The fact that Russian women can be warriors who are not inferior to men was known in Europe in the 18th century, half a century before the memoirs of the legendary cavalry girl Nadezhda Durova were published. It was known thanks to the heroines who, disguised as men, fought in naval carriages, in glorious naval battles against the Turks and Swedes at Chesme (1770) and Gogland (1788).
This was remembered again in the first days of the Great Patriotic War, when about a million of our women of all professions and ages took weapon to protect the homeland and filed applications for shipment to the army ... By 1942, only in Universal Education, formed on October 1, 1941, at the People’s Commissariat of Defense, over 222 thousand warrior girls were trained at the youth units, including: 6097 mortar gunners, 4522 heavy machine gunners, 7796 light machine gunners, 15290 gun shooters, 102333 gun shooters, 45509 binders of all specialties ...
Our women fought in all military branches and the Naval navy. They accounted for 25% of all air defense fighters defending our sky. They were tankers, marines, scouts, artillerymen, saboteurs, signalmen, medical orderlies on the front line, partisans from the Don to the English Channel ... Three air regiments were formed from female pilots. Two hundred thousand women were awarded military orders, 90 became Heroes of the Soviet Union, more than two hundred were awarded the highest mark of soldierly prowess - the Order of Glory, which cannot be obtained for any merit except for feat on the battlefield, four became full knights of this order ...
Here are just a few portraits of our compatriots who broke the back of a fascist beast.
* * *
Evdokia Nikolaevna ZAVALIY
"Frau Black Death." 28 was born on May 1924, in the village of New Bug, Nikolaev region. The Colonel of the Marine Corps of the Guard is the only woman to lead the Marine Corps reconnaissance detachment operating on the front line. When the fighters were taken to the front line, “Dushiu” was mistaken for a man (she was in a gymnast and breeches) and sent to the 6th landing brigade. For capturing a German officer sent to the intelligence department, which became the commander, after in one of the battles the platoon commander was killed, and she raised everyone to the attack. In the same battle she was wounded, in the hospital it was revealed that “Evdokim”, 8, who fought with the paratroopers for months, is a girl.
Commanding a platoon, she liberated Sevastopol, stormed Sapun-gora (for this episode she was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War of the XNUMXst degree), participated in the battles for Balaklava, Sugar Loaf and Kerch, crossed the Dniester estuary, freed Bessarabia, fought for the liberation of Tuessan Taman landed with a landing in the Romanian Constanta, the Bulgarian Varna and Burgas, Yugoslavia. During the Budapest offensive operation captured the bunker of the German command. Among the prisoners was a general who said that he was shameful because the commander of the paratroopers was a girl. For this episode she was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. With her platoon, she blocked the German retreat tanks. The paratroopers under her command shot down 7 tanks. Cavalier of 4 battle orders and almost 40 medals. Honorary Citizen of 8 cities.
From the interview of E.N. Zavaliy
... After all, I had just gotten a girl to the war, sixteen more had not knocked. Three times she ran to the military commissar, and he told me everything: “First, dab the milk!” - “What kind of milk?” “Motherly, it hasn't dried yet!”. But the front was approaching, and soon the war itself came after me ...
After the war I went on the attack for a long time at night. Shouted so that the neighbors were scared. And my grandmother prayed and said to her mother: “It’s an unclean spirit that leaves her!” Probably thanks to her prayers, I still live, although I was buried three times ...
The most common words: “Platoon! Listen to my team! ”My voice was always loud, since childhood I sang songs to my accordion. At first, of course, it happened that the boys grunted in my direction, but I did not pay attention. Nothing, nothing, I think, I'll show you a gruel again! The will to fist, brutal eyes and - go ahead! I wanted to wipe the nose of peasants, to show that I can fight no worse, if not better than them. And they got used to me, began to respect me. If it had not been accepted as a commander, she would have been killed a hundred times. After all, the Germans were hunting for me, after they learned that a “black commissar” was commanded by a woman, but my guys rescued each time.
