- Vladimir Aleksandrovich, 2012 passed the year. Tell us how it turned out for the Russian cosmonautics.
- 2012 year is significant for many reasons. First, it was possible to reduce the accident rate. Although still not without accidents. There was one accident. The abnormal operation of the Breeze accelerating unit also took place when the Yamal-402 spacecraft was launched at the final stage. But due to the fact that the satellite was well-made, it was possible to compensate for the inaccurate elimination by its own engine. In this regard, according to various estimates, somewhere on 3 - 4, its service life will decrease. Ultimately, everything will depend on the stability of the spacecraft at the point of standing and the expenditure of the working fluid to maintain the orbit.
Secondly, we have fulfilled all international obligations in terms of manned space flight. It was the first full year, when all the provision, especially for the delivery of astronauts, was on the Russian side. We coped with this task.
It should also be noted that for the first time we conducted an open enrollment in the cosmonaut corps. Behind the seeming simplicity of this event was a very serious work, primarily from a psychological point of view, of those who select candidates for the detachment, check documents, prepare and take qualifying exams. All this was started back in 2011 and ended with the selection in 2012. Of the previous requirements for candidates, only health requirements remained. All the rest had to be developed, as they say, “from scratch”. And the characteristics of the eight candidates who were selected for the results show a different “slice” of people. Quite a different motivation than before. I have no doubt that their motivation, their preparation will show: we are on the right track.
- And how often will such a selection now take place?
- The need will be determined by the need to fulfill the plans. They now have at least five years of training: two years - general space, three - as part of a group, and only then may they be appointed to crews. In the presence of an existing squad, we blocked 2017 - 2018's. The next set will be carried out taking into account the natural loss from the squadron by age, medical indicators, other reasons.
Thirdly. We launched Kanopus-V, the first Earth remote sensing satellite actually manufactured in Russian time. After all, no matter what they say about Resurs-DK, which has fulfilled two established periods, but it is a hurt in Soviet times. “Monitor-E” is an experimental device. “Canopus” is a full-fledged working remote sensing spacecraft, which gives very good pictures in terms of quality, accuracy of reference to the terrain. And this is not my opinion, but the opinion of experts who distribute images throughout the world. This is a good event.
Further. The full use of our first scientific satellite "Spektr-R" has been started, and research continued with the spacecraft "ICA-FKI". In general, the 2012 year was decisive in the choice of directions for the development of scientific space. The priorities were finally set. In principle, we agreed with the European Space Agency on cooperation in the field of planetary research. And here are three components: the exploration of Mars - the project "ExoMars" with two missions in 2016 and 2018, coordination of joint work on the exploration of the Moon and, finally, the study of Jupiter and its satellites.
A fundamentally important event of the last year was the beginning of the active phase of the construction of the Vostochny cosmodrome. Today we have passed the point of no return: there is no way back. Practically at the final stage - the development of project documentation for the starting, technical and support complex for the Soyuz-2 series PH. Started full-scale construction and installation work, which involved several thousand people. All this suggests that 2015 year - this is the real period of the first start. If this does not happen, then only Roscosmos or Spetsstroy will be guilty. There can be no other culprits.
All the necessary decisions were taken by the President, the Chairman of the Government of Russia, in particular, to simplify many procedures for the construction of the cosmodrome. The financing was fully brought up, changes to the Federal Target Program (FTP) “Development of Russian space centers on 2006 - 2015 years” were approved, the Federal Space Program was specified, providing for a whole range of activities. Thus, everything is done in order to properly organize this work.
And the last. At the end of 2012, the State program of space activities of Russia was approved. It defines all the tasks of the development of Russian space to 2020. For Roscosmos, this document is important, first of all, because the levels of funding are clear for the entire period of the document’s validity.
Now we can begin to develop a comprehensive concept of two federal targeted programs: the Federal Space Program for 2016 - 2025 years and the Federal Target Program for the development of Russian space centers for the same years. This certainty makes it possible to plan the continuation and completion of projects that have been started, but are not ending in 2015, according to the current PCF. We can safely continue and complete them, because the necessary funding has been approved.
