The beginning of the political activities of Ivan Danilovich
Ivan was the second son of Prince of Moscow Daniel Alexandrovich of Moscow, the founder of the Moscow line of Rurik, the grandson of Alexander Nevsky. His brothers were Yuri, Alexander, Afanasy and Boris. After the death of his father, the brothers immediately had to join the political struggle. Yury Danilovich (the Moscow prince in 1303 — 1325) was not even able to attend the funeral of his father. He was in Pereyaslavl, and the townspeople did not let him in, because they feared that the Grand Duke Andrei Alexandrovich Gorodetsky would seize the moment and seize the city. Under these conditions, Danilovichi made an unusual decision: they did not divide the land among themselves and decided to stick together. The younger brothers, apparently, did not agree with this decision, but gave in to the will of the older brothers.
In 1303, Danilovich won their first victory. Together they appeared at the princes' meeting in Pereyaslavl and kept this city behind them. Although Mikhail Tverskoy, to whom the Grand Duke Andrei Alexandrovich Gorodetsky promised to give way to the Vladimir table, he tried to keep the city behind him as part of the great reign. In the spring of 1304, the brothers captured Mozhaisk and annexed it to their possessions. Now the principality of Danilovich covered the whole Moscow River from its source to the mouth. To begin the 14 century it was a great success.
In the summer of 1304, Grand Duke Andrei passed away, and Danilovich went into battle for the Vladimir table with the Prince of Tver. They could not “look for” a great reign. Danilovich were the direct descendants of Alexander Nevsky, his grandchildren, and the Prince of Tver, Michael, a nephew. To refuse to fight, or at least not to denote their claims, meant to admit that they and their children are not eligible for the Vladimir table. As a result, the entire Danilovich family would have been thrown to the side of Russian politics. Yuri went to Horde to seek a label from Khan Tokhta. Ivan went to defend Pereyaslavl. Boris was sent to capture Kostroma.
Mikhail of Tverskoy, going to the khan, sent outposts along the roads so that they would intercept Danilovich (Yuri escaped from the Tver detachments). He also in advance, without waiting for the decision of Khan Tokhta, sent his boyars to Novgorod, Kostroma and Nizhny Novgorod. The cities were supposed to recognize Michael as the Grand Duke, to surrender the grand princely taxes and the gifts accompanying the event. Michael needed a lot of money to "solve the problem" in the Horde. In addition, he ordered the army to collect and capture Pereyaslavl.
In Russia, a wave of clashes and troubles. Novgorod wealthy, well versed in monetary policy, realized that the prince of Tver was cheating and did not want to fork out. Without the label of Michael in Veliky Novgorod they did not recognize the Grand Duke. In Nizhny Novgorod, it was even sadder for Tverches. Here they didn’t like Michael, and the convocation of the assembly was outraged, the envoys of the Prince of Tver, who tried to start collecting money by force, were killed. In Kostroma, the envoys of the Prince of Tver were also expelled, two were killed. However, Prince Boris Danilovich on the way to Kostroma was intercepted and taken to Tver.
A real battle took place near Pereyaslavl. Ivan Danilovich, having learned that a army was coming from Tver, sent him to Moscow for help and brought the Pereyaslavts towards the enemy. Prince Ivan was able to contain the attacks of the Tricheans until reinforcements arrived. Voivode Rodion Nesterovich with Moscow's host struck an unexpected blow to the enemy. When the Tver governor Akinf died, the army ran.
In the Golden Horde, at that time, there was a “battle of wallets” between Mikhail and Yuri, which lasted until next year. Princes showered gifts of the khan, his wives, gave bribes to dignitaries. Tohta devastated the treasury in the war with Nogai, and he needed money to continue the struggle, so the khan was in no hurry with the decision. Lean Daniel saved up a hefty treasury, the money was taken from Yuri. Michael spent a lot, even got into debt to the Horde usurers, without waiting for money from Russian cities. The prince of Tver was even ready to promise the khan to increase the tribute from the Russian land. Here, Yuri, struck by the irresponsibility of his opponent, agreed to abandon his “homeland” so that Russian land would not perish. He withdrew his candidacy.
Michael received a label for a great reign. After the Metropolitan of Vladimir laid a grand prince crown on his head, Mikhail Yaroslavich decided to punish his opponents. He sent his ward Prince Mikhail Gorodetsky with Tver troops to Nizhny Novgorod. All the "Vechniki" who staged a revolt were executed. Kostromichi were also punished. With Danilovich Mikhail was going to fight. Initially, the Metropolitan kept him from the war, but in 1305, he died. In 1306, Michael and the Allied princes went to Moscow. However, the campaign was not successful. In 1307, Michael organized a second march to Moscow. Tverichi "create many evil" on the land of Moscow. 25 August began storming the city. The fight was fierce. Muscovites knew that there would be no mercy, they fought hard. The attack reflected, Michael was forced to retreat again. Michael and Novgorod did not get along. They were in no hurry to give money to the Grand Duke. They also refused to fight with Moscow. When the great prince of Vladimir and Tver began to give, the people of Novgorod promised to call the princes of Moscow to their table.
