The boy was named Yura. His mother, Anna Timofeevna (1903-1984), and his father, Alexey Ivanovich (1902-1973), were ordinary rural workers from the village of Klushino, Gzhatsky District. Yura was the third child in the family, he had an older brother Valentin (1924-2006) and sister Zoya (born in 1927). Two years after the birth of Jura, the fourth child in the family was born, who was named Boris (1936-1977).
Little Yura has been growing curious since childhood, he has always been distinguished by a desire for knowledge. 1 September 1941 of the year he went to school, but the school was quickly evacuated to another place, since October Wehrmacht troops occupied the village on 12. It is known that the first teacher of Gagarin, Ksenia Gerasimovna Filippova, tried to teach children by conducting classes every week in houses that were not yet occupied by the Germans. But in the last free house the criminals organized a stable and the children were kicked out of the house.
The Germans behaved brutally, with particular cruelty appealed to local residents. The Germans identified the Gagarins' house as workshops, and the owners had to live in a dugout, which they dug with their own hands. One day, Alexey Ivanovich, working at the mill, refused to turn the grain out of turn to a woman sent by the German commandant's office, and for this he was seriously punished. Once Borya, Jura's younger brother, went out of curiosity to the workshop, and the fascist grabbed him with a scarf tied around his neck, and on this scarf hung it on an apple branch. It's good that some boss called him, and Yura and his mother saved Boris. They took him to the dwelling and barely brought him to his senses.
Soviet troops liberated the village of Klushino 9 on April 1943, and 9-year-old Yura again began to study at school. We studied in the same room
immediately first and third grades. There was no ink, no pencils, or notebooks. The blackboard was found, but the chalk was not found. Write
studied on old newspapers. If you managed to get some paper or a piece of old wallpaper, then everyone was happy. On lessons
the arithmetic was no longer sticks, but cartridges.
Under the new 1946 year, the Gagarins family moved to Gzhatsk. After moving to Gzhatsk, Yura was accepted into the third grade of the Gzhatsk basic school at a local pedagogical school, in which both teachers and students of the school conducted lessons.
Yura studied with passion. But this school was elementary, so in the fifth and sixth grades, Gagarin studied already in the secondary school in Gzhatsk. By 1973, this building became just a residential building, on Sovetskaya Street, the 91 house. This is written in many sources, however, for example, a certificate is preserved in which it is written: “The certificate was issued to a student of 5 class Gzhatsky basic school №1 that he won a cross-country competition for a distance of 500 meters with a result of 1 minute 36,2 seconds” .
There he was for the first time in the sixth grade, when they began teaching physics, began to study in a physical circle organized by lecturer Mikhail Bespalov.
At the beginning of the sixth grade he became a pioneer. He was engaged in physical culture. In the winter of 1948, Gagarin became the winner of the school-wide tournament - the contest “Who will pull up the most on the horizontal bar?”. His record was 16 times. This was not the rest. Later, in a vocational school, Gagarin will be awarded a diploma for winning the Games of the Vocational School in 100 meters running with a result of 12,8 seconds, as well as in the 4 x 100 relay. In the relay he ran this one hundred meters in 12,4 seconds (the certificate was preserved).
29 April 1951 student of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. 10 at the Lyubertsy plant of agricultural machinery received the certificate number 1295887 stating that he fully passed the established standards and is entitled to wear the badge "Ready for Labor and Defense of the USSR"
From the characteristics issued at the end of the school: “... Gagarin Yu.A. for two years he was an excellent student, entered on the Hall of Fame of the school. Directorate School Gagarin Yu.A. The gratitude for excellent study and for social work was announced twice. In addition, the plant manager thanked him for the good work in the workshop. The student Gagarin was the group's physical trade center, conscientiously and accurately carried out all the tasks of the Komsomol organization and administration of the school. ”
The historian Boris Lvovich Stolyarzh even gives the results of Mytishchi sports tests: “Within two days, Yuri Gagarin showed rather good results in various types of competitions before the examiners. He ran a hundred meters in 12,6 seconds, covered the kilometer distance in 2, and 46 seconds in length, jumped to length 5 meters 11 centimeters, 26 once wrung from the ground, received the highest rating when performing a special gymnastic complex. "
In 1951, Yura travels to Saratov to enroll at the Saratov Industrial-Pedagogical Technical School in his foundry specialty. In a statement on admission to the college, Gagarin wrote:
“To the director of the Saratov Industrial Technical School of the Ministry of Labor Reserves, a student of the vocational school No. 10 of the group No. 21 Gagarin Yuri Alekseevich, born in 1934 in the Smolensk region of Gzhatsky district, Klushinsky s / s, Klushino village. Member of the Komsomol since 1949 year.