- Is this the first time?
- Yes, for us it is very important. We received guaranteed funding for many years to come. No need for 2014 - 2015 consider which programs to minimize and on the completion of which programs to redistribute the remaining funds.
And of course, these are broad discussions on the structure of Roscosmos, the industry as a whole. At the government level, decisions have been made in which direction to go. It remains only during the first quarter of 2013 to realize all this.
- Vladimir Alexandrovich, and what could not be achieved?
- Could not achieve trouble-free.
- And what is being done for this?
- A lot is being done. A departmental quality control system is being introduced. As a matter of fact, representatives of the agency work at all enterprises, both the first and second cooperations. The development of regulatory documents and the creation of expert groups for the support of the most important scientific research and development work and serial production is being completed. The system of military acceptance is being restored in pursuance of the decree of the President, which was signed two years ago. These and other measures should give their results.
- Do I understand correctly that military representatives will control not only military orders?
- Military missions control military orders, orders that are carried out under federal targeted programs, and, in addition, on a contractual basis can control those projects that are carried out according to commercial plans.
- Will the development strategy of the Russian cosmonautics before 2030 be developed?
“Today it is called the“ Fundamentals of the Russian Federation’s policy in the field of space activities up to 2030 and for the future ”. That is the decision of the Security Council. Under it, we developed an Action Plan for the implementation of these foundations. The document “passed” all the approvals and is in the Office of the Government of the Russian Federation, from where it will go to the Administration of the President of Russia for approval.
- Will this happen within a year?
- I guess during the first quarter. But the main work was done last year: both public hearings and discussions at various levels, for example in Skolkovo.
- Let's talk about financing, its current level. Is this increase, reduction, reorientation?
- All the justifications, requests and requirements submitted by Roscosmos were satisfied by both the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Economic Development with the support of the Government, the Military Industrial Commission and two deputy prime ministers - Dmitry Olegovich Rogozin through the Federal Space Program and Vladislav Yurevich Surkov through the line GLONASS. Largely due to the interaction with them, it was possible to defend the necessary amounts.
In essence, this is the 2015 level, because before this time we had all the programs taking into account deflators, the forecasts of the Ministry of Economy, some peaks at the Vostochny cosmodrome, the peaks of the final stages of the most important development work. So it's a sin to complain.
- But what is the situation on GLONASS? What about the grouping of spacecraft, the accuracy of determining the coordinates?
- Now in the 29 grouping of spacecraft, of which 23 is in operational use. Why is 23, not 24? Because the system itself was originally created with very rigid cells in three planes. And in the event of a device failure, or the need to prevent it, or reboot, we cannot quickly move the backup device to its place. In the middle of February we will fill one socket - and will again be in the 24 grouping of working spacecraft.
We on the Earth now have five ready-to-launch vehicles and three rockets - one “Proton” and two “Soyuz”. And when, according to our calculations, it will become clear that within the next two or three months failures will begin on the devices, then we put on the preparation and launch a new device. Now according to the plan in June - the launch of the troika of satellites in the plane where the oldest devices are flying. But the decision will be made only if necessary replacement. If they continue to work smoothly, then the start will move to the right.
Now on the accuracy of measurements of coordinates. It is determined by the laying of the ephemeris, the amendments to the spacecraft: the more often you lay, the higher the accuracy. And it also depends on real measurements. At present, the situation is such that all of our measuring tools are located only on the territory of Russia. And taking into account the trajectory of the flight of the spacecraft, orbital inclination, it turns out that we “see” only the 1 / 7 part of the revolution, and for the rest we cannot make any corrections. And most importantly - we can not accurately measure the coordinates of the device. To solve this problem, we put around the world various functional additions to this system. They will allow both to check the integrity of the navigation field, and to accurately measure data by satellite. Now we are completing the installation of such a station in Brazil. But in general, we have a plan for locating stations in the southern and western hemispheres of the planet. There is another question. The Defense Ministry, unfortunately, has delayed the modernization of NAKU (a ground-based automated control complex. - Ed.) For GLONASS, which would allow more often and with a higher level of automation to lay these ephemeris. The question requires a final decision.