Raising them to the attack: “Behind me!” They catch up and bypass me, covering, fearless, desperate - Zhora Dorofeyev, Petro Moroz, Sasha Kozhevnikov, three Dima - Vaklersky, Sobinov and Gray… Each of my fifty-five submachine gunners are still stands before my eyes, although none of them are already dead. Dimka Sedykh rushed under the tank with the last grenade, Misha Panikakho burned alive, doused with combustible mixture, but managed to jump on the enemy tank and set it on fire, Vanya Sowing ... When he appeared in the platoon, he measured with a contemptuous look: "To obey reluctance of the enemy!" the battles for Budapest, he covered me from a sniper shot, substituting my chest ... Only 16 of my guys reached Victory, today I am left alone from our special 83 brigade of marines.
19 was born on February 1915 of the year. The only woman in the world captain of the whaling ship ("Storm") and the first woman captain of a trawler, a veteran of World War II, navigator on the ships of the navy. Hero of Socialist Labor.
Maria Nikitichna TSUKANOVA
Hero of the Soviet Union. 14 was born on September 1924 of the year in the village of Smolyanka, Omsk Region, in a peasant family. In the fleet since June 1942. Sailor. Participant of the landing (1945) in the port of Seixing (Chongjin, Korea). Medical instructor of the 355-th Separate Marine Battalion of the Pacific Fleet. I carried out more than 50 of seriously wounded paratroopers from the battlefield. Wounded by a fragment, in an unconscious state, was captured by the Japanese. 14 August 1945 was tortured after long tortures about the composition of the landing party, remaining faithful to the military duty and oath until the last minute ... Buried in a mass grave in the city of Vladivostok. A memorial was erected at the place of death.
From the newspaper "Red Star" from 1 September 1945 of the year
... They also committed atrocities over the nurse Maria Tsukanova. At that time, an infantry battalion waged a heavy battle with superior enemy forces; Tsukanova tied up the wounded Red Navy men, taking them to shelter. Then she herself was injured and lost her sense of blood loss. The Japanese attackers grabbed her and carried her away. When the Red Navy men completed the battle with the complete defeat of the samurai, they discovered the body of Tsukanova. The Japanese gouged her eyes, the body was cut with knives.
Ekaterina Illarionovna Demina
22 was born on December 1925 of the year in Leningrad. Went to the front in 15 years in June 1941 of the year. Medical instructor of the 369-th separate battalion of marines, senior medical order instructor of the consolidated company of the Coast Guard detachment of the Danube military flotilla. Together with the battalion fighters, they beat off enemy counterattacks, carried the wounded out of the battlefield. Thrice wounded. The only woman who served in the intelligence of the Marine Corps. 22 August 1944 of the year when crossing the Dniester estuary as part of the landing force was one of the first to reach the coast, gave first aid to 17 seriously wounded sailors, suppressed the fire of a large-caliber machine gun, threw grenades at the bunker and destroyed over the 10 Nazis. Hero of the Soviet Union (the title appeared three times). About her shot several films.
Marionella ("Gul") Vladimirovna Koroleva
9 was born on September 1922 in Moscow. She began to act in films from 4 years (films “Kashtanka”, “Baba Ryazan”, “Daughter of Partisan”, etc.). In August, 1941, after the birth of a son in Ufa, was enrolled in the 214 Infantry Division, which was formed in Bashkiria. Saninstruktor. 24 November 1942 of the year, during a fierce battle near Stalingrad, took out seriously wounded soldiers and commanders with weapons from the battlefield of 50. At the end of the day I went on the attack to the height with a group of fighters. Under bullets, the first one broke into the enemy's trenches and destroyed 15 people with grenades. Mortally wounded, continued to lead an unequal battle until the weapon fell out of her hands. 9 January 1943 was awarded posthumously the Order of the Red Banner. The street in Volgograd is named after the name, the name is carved in gold on the banner in the Hall of Military Glory on Mamayev Kurgan, a monument is erected in Rivne. The film “The Fourth Height”, based on the book of the same name, and the TV movie “Gulya Koroleva” are dedicated to her.
From the statement of M. Korolyovoy about sending a volunteer to the front
I see the purpose of my life in immediately going to the defense of the Soviet Fatherland, to the defense of my son.