Michael was forced to call for help Horde. In the autumn of 1307, the Tairov army arrived. True, this time the Horde disfigured a little, not a single city was hurt. But a hint in Moscow understood. Yuri Daniilovich was forced to cede Pereyaslavl. Novgorod also submitted to the new grand duke. In addition, there was a split among the Danilovich themselves. Boris and his brother Alexander drove off to Tver as a result of contradictions with their elder brother.
Yuri and Ivan had a very fruitful relationship. Yuri was more concerned with military issues, led foreign policy, and Ivan took over the internal management of the principality. Ivan Danilovich solved economic issues, was in charge of collecting taxes, conscientiously played the role of judge. The chronicles note that Muscovites fell in love with the prince for his high responsibility, intercession for "widows and orphans." The prince did not neglect the distribution of alms. He was even given the nickname - Good. It was also called Kalita (from the word "kalita" - a small belt money bag), but less often. Already at a later time, the authors of the chronicles, to distinguish the prince from other rulers, left a more rare nickname - Kalita.
How Ivan made friends with Metropolitan Peter
Ivan made friends with the new metropolitan. Peter was marked by the art of icon painting, he is the author of the first Moscow miraculous icon, called Petrovskaya. The Grand Duke Galitsky Yuri Lvovich, dissatisfied with the fact that the Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia Maxim left Kiev and settled in Vladimir-on-Klyazma, wanted to create a second metropolis in Russia. As a new metropolitan, he chose Hegumen Rathensky Monastery of Peter, who was famous for his asceticism. The Patriarch of Constantinople had already decided to create a new metropolis, when it became known about the death of Metropolitan Maxim, and the candidate from the Prince of Tver, the abbot of one of the Tver monasteries Gerontius, arrived. Then the patriarch returned to the idea of reviving the metropolis in Kiev.
But the decisive word in Russia then was for the Golden Horde king. In 1308-1309 Peter went to Sarai for the label. Tokhta betrayed him, but for some reason he preferred (apparently, it was understood that Kiev and Galich were increasingly under the influence of the West) so that the rate of the metropolitan would remain in Vladimir. Mikhail of Tver, offended by the decision of the patriarch, decided to “dump” the new metropolitan. He persuaded the Tver Bishop Andrew to write a denunciation to Constantinople. There were other disgruntled ones who supported the accusation. Patriarch Athanasius sent his cleric to sort out the situation.
In 1311, a council was convened in Pereyaslavl for the trial of Peter. The Russian clergy, princes, children of Grand Duke Michael and the boyars gathered at it. Tverichi began to accuse the Metropolitan, the passion came almost to assault. However, it turned out that Metropolitan Peter was already able to find great respect among the common people. In Pereyaslavl for his defense, the metropolitan himself was of a meek disposition, tried to teach people a kind word and an example, a lot of monks, priests and ordinary people arrived. They did not give Peter an offense. The Moscow delegation headed by Ivan the Good stood up behind him. As a result, the court acquitted Petr, the accusation of Andrew was called slander. Peter was really a peace-loving man, he even let his main prosecutor Andrei go in peace.
In 1311, there was a new reason for the clash between Moscow and Tver. In 1311, Prince Mikhail of Nizhny Novgorod died. He left no heirs. Michael was the grandson of Alexander Nevsky, his closest relatives were the Moscow princes. Yury immediately captured the principality of Nizhny Novgorod principality. Grand Duke Michael became furious and sent troops to Nizhny Novgorod. Here the metropolitan showed himself. He, on pain of excommunication, forbade the Tverches to fight. Peter already saw with his own eyes the horrors of a fratricidal war in Southern Russia and did not want to repeat them in the north. He offered the Grand Duke a compromise variant - to plant Prince Boris in Nizhny Novgorod, one of the Danilovich brothers who fled to Tver. This agreement suited everyone. On the one hand, the birth of Alexander Nevsky remained belonging to his family, and on the other, did not fall under the authority of Moscow, since Boris became Michael's loyal companion.
Peter worked tirelessly. The Grand Duke of Vladimir and Tver was unhappy with the decision about Nizhny Novgorod. New complaints and denunciations poured into Constantinople. Peter had to go to Byzantium to justify himself personally. He also traveled constantly in North and South Russia. In the official residence in Vladimir was rare, the city lost its former glory, desolate. Peter, returning from his travels, preferred to live in a more comfortable Pereyaslavl. Visited and Tver, but did not stay. Michael was cold to him. Being meek with personal opponents, Peter knew how to be strict when it came to matters of principle. For non-order of abuse, Sars and Rostov bishops were deprived of their rank. To combat the heresy that penetrated Russia through Novgorod, it was supported by the Tver bishop Andrew, a local council was convened. During the disputes, Ivan Danilovich again fully supported the Metropolitan. Novgorod's archpriest Vavila, who spread heresy, was cursed. Tver bishop metropolitan again forgiven.