The third thing we need to do is to put in-service inter-satellite laser communication, which would allow to transfer the necessary correction from one spacecraft to another, without waiting for it to appear in the visibility zone of the ground station.
A comprehensive solution of these tasks will allow 2015 to catch up with GPS accuracy and 2020 to achieve guaranteed accuracy 0.6 m, and according to some calculations - much higher. Taking into account the development of global, regional differential systems, which are currently being created in Russia, and local ones, which are envisaged in the areas of airports, federal highways, accuracy will be measured in centimeters.
- Is it still using ground-based tools?
- Yes, with the help of ground additions, so-called. differential systems.
- Let's get down to earthly affairs. Much has been said about possible structural changes in Roscosmos and the industry as a whole. Are there specific decisions made?
- We have our version, which has not yet been approved by the Military-Industrial Commission, the Interdepartmental Commission under the leadership of Dmitry Rogozin, therefore it is premature to speak about the final structural changes. Our option provides for the integration of enterprises to the destination, the creation of five space and one rocket (for combat missile topics) holdings. His consideration should take place in the first quarter.
- And what about the staffing issues: business leaders, young professionals?
- Currently, there is a natural process - a phased change of heads of enterprises. We never asked to change or rearrange everyone. People find more suitable jobs, grow old, retire.
- Is there enough management reserve?
- Reserve last year was made public. Each post has two or three candidates. We have enough reserve.
- Did people get into it objectively?
- Judge for yourself. For example, in the Khrunichev Center, a man from the same personnel reserve came to the leadership.
Here, one must also take into account the appointment procedure. In FSUE, this is a competitive procedure that considers several candidates. When reviewing their documents, it sometimes turns out that a person standing in the personnel reserve does not fit the position. We have to appoint a manager not from the personnel reserve.
In joint-stock companies, Roskosmos submits proposals on candidates, but they are coordinated by the Federal Property Management Agency, the Ministry of Economic Development, the Military-Industrial Commission (MIC) and the Presidential Administration. Moreover, the military-industrial complex and the Presidential Administration have the right of a decisive vote. It so happens that we select another person.
When choosing a manager, numerous factors are taken into account: the state and future tasks of the enterprise, the ability of the applicant to solve them effectively, etc.
- What is the situation with the involvement of young professionals?
- Young professionals are interested today, and this is understandable, the level of wages and housing. In addition, of course, interesting work. And she in the space industry itself is interesting. And if he came to us in the industry, then there is already an interesting job for him. Left housing and salary.
Last year, we at TsENKI completed the development of a project for the provision of long-term loans to young professionals. It provides for the company to make a down payment for housing, the company partially or fully pay interest on the loan. This project allows you to consolidate young professionals. Many of them approved the project, and we are starting to implement it.
Another aspect of this problem is the payment of surcharges. At enterprises, there are surcharges for young professionals, significantly increasing the overall level of wages. But "young professionals" cease to be people who have reached 28 - 30 years (at different enterprises in different ways). And a good, competent specialist who has attained some success in work at this age suddenly begins to receive less than before. But the date of birth in the passport can not be changed ... So the allowance is a very thin, neat lever of influence.
We attract young people directly from leading universities, in which many enterprises have their own basic departments. Space cooperation is mainly concentrated in Moscow and Moscow region, Samara, Yekaterinburg, Krasnoyarsk, St. Petersburg. In all these cities there are universities that train specialists for our enterprises. Chairs in them are headed, as a rule, by general or chief designers. And with 3 - 4 courses, students are actually taught at these enterprises. It is necessary to make sure that during his studies the student becomes attached to the enterprise, and the question of where to work after graduating from the university or institute does not arise.