Zinaida Mikhailovna TUSNOLOBOVA-MARCHENKO
Hero of the Soviet Union. Commander of the Order of the Red Star. 23 was born on November 1920 of the year on the Shevtsovo farm of the Vitebsk region in a peasant family. Front-line nurse. During the 8 months of being at the front, 128 carried out injured people from the battlefield. 2 February 1943 of the year in the battle for the Gorshechnoe station of the Kursk region was seriously wounded, spent 24 hours among the corpses. Due to frostbite, she lost her arms and legs. The slogan “For Zina Tusnolobova!” Appeared on the sides of many tanks, airplanes and guns. In the fall of 1965, she was awarded the Florence Nightingale Medal by the International Committee of the Red Cross.
An open letter of appeal to the soldiers of the First Baltic Front of the Guard sergeant of the medical service Z. Tusnolobova
Take revenge for me! Take revenge for my dear Polotsk!
Let this letter reach the heart of each of you. This is written by a man whom the fascists have deprived of everything - happiness, health, youth. I am 23 of the year. Already 15 months I lie, chained to a hospital bed. I now have no arms or legs. This was done by the fascists.
I was a lab chemist. When the war broke out, together with other Komsomol members voluntarily went to the front. Here I participated in the battles, carried out the wounded. For carrying 40 warriors with their weapons, the government awarded me the Order of the Red Star. In total, I brought out from the battlefield 123 wounded fighter and commander.
In the last battle, when I rushed to the aid of the wounded platoon commander, I was also wounded, and both legs were smashed. The Nazis went to the counter. I had no one to pick up. I pretended to be dead. A fascist approached me. He kicked me in the stomach, then started kicking me in the head with the butt on the face ...
And here I am disabled. I recently learned to write. I am writing this letter with the stump of my right hand, which is cut off above the elbow. I had dentures made, and maybe I will learn to walk. If only I could take a gun into my hands at least once in order to get even with the fascists for blood. For torment, for my warped life!
Russian people! Soldiers! I was your friend, I walked with you in the same row. Now I can't fight anymore. And I ask you: revenge! Remember and do not spare the damned fascists. Exterminate them like mad dogs. Get your revenge on them for me, for the hundreds of thousands of Russian slaves who have been driven into German slavery. And let every girl's flammable tear, as a drop of molten lead, incinerate another German.
My friends! When I was in a hospital in Sverdlovsk, the Komsomol members of one Ural plant, who took over the patronage over me, built five tanks at an inopportune time and called them by my name. The realization that these tanks are now beating the fascists gives a huge relief to my agony ...
It is very hard for me. At twenty-three years old, find myself in a position in which I was ... Eh! Not done and a tenth of what she wanted, what she wanted ... But I do not lose heart. I believe in myself, I believe in my strength, I believe in you, my dears! I believe that Homeland will not leave me. I live in the hope that my grief will not remain unrequited, that the Germans will pay dearly for my torment, for the suffering of my loved ones.
And I ask you, relatives: when you go to the assault, think about me!
Remember - and let each of you kill at least one fascist!
Zina Tusnolobova, guard foreman of the medical service.
Moscow, 71, 2-th Donskoy passage, 4, Institute of Prosthetics, Chamber of 52.
Newspaper "Forward to the enemy", 13 May 1944.
Medical technician of the 125 Infantry Regiment of the 43 Guards Latvian Division. Guard sergeant. In August, 1944 was one of the first to force the Aivexte River (battles for the liberation of Soviet Latvia). The fighters called her "Liesma" (Latvian. Flame, Flame).
Lidiya Vladimirovna LITVYAK
The most productive female fighter of the Second World War. On account of 14 confirmed downed enemy aircraft. Hero of the Soviet Union.
Hero of the Soviet Union. Pilot 135-th near-bomber regiment. 12 September 1941 of the year went on a ram on a Su-2 bomber, shot down a Me-109 fighter. Only in stories Aviation case of air ramming, successfully committed by a woman. The heroine herself was also shot down, but already when she tried to land a damaged aircraft.
Natalya Fedorovna Meklin (Kravtsova)
982 combat departure for the bombing of manpower and equipment of the enemy. On fronts from May 1942. Hero of the Soviet Union.
