatives of the figs came and knows where they had killed the king and the chief minister from and they themselves began to rule, what kind of garbage is with the state apparatus?
    1. BruderV
      BruderV 15 March 2013 11: 17
      0
      Quote: xan
      some relatives came figs knows where and they killed the king and the chief minister

      What is the state apparatus under feudalism and tribal system? Zomboyaschik at least sometimes turn off. Then everything was decided with brute force, and not with speeches by a zombie hunter, who has more troops and money - he rules. Go chtoli to Africa where in many republics the president is replaced every month, maybe you will understand what is going wrong with them.
  10. Skuto
    Skuto 15 March 2013 12: 58
    0
    Oh no, combining without blood was impossible. By the XII century, the feudal principalities of the type of Vladimir, Lithuania, Moscow, Tver, etc., were quite established states. Their princes possessed all the rights of sovereign sovereigns; they “thought with the boyars about the land system and rath”, that is, they controlled internal affairs and had the right to war and peace, the right to conclude any alliances, even with Polovtsy. Nobody gave them this right, it was dictated by vital necessity. So now the question arose which of these principalities would become the collector of all Russian lands.
    Strange as it may seem, it was the Mongol conquest that helped to resolve this issue, since the invaders were not interested in organizing their system of organs and coercive apparatus, they transferred this duty to the princes - thereby strengthening their power even more, and also making them less dependent on the boyars. In the future, wanting to further simplify the task of collecting tribute, a label was organized on the right to be called the Grand Duke. This title placed its owner above all other princes, and this allowed him to organize the collection of tribute. It is not surprising that a serious struggle between the princes began for this right, which ultimately ended in the victory of the Moscow princes.
    Let me give you a more understandable analogy: Imagine that after the collapse of the USSR, several states became its successor at once (let them be: Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine). Each of the states sets itself the task of the USSR to revive, but at the same time be its center. It’s already without blood, well, not like that.
    1. vladsolo56
      vladsolo56 15 March 2013 15: 07
      +1
      Exactly here again, the ambitions of the kings are higher than decency and honor, because it’s much easier to negotiate and create an alliance, But no, someone wants to be more right than all the right, stronger than all the strong, and that thousands of people will die, their families will be left without a breadwinner This is such a trifle.
      1. BruderV
        BruderV 15 March 2013 15: 39
        +1
        Quote: vladsolo56
        the ambitions of the tsars are obtained above decency and honor

        And it didn’t occur to you that if the Russian principalities had not united into one state, then there would have been such unpleasant trifles as the Tatars' raids, or maybe I didn’t even dare to put up to what century, the possible Islamization of Russian lands, moreover, violent with a sea of ​​blood , aggressive campaigns of the West on fragmented Russia? Do you understand that Russia and the Russian people would not have existed at all, you would not have been alive then such pacifists whose hut is always on the edge? There could not be any unions in the feudal world between rival princes; try to understand this. Well then there were no pacifists, they were quickly taught, or rather buried.
        1. s1н7т
          s1н7т 15 March 2013 18: 43
          0
          Quote: BruderV
          And it didn’t occur to you that
          Do you think too straightforwardly? lol
          1. BruderV
            BruderV 15 March 2013 20: 35
            0
            Quote: c1n7
            You think too straightforward

            Ah, well then, let us have all the princes, khans, emirs, leaders from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, gathered together in a curvilinear version as a year of the year 1400 and voluntarily created the likeness of the USSR, where all peoples would be on equal footing and together go to the bright the future, if not for the crap princes of Moscow and Tver with their zonovskimi concepts and the cult of brute force.
        2. Kostya pedestrian
          Kostya pedestrian 15 March 2013 19: 09
          0
          My opinion is that Peter 1 instilled statehood, before him there was a process, although creative, but feudal, and therefore conflicting. Nevertheless, something can be adopted from Europe. And the Horde, like any state formation created by the will of man, and not by demographic factors, has a tendency to weaken and then to destroy. That is why the farther from Chin Giz Khan, the weaker the horde became. But the Muslims are not to blame for this. There V.I., Lenin, Genius, created the Central Committee of the CPSU in order to maintain the fire of statehood after his death, and then they came and robbed. Prometheus dick.
          1. Atash
            Atash 16 March 2013 00: 10
            0
            Peter 1 instilled in Russia a bureaucracy and a bunch of all the bad things, much of which we still see in Russian and near Russian reality. And statehood long before it began and developed successfully.
        3. vladsolo56
          vladsolo56 15 March 2013 19: 46
          0
          You have forgotten how to think at all, I explain to you that you can unite on equal and mutually beneficial conditions, but no, you definitely need the tsar, the emperor of all Russia. Here is a simple example: I want you to live according to my laws, and I don't care if you want to , if you don’t want, I’ll pick up the bulls and just bang you, how do you like this scenario? so why do you think this is justified.
    2. s1н7т
      s1н7т 15 March 2013 18: 41
      0
      Quote: Skuto
      Mongol conquest

      Do you know what the population of Mongolia was at that time? laughing laughing laughing
  11. gribnik777
    gribnik777 15 March 2013 20: 26
    +2
    Read a series of books by Dmitry Balashov "Sovereigns of Moscow" and many fogs in their heads will dissipate. At least the historical outline, the causes and consequences are spelled out there precisely.
    Those times cannot be judged by today's concepts - then there were ours, and they acted in accordance with them.
    1. Atash
      Atash 16 March 2013 00: 16
      0
      The concepts at all times are the same in people. Only then were times tougher and people did not have such luxury as the pleasure of delusion, false concepts. Like vladsolo56, I'm sorry to switch to personality. smile
  12. Yura
    Yura 15 March 2013 22: 37
    0
    I will support the author, there are no contradictions in the article with what I know about this period of Russian history, the position of the author in this article is clear to me and close, the position of BruderV, too. And then, what does the author prepare in the continuation of the article?
  13. cvv
    cvv 24 March 2013 23: 20
    0
    Quote: core
    Under the Khan of Uzbekistan, a mass exodus of Tatar princes from the horde, including to Russia, began, thanks to this the Russians received the Tatar cavalry, which in turn helped Russia gain a huge number of victories in the future.