I ask you to enroll me as a student of the technical school entrusted to you, since I wish to increase my knowledge in the field of foundry and bring as much benefit to my Homeland as possible. I undertake to fulfill all requirements made to me honestly and without question. 06.07.1951. Pupil of RU-10 Gagarin ".
There is also an autobiography written by Yu.A. Gagarin when entering the technical school.
I, Gagarin Yuri Alekseevich, was born on March 9 of 1934 in the family of a poor peasant. Father - Gagarin Alexey Ivanovich - was born in 1902 year, disabled World War II. Mother - Gagarin Anna Timofeevna - was born in 1903 year. Brother - Boris Alekseevich Gagarin - was born in 1936, currently studying at Gzhatskiy NSSH.
In 1943, I went to Klushinsky primary school. In 1945, my family moved to the city of Gzhatsk. Entered to study at Gzhatsk Secondary School, graduated six classes there and entered to study in RU No. 10 of Lyubertsy. In 1950, I went to study in the seventh grade of the Lyubertsy school for working youth No. 1. In 1951, I graduated from the seventh grade of this school as “excellent”.
December 16 1949 of the year joined the Komsomol. I do not have either from the Komsomol organization, or from the administration of the punishment school.
Y. Gagarin ".
October 25 1954, the year Gagarin began to engage in the Saratov flying club. In 1955 he graduated with honors from the Saratov Industrial Technical School, and on October 10 of the same year - the Saratov Aeroclub.
Since 1955, Gagarin - in the ranks of the Soviet Army. From 1957, before being admitted to the cosmonaut corps, he served as a fighter pilot in the fighter aviation regiment of the North fleet. He had the qualification "Military Pilot of the 1st class."
October 27 1957, Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin married Valentina Ivanovna Goryacheva, who became his faithful companion for many years. Two daughters grew up in their family - Lena (10 was born on April 1959) and Galya (7 was born on March 1961).
December 26 he was summoned to a new destination: fighter aviation Regiment of the Northern Fleet. Learning about the set of candidates for testing new flying equipment, Yu.A. On December 9, 1959, Gagarin wrote a report asking him to be included in such a group and, after calling on December 18, went to Moscow, to the Central Research Aviation Hospital for a health examination.
3 March 1960, Lieutenant-General Aviation Kamanin presented to the Air Force Commander-in-Chief, Marshal of Aviation Vershinin, a group of selected astronaut pilots.
11 in March Y. Gagarin went with his family to a new place of work, and from 25 in March began regular classes in the cosmonaut training program.
Before his flight into space, Yu.A. Gagarin was at the cosmodrome only once during a business trip related to the preparation and launch of a spacecraft-satellite with a dog Zvezdochka on board in March 1961 of the year. The frames of the movie, shot at that time, where during the collective discussion Gagarin suggested calling the dog an Asterisk, have survived.
Before the flight into space, Yu.A. Gagin in the composition of the "shock" six arrived on April 05 1961 year to the spaceport. The days before the launch were full of classes and workouts.
Finally, on April 10, an official meeting of the State Commission was held, which finally approved Senior Lieutenant Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin as a pilot for the first space flight. Spare were appointed Titov German Stepanovich and Nelyubov Grigory Grigorievich.
April 10 Yu.A. Gagarin wrote a farewell letter to relatives.
Letter written by Y.A. 10.04.1961 Gagarin, on the sheets in the box.
“Hello, my dear, beloved Lelechka, Helen and Tick! I decided to write you a few lines to share with you and share together the joy and happiness that I had today.
Today the government commission decided to send me into space first. You know, dear Valya, as I am glad, I want you to be happy with me.
An ordinary person was entrusted with such a large state task - to pave the first path into space!
Can you dream of more?
After all, this историяThis is a new era.
One day I have to start. You at this time will already be engaged in the affairs. A very big task fell on my shoulders. I would like to be with you a little bit before that, to talk with you. But alas, you are far away. Nevertheless, I always feel you next to me.
In the technique I believe completely. She should not let down. But it happens because, out of the blue, a person falls and breaks his neck. Here, too, something can happen. But I still do not believe in it. Well, if something happens, then I ask you and first of all you, Valya, not to be killed with grief. After all, life is life, and no one is guaranteed that tomorrow the machine will not crush it. Please take care of our girls, love them as I love.
To grow out of them is not a white-haired woman, not mother's daughters, but real people who would not be afraid of the bumps of life. Grow people worthy of a new society - communism.
The state will help you with this. Well, arrange your personal life, as your conscience will tell you, as you see fit. I do not impose any obligations on you, and I do not have the right to do this. Something too mournful letter turns out. I myself do not believe it. I hope that this letter you will never see. And I will be ashamed of myself for this fleeting weakness. But if something happens, you should know everything to the end.