We are completing the preparation and we will sign an agreement in February on the creation of a consortium of universities, which will include all "our" universities and parent enterprises. The main task of the consortium is to develop uniform requirements for the training of specialists. For enterprises to decide what kind of specialists they need, and universities for what they can provide. As a result of the dialogue, we will receive specialists with the necessary specialties, which will not need to be retrained.
Especially important is the preparation at the 1 and 2 courses, when knowledge of general academic disciplines is laid, the basis by which a young person can continue to study successfully. To avoid a situation where, for example, the foundations were laid for the study of such programming languages that would not be in demand. And two years will be wasted.
During the first two years of training, we must understand the propensity of a person for a particular profession in the field of the rocket and space industry. If he has a penchant for programming, then it is probably advisable to specialize in control systems for launch vehicles and spacecraft, if in mathematics, then in the area of strength calculations. Therefore, we want to agree that first-year students can freely move from one specialty to another, and as a result make the right choice for themselves. This possibility of transition will allow you to fully utilize the potential of each. After all, it has been proven that when a student studies with pleasure, the effectiveness of education is much higher.
We need economists to work in our enterprises, lawyers in the field of international space law, and insurance. And such specialists should be trained.
Now we are creating space service centers in the regions. It turned out that specialists in the field of using the results of space activities are trained by only one university - Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, and in limited quantities. We want to coordinate with the Ministry of Education the question of organizing training at this university for a group on state order, in which we will train specialists from the regions under contracts. But after graduation, they must return to their regions and on the ground to preach how to use satellite imagery, communications, navigation, and other space services.
The management of each enterprise in the industry understands that young people are their future. In the course of work at enterprises, rejuvenation of groups is noticeable. For example, during recent trips with D. O. Rogozin to VNIIEM, RSC Energia many young specialists were seen. And who works well, gets enough decent money. It depends on how you feel about your work, how you work, how much you are in demand.
- What is the average salary?
- I think that in the industry we have come to the average salary in 35 thousand rubles.
- If you do not mind, let's talk about our orbital group of spacecraft, their number, condition.
- The number of devices can be considered differently. For example, to artificially increase their number and count in the group those spacecraft for which the base platform is working, but the target equipment is not. Or vice versa - in various combinations. It is impossible to mislead anyone, clearly realizing that it will not work.
For the last two years, we have all led to the removal of non-operational satellites from the group. As a result, the number of "she sat down."
We currently have 60 spacecraft for socio-economic, scientific and commercial purposes, used for its intended purpose. But this grouping with real-life devices. All of them are used for their intended purpose. Eight vehicles in reserve. The Ministry of Defense apparatus does not include this number.
- Share your plans for 2013 year.
- This year we have to launch five communication devices (Express-AM5, Express-AM6, Express-AT1, Express-AT2, Yamal-401). Thus, we will make the connection on our territory become complete and will be based on our devices.
Resurs-P will be launched as part of the Earth remote sensing grouping in the first quarter. He is ready, passed the life test star sensors for five years. They were made, in fact, anew. There was a problem associated with the loss of production of hermetic enclosures for them, so they made a glued case. But the production of sealed enclosures is one of the key things that we will restore. In addition, there were problems with fluorine, the oxidation of matrices. Therefore, we had to perform a large number of improvements - and the launch was shifted to the right to minimize risks. In the field of scientific research in 2012, the Roskosmos planned and was ready to launch the Bion spacecraft, but at the request of the Institute for Biomedical Problems, the start was postponed to the current year. Scientists were afraid to freeze the biological material, in other words, mice, since the landing was scheduled for November. Now the launch is scheduled for April.
From scientific spacecraft this year, we plan to launch a small Lomonosov device to study the ionosphere. It is made at our enterprise in cooperation with students of Moscow State University.