In Moscow, Peter became the most expensive guest. Ivan the Good met him cordially, tried to talk more with him, listened to instructions and advice. Metropolitan increasingly liked Kalita: energetic, intelligent and pious. He seemed to him a prince, with whom together it would be possible to revive the Russian land.
Revolution in the Horde
At this time, negative events were brewing in the Horde. The "cosmopolitan" stratum of the Horde - Muslims and Jews - was unhappy with the politics of Tokhta. He acted in accordance with the traditions of Genghis Khan. Tokhta pursued a policy of strengthening the central government and supporting cities. Carried out monetary unification reform and streamlined the administrative system. He defeated Nogai, who actually created his state in the west of the Horde - he managed to subjugate a vast territory along the Danube, the Dniester, the Dnieper, and Byzantium admitted his vassals as Serbia and Bulgaria. Thus, the unity of the Golden Horde was restored.
The Tokhta wars in the east, in the Siberian and Ural steppes, violated trade with China and Central Asia. In addition, Tokhta decided to put in place of participants in the then commercial "International" - the Genoese. Italians have long forgotten about the original agreements with the Khans. Their colonies seized the surrounding lands, lived according to their own laws, did not pay tribute, grew fat in the slave trade. Tokhta decided to bring them to their senses, to establish a general order throughout the territory of the state. In addition, the war with the Genoese was a profitable event from an economic point of view. So it was possible to replenish the treasury, generously reward the soldiers. The Golden Horde king threw an army on Cafu, the city was captured and pogromlen. However, this was a challenge to the Horde merchant group, tied to the Genoese common interests. Tokhta was signed a death sentence. However, it was not only a change of ruler, the question was of a more strategic nature, calculated for centuries to come. The peoples of the Horde decided to Islamize. For this purpose, a suitable "international" Khan - Uzbek was prepared, who was already inclined to Islam. He was the nephew of Khan Tohta.
In August, 1312, Tohtu was poisoned. His son Iksar (Ilbasar), who was supported by the powerful emir Kadak, became his legal heir. However, when, in January, 1313, Uzbek, together with backlit Kutlug-Timur came from Urgench, allegedly to say words of consolation to the relatives of the late Khan, they killed Ixar and Kadak. This act is very poorly combined with the laudatory speeches of Muslim and Arab writers against Uzbeks. Obviously, this is another example when history is written for winners. Uzbek, who killed a relative and the legitimate ruler, but put the vast territory of the Eurasian Empire under the rule of Islam, became a hero for Muslims.
Major Horde merchants, the Horde "International" became the support and advisers of Uzbek. Uzbek declared Islam to be the state religion of the Golden Horde. Part of the elite was outraged, especially the steppe military nobility. They refused to accept the "faith of the Arabs", advocated the traditional order and the faith of their ancestors. Thus, the opposition leaders Tunguz, Taz and declared to the new Khan: “You expect obedience and obedience from us, and what do you care about our faith and our confession and how will we leave the law and the charter of Genghis Khan and turn into the faith of the Arabs?” Therefore, for several years The Uzbek had to fight the traditionalist party. Several dozen representatives of the highest nobility of the Golden Horde were executed (in various sources there are numbers from 70 to 120 people) who advocated the preservation of the old orders. Thus, in the Horde "cosmopolitan", the trade party won and partially destroyed the military, pagan elite. The common people, especially at the beginning, did not touch this revolution. So, there is a message that even during the Kulikov battle, the warriors of Mamai professed both Islam and paganism.
The adoption of Islam as the state religion of the Golden Horde marked the beginning of the end of this steppe empire. Islam was alien to most of the Horde’s population. Many accepted Islam formally. The extermination of the military aristocracy and the strengthening of the positions of the mercantile circles undermined the foundation of the Horde. By inertia, it flourished for some time, its previous successes affected, including the reforms of Tokhta, but the virus has already hit the body of the empire. No wonder that later tens of thousands of "Tatars" went to the service of the Russian princes and accepted Orthodoxy, it, edited by Sergius of Radonezh, turned out to be more congenial than the "Arab faith."
The rule of Uzbek led to a large and bloody internecine war in Russia. In Russia, Islam was not introduced, but in the Horde "all renewed," so the labels of the former Khan lost their significance. The metropolitan, the princes were forced to give up everything and rush to the Horde, re-confirm and buy their posts.
To be continued ...