So far I have lived honestly, truthfully, with benefit for people, although it was small.
Once in my childhood I read the words of V.P. Chkalov: "If to be, then to be the first." But I try to be and will be until the end. I want, Valechka, to dedicate this flight to the people of the new society, communism, in which we are already entering, our great Motherland, our science.
I hope that in a few days we will be together again, we will be happy. Valechka, you, please, do not forget my parents, if there is an opportunity, then help them in something. Give them a big hello from me and let them forgive me for not knowing anything about it, and they were not supposed to know. Well, it seems that's all. Goodbye my family. Tightly hug you and kiss you, with greetings your dad and Jura.
“I read this letter many years later,” recalled Valentina Ivanovna. - I read and solved for myself the problem of higher human mathematics: what is behind these words? Doubt? Not! Honesty…"
To this comment V.I. Gagarina is difficult to add something.
108 minutes that changed history
April 12 1961 of the year Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin forever left his name in history. 108 minutes in Space became the First step of all Mankind on the path to conquering cosmic distances. 108 minutes that changed the story. At the time of launch, he said, which became legendary, the phrase "GO!" He himself later wrote about it:
"Dear friends, close and unfamiliar, compatriots, people of all countries and continents! In a few minutes the mighty spacecraft will take me to the distant expanses of the Universe. What can I say to you in these last minutes before the start! My whole life seems to me now as one beautiful moment. Everything that has been lived, what has been done before, has been lived and done for the sake of this minute ... You understand that it is difficult to understand the feelings now, when the hour of the test came very close, for which we prepared for a long and passionate time. x feelings that I experienced when I was offered to make this first flight in history. Joy! No, it was not only joy. Pride! No, it was not only pride. I experienced great happiness. Being first in space, join alone alone in an unprecedented duel with nature, is it possible to dream of more! But after that I thought about the tremendous responsibility that fell on me. First to do what generations of people dreamed of, the first to pave the way for humanity into space. Am I happy, going on a space flight! Of course, happy. Indeed, at all times and epochs for people it was the highest happiness to participate in new discoveries ... I want to dedicate this first space flight to people of communism, society into which our Soviet people are already entering and into which, I am sure, all people on Earth will enter. Now before the start there are a few minutes. I tell you, dear friends, goodbye, as people always say to each other, going on a long journey. I would like to hug you all, friends and strangers, distant and close! See you soon!"
In commemoration of the merits of Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin, he was awarded the Order of Lenin and the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union, while a decision was made to erect a monument to him in Moscow. The solution was unprecedented - during the life in the USSR, monuments were made only to persons who became twice Heroes of the Soviet Union, and only in the Hero's homeland. The gold star with the number 11175 was awarded to Yu.A. Gagarin 14 April 1961 of the year in the Kremlin.
After the flight into space on Yu.A. Gagarin literally fell unprecedented fame. Not everyone could stand this test. But he endured, proving the correctness of the choice of cosmonaut No. XXUMX by general designer Sergei Pavlovich Korolev.
Foreign trips began at the invitation of heads of government, heads of state, and various public organizations.
Each visit Yu.A. Gagarin became an event for the host state and a test for Yury Gagarin. Spitting on secular manners, the Queen of Great Britain Elizabeth II, without hiding her indescribable delight, as an ordinary girl was photographed with the Hero. He was a welcome guest in any part of the World, in every country he was met as he was not met by anyone else and never - he was the First not only in Cosmos, but also the First Citizen of the World. And his kind and sincere smile sometimes made more for the reconciliation of many nations and countries than the many years of negotiations of diplomats.
Unfortunately, Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin died on March 27 of 1968 of the year, at the age of 34, along with Colonel Seryogin on the MiG-15UTI.
But not in our hearts. His first flight will always inspire boys to dream of conquering the universe.
How was sung in one beautiful song:
I believe, friends, caravans of rockets
Rush us forward from star to star!
On the dusty paths of distant planets
Our tracks will remain !!!
To the birthday of Yuri Alekseevich I composed the following verse:
FOR THE BIRTHDAY OF YURI ALEKSEEVICH GAGARIN DEDICATED
9 марта 2013 года, 7: 07
Among countries, cities, among mountains and seas
Among the stars and space distances
Around the World with a bright smile say
The sonorous name of the guy - GAGARIN!
He is a hero. Patriot. His motherland son!
Solid fortress spirit ruler.
He - and the sky, and stars, and planets lord
The first Cosmos is the Conqueror.
Do not forget the memory of human
Feat eternal cosmic yours!
As he said, having gone to eternity, “Let's go!”
And waved goodbye hand!