Military Review

SAU high power. 2C7 "Peony" (2C7M "Malka")

12



The high-power ACS (or rather, increased power) has already been described in the article “Peony is the seventh flower in an artillery bouquet and its unified heirs” (“TiV” No. XXUMX / 12). It dealt with not only the 2011 mm caliber ACS, but also the C-203,2 anti-aircraft missile system based on its chassis, the BTM-300М high-speed trench machine, the SGK-4 self-propelled crawler crane, and the SM-80 self-propelled crawler machine. Today we will dwell on the ACS 100C2 (7C2М) - a truly unique self-propelled gun, which has no analogues in power and a number of technical solutions. It is still in service and has not lost its combat and technical properties that meet the requirements of the time.

The design bureau of the Kirov Plant (now Spetsmash OJSC) celebrated the eightieth anniversary of its founding in February this year. It was created in 1932 and is widely known as a developer. tanks (from T-26 to T-80) and a number of other military and special vehicles. Among them, self-propelled artillery pieces occupy an important place.

“224 Object” (KV-4). Project N.F. Shashmurina


The first project of the self-propelled artillery installation was carried out by the designers of the Kirovsky Design Bureau on the basis of the light tank T-26 - this was the SU-1. V1941 in the framework of the development of super-heavy tank "Object 224" designer N.F. Shashmurin proposed, in fact, a hybrid of SAU and tank. The 107-mm gun of the Grabin design ZIS-6 was located in the fixed wheelhouse, and the 76,2-mm gun was in the tank turret. Later, Nikolai Fyodorovich recalled this in his work “On the Development of Domestic Tank Building”: “To avoid unnecessary confrontation, I compromised, considering that the super heavyweight cannot be a tank. Having accepted the specified protection for execution, he invested in the weight of the order of 90 t, retaining the caponing installation of the main gun, and installed the serial tower of the KV-1 tank on the roof of the bare felling. I received a second prize in the amount of W00 rub. It's great, I bought a fur coat for my wife. The First Prize was awarded to Spirit - 1500 rubles. ”

By the beginning of 1943, given the emergence of new German tanks, the T-bills set the task of creating a machine with enhanced armor, and most importantly - with an increased caliber of guns. By the Decree of the State Defense Committee of 23 in October 1942, to the team of designers of the Chelyabinsk Kirov Plant headed by J.Ya. Kotin and the designers of Uralmash-Zavod (Sverdlovsk), led by L.I. Gorlitsky, were instructed to create a powerful ACS based on the tank chassis for three months. Joseph Yakovlevich attracted leading experts from KB-3 - N.L. Dukhova, N.F. Balzhi, L.E. Sycheva, L.S. Troyanova, P.S. Ta Rapatina. The best forces of the artillerymen also engaged - N.V. Kurina and K.N. Ilyin. Thus was born the self-propelled SU-152 based on the heavy tank KB-1. Later, self-propelled units ISC-152 (“Object 241”) and SIS-122 (“Object 242”) were put into serial production on the basis of a heavy IC tank.

In subsequent years, interest in self-propelled large-caliber installations reappeared in connection with the development of nuclear weapons. Now the caliber of the gun was determined by atomic scientists who considered it possible to create a tactical atomic projectile with a diameter of at least 400 mm. The development of super-power self-propelled guns in the design bureau was carried out along two (again on a competitive basis) lines: 406,4AZ rifled 2AZ artillery (“271 Object”) and 420-mm 2B1 mortar (“273 Object”). In 1957, both cars were presented at the May Day parade in Moscow, where they made a splash.

Some foreign experts expressed the opinion that the vehicles shown in the parade were “fake” designed for an awesome effect. Nevertheless, these were quite real installations capable of firing nuclear tactical ammunition and hitting targets at long distances. The Kirov plant was commissioned to make lots of these machines.

Of course, both self-propelled guns were very heavy, they required a long and careful position preparation, special equipment for loading with heavy ammunition, and for this it was necessary to bring the barrels into a horizontal position. Everything

this reduced the tactical qualities of these machines, especially if we take into account the transience of combat operations and the requirement for high mobility of artillery subunits.

Thus, 2AZ and 2B1 were considered as temporary artillery systems to be replaced as nuclear weapons progressed and their critical size was reduced in diameter. And this time has come.

How it all began

In the spring of 1967, the future chief designer, and then the head of the weapons department, N.S. Popov took the initiative to develop a new super-power ACS. According to his project, taking as a basis the undercarriage of the “Object 434” (T-64A) tank, SAU drawings with a howitzer of eight-inch caliber designed by the TsKB “Titan” (Volgograd) were made. In this case, the instrument was placed in a closed wheelhouse. The design bureau deliberately relied on the use of the undercarriage of Kharkiv citizens, since it (unlike the undercarriage of heavy tanks) was almost twice as easy, and with a weight deficit with such an instrument, this was a determining factor.