Maria Ivanovna Dolina
Deputy Squadron Commander. 18 was born on December 1922 of the year in the village of Sharovka, Omsk Region. Shot down an enemy fighter in the 3 group. 72 successful (recorded by photography) combat departure. Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexandra Fedorovna AKIMOVA
5 was born on May 1922, in the village of Petrushino, Ryazan Region. The Hero of the Soviet Union, the Hero of the Russian Federation, was awarded the Orders of Lenin, the Red Banner, two Orders of the Patriotic War of the I degree, the Orders of the Patriotic War of the II degree, the Red Star, medals "For Courage", "For the Defense of the Caucasus", "For the Liberation of Warsaw" and others medals Participant of parades on Red Square (1995, 2000, 2005).
Alexandra G. SAMUSENKO
The commander of a tank battalion. Born in 1922 year. A native of Zhlobin (according to other sources - Chita). The war began a private infantry platoon, graduated from the tank school. Participant of the Battle of Kursk. Died in March 1945 of the year near Berlin, performing a crucial task as an intelligence officer, having managed to get out of a burning car and throw a tablet with documents into the fire.
From the memoirs of the photographer Anatoly Morozov, who made the most famous picture of A.G. Samusenko
Under the Eagle, I managed to get acquainted with a brave girl, commander of a tank platoon guard, senior lieutenant Sasha Samusenko. The tank brigade in which she served, just got out of battle. Looking at her cheerful face, it is difficult to imagine that she managed to survive so much in her 23 of the year: she led her platoon to attack many times, personally destroyed several anti-tank guns and many Nazis, burned twice, was wounded. For military service, Alexander was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War 1 degree, and soon the Order of the Red Star.
(interview with the newspaper "Gudok" from 8 May 2003 of the year)
Maria Ivanovna LAGUNOVA
"Frau Meresjev." A man of great willpower, whose life is like a legend. Born in 1921 in the village of Okolchikovo near Kurgan, in a large family, early lost her mother. I wrote a letter to the chairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet M.I. Kalinina with a request to help her become a tanker, in order to avenge the death of her beloved brother Nicholas at the front and achieved sending to the front. The first battle took on the Kursk Bulge. 28 September 1943, near Kiev, an 22-year-old driver-mechanic tank first rushed to the height, destroying several weapon emplacements, an anti-tank gun with tracks, and with the expectation that the enemy soldiers would platoon. A direct hit by the enemy T-34 projectile Sergeant M. Logunova was hit, lost both legs as a result of the injury. I learned to walk on prostheses, dance, drive a motorcycle and a car. Total spent xnumx fights. She returned to her native Nizhny Tagil regiment, where she served as a telegraph operator and persistently continued to train in prosthetic walking. Demobilized in 13. Raised two sons. Commander of the Order of the Red Star.
Ekaterina Alekseevna PETLUK (before and after the war)
The mechanic-driver of the famous light tank "T-60" "Baby", built with the money of preschool children of Omsk. Senior Sergeant of the 56 Tank Brigade (height 151 cm). For a month, I retrained into a tanker from the pilot of the Odessa Aero Club Osoaviakhim, having passed all the exams as “excellent”. In the first fight she led “Baby” at Stalingrad in November 1942. Participant of fights on the Kursk Bulge and Ukraine. From October 1942 to February 1944 G .: 3 injured, 3 Order, 12 medals.
Ada (Adel Aleksandrovna) ZANEGINA
Letter to the newspaper Omskaya Pravda (1942)
I am Ada Zanegin. I am six years old. I am writing in print. Hitler kicked me out of the city of Sychevka, Smolensk region. I want to go home. Little I, but I know that Hitler must be defeated and then we will go home. Mom gave the money to the tank. I collected on the doll 122 rubles and 25 cents. And now I give them to the tank. Dear Uncle Editor! Write in your newspaper to all the children so that they, too, give their money to the tank. And call it "Baby". When our tank breaks Hitler, we will go home.
My mother is a doctor, and dad is a tanker.
Natalya Vladimirovna Malysheva
Nun Adriana (N.V.MALYSHEVA)
12 was born on December 1921, in the Crimea, in the family of a doctor. At the front of 1941, fought in divisional intelligence. It was highly appreciated by Marshal K. Rokossovsky and aircraft designer S. Korolyov. After the war, 35 worked for years in the rocket and space industry, at SRI-88 in Podlipki (now Korolev). Participated in the creation of the engines of the first Soviet ballistic missiles and spacecraft, including the "East", on which Y. Gagarin flew, and the C-75 anti-aircraft missile complex P.Grushina. Winner of the international award "For faith and loyalty." In retirement, she helped to equip the courtyard of the Holy Dormition Pyukhtitsky Convent in Moscow. In 2000, she took the monastic tonsure under the name of Adriana. Gone from the life of 4 February 2012 of the year.