In the same year, we intensively begin to restore the grouping of weather satellites. We plan to launch the second Electro-L and the second Meteor-M. And the group will be complete. The first "Meteor" now, after the end of the flight test phase, works with some restrictions. But we carefully studied all the nuances, finalized everything necessary. Now we are ready to make a series of such devices and launch them in a short time. And for 5 - 7 years, or even 10 years, as in the case of Electro-L on the geostationary, do not return to their production. And over the years, develop a new spacecraft for a new grouping. The piloted theme continues: we have four Soyuz and four Progress plans for the International Space Station. And at the end of the year it is planned to launch the Multi-Purpose Laboratory Module.
On the GLONASS system, we have already spoken. We also plan to launch three "Gonts". Their grouping will reach eight satellites, and the real attempts of its commercial use will begin. There are agreements with Gazprom, Rosneft, the Ministry of Transport to control the freight traffic. A new ambitious team of young guys has come to JSC “Gonets”, which is engaged in this project and seeks to make it commercially attractive.
They "put pressure" on our developers of devices, forcing them to simplify the device, to reduce weight and thereby reduce cost indicators. Then the product will be beneficial for federal customers. But it will be attractive for commercial customers and will be able to at least partially pay for itself.
- The spacecraft you talked about, and others, must be launched into orbit using launch vehicles. We have a rocket launcher in operation, there are unused - Cyclone, Cosmos, Start. How are things going with this?
- In Roscosmos, there is no reserve of Cyclone-2 missiles. They may be in the stocks of the Ministry of Defense. We do not plan to let them.
I know there are two "Cosmos-3M", which we offer the Ministry of Defense to dispose of using the launch method. We are ready to load both our federal payload and the military and commercial ones. The decision on these missiles must be taken: either this year we extend the warranty period and let it go, or next year we simply recycle.
As for the "Start". Last year we returned to this issue. They counted the entire economy and realized that while their launches are economically unprofitable. “Start” loses to the same “Rokotu”, “Soyuzu-2.1В”, “Cosmos”, easy “Angara”. And today there is no decision how to make the “Start” economically attractive, since the unit cost of removing the cargo is very expensive. At the same time, they agreed with MIT what they would consider how and what could be cheaper. We will conduct another stage of negotiations with the Ministry of Defense on the issue of free use of write-off steps. The process of disposing of solid fuel engines - washing out is very expensive.
The use of Dnipro is also at the decision stage. Ukraine, to which it is necessary to pay tribute, has revealed all its financial indicators. We agreed in principle on prices and costs of each party and together with the Ministry of Defense sent documents to the Government. If approved, all agreements will need to be documented and approved in the form of contracts and agreements. Then, perhaps, the project "Dnepr" will be reanimated. But we will selectively approach startups. The rockets use toxic components of the fuel, and you need to be confident in terms of their reliability, competent extension of the resource and the implementation of all necessary measures, and not the formal presence of a stamp in the passport for the extension of terms.
- And is there a prospect of using “Proton” with accelerating blocks?
- Proton-M will continue to be used. But we must remember that the existing “overclocking” was created on the basis of previous developments. For example, the DM was developed in 1960 for the lunar rocket H-1, so it was a priori that high accuracy was used, which is in demand even now. The “Breeze” is, in fact, an ICBM warhead breeding unit that was created for a narrow circle of tasks. Each RB has its own improvement limit and its own limit of loads. According to "Breeze" we have exhausted this limit.
Breeze-KM, which is currently used at Rokot, was also originally created to solve another problem. Therefore, it has many limitations.
The “frigate” produced by the S. A. Lavochkin NPO is a former flight module to the moon. We will start the triplets of the “Glonass” with the help of the DM booster block because of the need to ensure high accuracy of the launch. The more accurately spacecraft are derived, the less resources are spent on moving to a given point of the orbit, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the duration of active existence.