The commander of the mortar battery 147-th joint venture 49-th Guards Rifle Division.
Underground and partisan
Uliana Matveevna GROMOVA
Hero of the Soviet Union. 3 was born on January 1924 in the village of Pervomayka, Krasnodon district. Caring for the wounded in the hospital. In 1942, she graduated from school. During the occupation, together with A. Popov, she organized in the village of Pervomayka a patriotic youth group that became part of the Young Guard. In January, 1943 was arrested by the Gestapo. During interrogations, she refused to give any evidence. After torture, she was thrown into the mine hole No. 5: “Ulyana Gromova, 19 years, a five-pointed star was cut out on her back, her right arm was broken, her ribs were broken” (KGB Archive under the USSR Council of Ministers, d. 100 − 275, t. 8) .
The inscription on the wall of the fascist dungeons of the Komsomol of the underground Krasnodon organization “Young Guard” by U.M.Gromova
Farewell, Dad, Farewell, Mom, Farewell, all my relatives. Goodbye, my brother, beloved Elya, You will not see me again. I dream your motors in a dream, Your camp always stands in the eyes. My brother's beloved, I'm dying, Stronger for your Motherland. Goodbye.
With greetings, Gromova Ulya. 15 January 1943
Praskovya Ivanovna SAVELYEVA
5 was born on October 1918, in the village of Zarubino, Tver province. The leader of the underground group in Lutsk. She organized sabotage on the railway, stole a sample of secret chemical weapons from the Germans, then shipped to Moscow. December 22 1943 of the year on the denunciation of the traitor arrested by the Gestapo. 12 January 1944 year after cruel torture and torture burned alive in the courtyard of the former Catholic monastery of Lutsk. Before her death, on the wall of cell # XXUMX, turned into a camera, she scratched a note with a nail.
The inscription of the underground worker P.I. Saveleva on the wall of the prison cell in Lutsk
Black, terrible minute approaches! The whole body is mutilated - neither hands, nor legs ... But I die silently. Scary to die in the year 22. How I wanted to live! In the name of life of the future people after us, in the name of you, Motherland, we leave ... Flourish, be beautiful, darling, and farewell.
Your Pasha, January 1944
Maria Filippovna KHOVRENKOVA
Born in Belarus in 1914 year. Rural teacher. At the beginning of the war, six Khovrenkov sisters became underground workers, then guerrilla liaisons. She carried out especially important tasks of the command: she delivered information that helped the aviation to smash the fascist military facilities and weapons. Delivered 15 rifles, 4 machine guns, 200 kg tola, 24 thousands of rounds to the squadron. According to the denunciation of the traitor, the Gestapo was arrested. She was tortured in the presence of a 7-year-old son. The wild mockery of the mother had such an effect on the child that later, unable to recover from mental shock, he died. Not having achieved a word from her, the Nazis hanged a partisan. Posthumously awarded the Order of the Patriotic War.
Letters from a partisan party M. F. Khovrenkova from the Gestapo torture chamber (1943)
LETTER OF MOTHER
Zinochka, do not petition for me, because you don’t know my business, don’t spend money and don’t kill your health, don’t be upset and take care of yourself, because you are young, you need to live, don’t cry about me, I’m guilty that I deserve then received.
Zinochka, I ask many, many times, do not waste health. I don’t regret my life, because my fate is such that I live so much ... [Further, the text is illegible] myself too.
Respect all the son for me, and forgive me that you have survived for me, and take care of Tolya so that he does not miss. When he brought the program, he cried a lot, when he saw me, he just lost his head and did not know what to do, they were allowed to kiss me. After, when I saw him, I was very worried, well, you will not do anything. All make fate survive.
Oh, how I regret all of you that you worry a lot. Please don't cry, I'm not the only one. Now I see - many people are experiencing all grief. Encourage your mom to keep her from crying.
Dear little sister, do not cry and tell Nastya, let her not cry. I do not take offense at her. Let him watch the kids. Greetings to Roman and aunt Tatiana and Yermolai, Maria's uncle, with her children and all relatives. Zinochka, tell Anna not to cry, and Fruza and Motya ... [Further text is illegible]
Such a person, in my dreams I often see Shura and Vanya, and Nadia, and Tolik every night and you all, Fruz, Motyu and Anya, Zinochka and see all my relatives. A whole Nastya with her children and a husband, a whole Marusya with her son, Lena with her children and all who live.
I'm sitting in your cell now, sat for weeks in a death chamber for 5. Where the whole family sat. Favor my little son. Orphan. I will accept [So in the text] from that world. Kiss Moore and Tamara. Do not be offended at me, do not hurt my father.
LETTER TO THE SON
Listen to relatives. Study well, be polite, do not smoke. Do not swear, learn to play the harmonica and guitar. You have the ability. What is the ability, do not throw out of my head, do not be lazy. All memorize, it will not be bad for you. You're going to help grandma for me and grandpa.
Remember mom, that you had it ... [Further text is illegible]
... I still consoled you and you by me, and all our joy. Take care of my cards. When the uncle comes, call him dad. Let my father's costumes suit you. Daddy do not eat anything.
I kiss you thousands, thousands of times. I wish you many times happiness, just not the same as it was with me, I do not wish this to anyone.
20 was born on February 1926 of the year in Leningrad in the family of a Belarusian worker. Graduated 7 classes. At the beginning of June, 1941 came to school holidays in the village of Zui in the Vitebsk region. Since 1942, he has been a member of the Obolsk underground organization Young Avengers, headed by E.S. Zenkova, the future Hero of the Soviet Union. Since August 1943, the scout of the partisan detachment. KE Voroshilov. In December, 1943 was seized by the Gestapo in the village of Mostische. At one of the interrogations in the village of Goryany of the Polotsk district of the Vitebsk region, she grabbed the gun of the investigator from the table, shot him and two more Nazis, tried to escape, was caught. After torture, she was shot in the prison of Polotsk. By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 1 July 1958, Zinaida Martynovna Portnova was posthumously awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union and was awarded the Order of Lenin.
Russian heroines of the European Resistance
Galina ROMANOVA (second shot taken by the Gestapo, kept at the German Resistance Memorial Center)
December 25 was born 1918, in the village of Romankovo, Dnipropetrovsk region. Underground worker. In June, 1942, together with a group of doctors, was taken to hard labor in Germany. Working as a “Russian doctor” in concentration camps around Oranienburg, where important German strategic facilities were located, she headed the European Union, an underground youth organization of resistance that included the French, Germans and Belgians. The goal - sabotage the military enterprises of Germany and the organization of an armed uprising. The group was disclosed by the Gestapo. Over the days 100 spent in the death cell of the prison Pletzensee in Berlin. The text of the charge contains 29 pages. November 3 The 1944 of the year was guillotined.
The last word of G.F. Romanova, member of the anti-fascist underground group “European Union”
I know what awaits me. But such a homeland brought me up. I will not humiliate myself before you and will proudly accept death. I regret only one thing - I managed to bring little use to my Fatherland. Let my people forgive me for this ...
18 February 1944 city
Ariadna Aleksandrovna SKRYABIN
Daughter of a Russian composer. Participant in the resistance movement. She died in a battle in the south of France with policemen who set up her ambush in July, 1944, a month before Toulouse was liberated.
The Secretary General of the Underground Organization Civile et Militaire (“Civil and Military Organization”) Vera (“Wiki”) Apollonovna OBOLENSKAYA and France's highest awards, posthumously awarded to her.
From the order of Field Marshal Montgomery
With this order, I want to capture my admiration for the services rendered by Vera Obolenskaya, who, as a volunteer of the United Nations, gave her life so that Europe could again become free.
May 6 1946 year.
Mother Mary - in the world Elizaveta Yurievna SKOBTSOVA [KUZMINA-KARAVAEVA]
Nun. The head of the charitable organization "Orthodox Business", a well-known activist of the Russian emigration and the resistance movement in France, one of the most unusual representatives of the "Silver Age". Died in the gas chamber of Ravensbrück.