All these overclocking units have their limitations, and none of them provides for the possibility of controlling (reprogramming) from the Earth. Therefore, we are forced to create a new upper stage - the oxygen-hydrogen (KVRB) heavy class. I think it should be made to a certain stage of the flight tests of the heavy "Angara". Khrunichev has experience developing such a unit for India.
KVRB should have the qualities of a spacecraft. We need to be able to stop any process, re-pledge the program and continue excretion. There must be a reusable engine and control system for a command radio link, in essence, like a spacecraft.
All overclocking units must be able to work with orbital repeaters, at least reset the telemetry in the so-called. "Shadow" sites. To this end, we are completing the formation of the grouping of the “Luch” series devices.
- When will Soyuz-2 replace “Soyuz-U”?
- Soyuz-2.1А will replace Soyuz-U in 2015. But Soyuz-FG will fly and put manned spacecraft into orbit until Soyuz-2.1А collects the reliability statistics required for manned flights.
- Have you decided on a new heavy rocket? Different information appeared on the "Angara", on another rocket ...
- In order not to lose the groundwork for Rus (after all, funds were spent a lot), we will complete the development of design estimates for the adaptation of the Angara launch complex at Vostochniy this year. But the decision on its construction, we will take only after the start of flight tests in Plesetsk.
Everyone is interested in a super-heavy rocket with a payload of up to 120 – 130 tons. This year, in the framework of the research and development project “Magistral”, we carry out research and development to determine the appearance of this super-heavy rocket, which is determined by three conditions. The first is the real mass required to be output to the reference orbit. The second is cargo traffic, so that as a result the flight rocket does not turn out once every five years. The third is the base of its construction.
We have a wide and good base in the engine. The whole world wants to buy our engines. We must decide which components of the fuel will be used. The options are different: oxygen – kerosene, acetam, methane. The complex of initial data will be transferred to RSC Energia, the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and TsSKB-Progress. Roskosmos wants to get from each enterprise in the framework of the preliminary project the appearance of its super-heavy LV with the indication of the main scheme, cooperation, approximate terms of creation, value. Then, at the Agency's Scientific and Technical Council, we will select and determine the option that will actually meet the needs. But it can be none of the three options offered. It is possible that we will choose the best from each of the three projects, and depending on this, the parent company and its cooperation will be determined. This project is very expensive, and it is impossible that only the Khrunichev Center cooperation or only the TsSKB-Progress cooperation should be involved. This is the task of 2013.
In 2014, we will make a preliminary design, and in the Federal Space Program on 2016 - 2020 we define, again taking into account the cargo traffic and the mass of the payload, the timing of the creation of this rocket.
- Roscosmos works closely with the RAS. What tasks are to be solved together with the academic community?
- I do not see in this case purely scientific questions. Delivery of scientific instruments, various devices to the Moon, Mars, etc. - the task is not the Academy of Sciences. Roscosmos must decide what means and in what time frame to solve these tasks.
For example, manned missions to the moon will be required to service the objects that the RAS wants to have there. So, we must estimate the power for the manned option.
The flight to the moon is still only desired and has not acquired stringent requirements. Does the Russian Academy of Sciences want to put radio and optical telescopes on the moon, stations for studying soil properties, to ensure the presence of a person there, to understand the frequency of such flights is their prerogative. They have to decide.
From the Ministry of Communications, we ask you to predict the mass, power consumption of a communications spacecraft in geostationary orbit in 2020 or 2030 g. If it is 30 kW, then we need to deliver a spacecraft with a mass of 6 tons, if 40 kW - then it is about 8 tons. And we must make a PH not for one task, but universal. To make it commercially available.
- Thank you, Vladimir Alexandrovich, for an interesting conversation. And the last question: what would you wish for yourself and the editors of NK in 2013?
- First to the magazine. I would like the publication to expand the readership interested in various aspects of astronautics: general, special, historical... It is very well chronologically manned subjects. This is not found in any other publication, and it will one day be sure to be in demand.
For myself, I would like to implement the conceived plans, the absence of accidents and remain your reader.
According to the materials of Roscosmos