Tamara Alekseevna VOLKONSKAYA (in the picture "The Red Princess" with combat comrades. France, 1945).
Since 1941, an active participant in the partisan movement. Fought with arms in the ranks of the partisan detachment of Captain Alexander Khetaurov, participated in the battles for the liberation of many cities in the south-west of France.
Hero of the Soviet Union. 25-year volunteer at the front from the first days of the war. Lieutenant 25 th Infantry Division them. V.I. Chapaeva. Participated in the battles for Moldova, Odessa and Sevastopol, which has become a symbol of defense. During the period of defensive battles trained many snipers. According to the confirmed data, 309 was destroyed by the fascists (including 36 snipers). The author of the book "Heroic Profit". It is considered the most successful (efficient) female sniper in history. American singer Woody Guthrie wrote the song "Miss Pavlichenko" about her.
From the memoirs of L.M. Pavlychenko:
“When I went to war, at first I experienced only anger for the fact that the Germans violated our peaceful life. But everything that I saw later gave rise to a feeling of such unquenchable hatred in me that it is difficult to express it with anything other than a bullet in the heart of the nazis. In the village beaten off by the enemy, I saw the corpse of an 13-year-old girl. She killed the Nazis. Bastards - so they demonstrated their ability to own a bayonet! I saw brains on the wall of the house, and next to the corpse 3-year-old child. The fascists lived in this house. The child was capricious, crying. He prevented the rest of these animals. They did not even allow the mother to bury her child. The poor woman went crazy ... What can be said about the German, in whose bag I saw a doll taken from our child and a toy watch? Is it possible to call him a man, a warrior? ..
Our day was like this: no later than in 4 in the morning you go out to the battlefield, sit there until the evening. Fighting I call my firing position. If not to the battlefield, then they went to the rear of the enemy, but then they went no later than in 3 in the morning. It also happened that you will lie the whole day, but you will not kill a single Fritz. And if you lay down the 3 day and still do not kill one, then surely no one will talk to you later ... "
Rosa Egorovna SHANINA
Holder of the Order of Glory 2 and 3 degree. When the war began, I went to the military registration and enlistment office to ask for the front. They refused: she was only 16 years old. In the current troops from 2 April 1944 of the year. 59 confirmed destroyed enemy soldiers and officers, including 12 snipers. Allied newspapers called Shanin "the invisible horror of East Prussia." I hoped to go to university after the war; if you fail - to bring up orphans. Died in the 28 battle of January 1945 of the year during the East Prussian operation, defending the seriously wounded commander of an artillery unit.
From the letter of R. Shanin
Please pass on to the destination and assist me. If you knew how passionately I want to be with the fighters on the very front line and destroy the Nazis. And now, imagine, instead of the best - in the rear. And recently we have lost four more black and one red very (black - dead, red - wounded). I want to avenge them.
I ask you, talk with whom you should, although I know that you are very busy.
29 July 1944 year
From the diary of R. Shanin
Last night I went for a walk. She pounded some guy. “Give, says, I will kiss you. Four years old girls did not kiss. ” And so I looked that I was deeply moved. "Damn you, I say, kiss, only once." And she almost crying from incomprehensible pity ...
The content of my happiness is the struggle for the happiness of others. It is strange, why in the grammar the word “happiness” has a single number? After all, it is contraindicated in its meaning. ... If you need to die for the general happiness, then I am ready for this.
The last letter of Rosa Shanina
Sorry for the long silence. There was no time to write. It was my military life on this front. The fights were harsh, but I somehow miraculously survived and unharmed. Went to attack in the forefront. Excuse me for not listening to you. I do not know myself, but some kind of power draws me here, into the fire.
I just came to my dugout and immediately sat down to write to you. I'm tired, after all, three attacks a day. The Germans resisted terribly. Especially near the old estate. It seems that everything is lifted from the bombs and shells into the air, they still have enough fire to keep us away. Well, nothing, by morning we will still overcome them. I shoot at the fascists, who protrude from behind the houses, from the hatches of tanks and self-propelled guns.
Perhaps they will kill me soon. Please send a letter to my mother. You ask why I was going to die. In the battalion where I am now, only 78 remained from 6. And I'm not holy either.
Well, dear comrade, be healthy, sorry for everything.
January 17 1945 years
Volunteer at the front from the first days of the war, immediately after graduating from high school in Moscow. Fought in the ranks of the 255 of the Red Banner Brigade of the Marine Corps of the Black Sea Fleet. Participant of fights for the Small land, Sevastopol and Odessa. Destroyed about a hundred soldiers and officers of the enemy. Died in 1943 year in the battle for Novorossiysk.
From the memoirs of the soldier of the Wehrmacht Hasso G. Stakhov
“... The strongest core of women in military uniform are snipers. They fight from the Far North to the Caucasus. So, Lyudmila Pavlichenko has more than 300 hits on account, 20-year-old Libo Rugo - 242, Tari Vutchinnik - 155, Ekaterina Zhdanova - 155, Liza Mironova - near 100 ... "
Tragedy on the Neva. Fighting for Leningrad 1941-1944. An eyewitness account. - Munich: Herbig, 2001.
Maria Semyonovna POLIVANOVA
Hero of the Soviet Union. 24 was born on October 1922 in the village of Naryshkino, Tula region. On the front since October 1941. Participant of the defense of Moscow. From January 1942, the sniper of the 528 Infantry Regiment of the 130 Infantry Division of the 1 Attack Army of the North-Western Front. Destroyed about 140 enemies. 14 August 1942, near the village of Sutoki, Novgorod Region, together with her friend Natalia Kovshova, defended themselves against the advancing Nazis. When the cartridges ran out and the fascists approached closely, the sniper friends blew themselves up with the enemies that surrounded them with the last grenades.
Note by M.Polivanova and N.Kovshova in the newspaper of the Moscow Military District "Red Warrior" (written on the day of the adoption of the military oath)
We, Soviet girls-snipers, together with the soldiers of our battalion take the oath. Each warrior swore his loyalty to his homeland and his readiness to protect her, not sparing his life ... Our motto: it is better to die standing than live on your knees.
October 23 1941 year.
Natalya Venediktovna KOVSHOVA
Hero of the Soviet Union. 21-year-old native of Ufa volunteered to go to the front in October 1941 of the year. Participated in the defense of Moscow. From January 1942 on the North-Western Front. Destroyed 167 enemies. Together with her sniper friend 19-year-old Maria Polivanova - organizer of sniper training (prepared by 26 regiment snipers, who destroyed the Nazis to 300). 14 August 1942, together with M.Polivanova, undermined themselves and the Nazis who surrounded them.
The last letter of N.V. Kovshovoy mother to Nina Dmitrievna Aralovets (August 13 1942, written on a postcard)
My dear mamusenka!
Today I received your letter with a photo. You're right - I am very pleased to look at her. I now and then take it out of my shirt pocket. I don’t have any of my photos anymore - everyone has disappeared somewhere. Yes! And you got my photo, where we are with Masha (N.Kovshov’s friend - M. Polivanova. - N.M.) taken?
We made a big transition, about 115 km, and now we are advancing elsewhere and with another army. The place is very swampy here, the dirt is knee-deep everywhere. Well, nothing, we will fight here. Beat the damned reptiles to make them sick. You write to Masha so that she doesn’t bother in vain, otherwise there’s nothing to do with her. After the injury I became much more cautious.
And don't tell me about the money. Since you have something to buy and even such tasty things, then it would be better for you to have money, not me. I need them only after the war. Dress good to buy. In the meantime, I kiss and hug tightly.
Soviet regulator Maria SHALNYOVA (NENAKHOV) in Berlin. 2 May 1945. 1,5 km to Reichstag
In 1975, in Zhodino (Belarus), along the Brest – Moscow road, a monument was opened to the Mother Patriot, the prototype of which was Anastasia Fominichna Kurssevich (Kupriyanova), who lost her five sons during the Great Patriotic War.
Epistinia Fedorovna STEPANOVA
She laid the lives of nine sons on the altar of Victory: Alexander, Nicholas, Vasily, Philip, Fyodor, Ivan, Ilya, Pavel and Jr. (Hero of the Soviet Union). She died at the beginning of the 1969 of the year, having reached the age of 94. Awarded the Order of the Mother Hero and World War I degree. She was buried in the village of Dnieper, where her sons went to a symbolic mass grave.