Representatives of the customer were the first to express displeasure when, after examining the full-size wooden layout of the self-propelled guns, they climbed in: a very limited amount of logging had a negative effect, and serious problems with rollback of the tool seemed obvious. All tempting prospects collapsed. Added tar, but still not a spoon, but a whole bucket visited Marshal A.A. Grechko,

The model then stood in a separate compartment of the machine shop of the design bureau. After examining the layout, the marshal squeezed out: “What kind of a barn is this?” In those years, that was enough for the project to no longer be remembered. However, the work on the super power ACS did not stop, which was reflected in the order of the Ministry of Defense Industry (MOP) from 16.12.1967, No. XXUMX. The development of the self-propelled unit, designated 801C2 and the name “Peony”, was assigned by the Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council №7 / 427 FROM 161.

The design bureau No. XXUMX - KB-2 (now Spicesmash OJSC) of the Kirov Plant (chief designer NS Popov) became the developer of the crawler chassis and guns of the SAU 7C3, and the manufacturer was the manufacture No.3 of the Kirov Plant (now CJSC Plant Universalmash "). The 3A2 (ship type) art system was developed at the TsKB Titan (the chief designer of the swinging part is PI. Sergeev), the manufacturer was the Barricades factory (Volgograd).

All work was carried out under the direction of Deputy Chief Designer Nikolai Vasilievich Kurin '. The first chief designer of the “Pion” (“216 Object”) was Peorgy Nikolaevich Rybin.

The “artillery unit” of the design team at KB-3 has always stood out as a traditionally strong composition, among which L. I. Gorlitsky deservedly enjoyed authority. He worked in KB-3 his entire working life, starting with 1932, after graduating from the Leningrad Military Mechanical Institute and before retiring at 1976.

The manual has been developed self-propelled SU-122, SU-85 and SU-100. The SU-122 regiments in the battles near Leningrad, at the Kursk Bulge were accompanied by a special commission, which included L.I. Gorlitsky, who observed the use of their machines and fixing comments and shortcomings. After examining the entire diverse experience of using ACS under combat conditions, the designers made a lot of improvements, turning the self-propelled guns into a formidable weapon. For the creation of SU-122 L.I. Gor-litskomu and N.V. Kurin was awarded the Stalin Prize.

For his half a century of engineering activity, L.I. Gorlitsky (in KB-3 LKZ and Arsenal Design Bureau named after MV Frunze) more than 20 artillery samples and self-propelled guns were created, eleven of them were put into service. He was twice the winner of the Stalin Prize (1943 g., 1946 g.), He had the military rank of colonel engineer.

But back to the "Peony". The project was carried out in two stages. Using the base of a heavy tank T-10, L.I. Gorlitsky proposed a scheme in which an 203,2 mm caliber gun was installed in the nose (“Object 216 spX1”). After heated discussions on technical councils, this project was rejected due to obvious weight and dimensional problems (the front location of the gun was hardly acceptable when off-road). The final version (“Object 216sp2”) was adopted with the open arrangement of the cannon in the back of the machine. In 1973, the TTZ was agreed and approved, according to which in 1973 — 1974. manufactured and tested two prototypes. According to the results of tests, the State Mission Committee recommended that the “216 object c2” be put into service. Note that a similar layout of the artillery system with the rear open (without reservation) location of the gun on a crawler chassis was proposed by the designer of the Obukhovsky plant (Leningrad) A.A. Kolokoltsev.

The most active participation in the development of ACS took the specialists of the post-war generation. Young engineers A.I. Safonov, E.K., Semenov, L.N. Burtsev, A.K. Kolubalin, designers, armed men of state enterprise. Korpusenko, V.N. Spiridonov and a number of specialists who should be remembered with a kind word. Of course, you can not create a machine of this class without the dedicated work of calculators, production workers and testers. Among them is the excellent theoretician Viktor Alekseevich Paramonov, the head of the assembly-and-acceptance shop Alexander Lazarevich Shtar-kman and the head of the mechanical department Vladimir Davidovich Malakhovsky. Specialists with a capital letter - testers of combat vehicles Boris S. Smirnovsky, Boris Radionovich Laionov and Vsevolod Nikitovich Mokin. I particularly wanted to single out the chief designer of the project, Albert Iosifovich Karabanov, and the designer-korumnik Boris Petrovich Bogdanov, who were awarded the State Prize for success in the high-quality and fast development of the ACS 2-X7.

Read more about "Pione"

The main purpose of the self-propelled artillery 2C7 "Peony" is the destruction of particularly important enemy targets in the depths of the front. It is made according to a turretless scheme, has a range of up to 47 km and performs the following tasks:
- suppression of the enemy’s rear, destruction of manpower in places of concentration;
- destruction of fortifications;
- destruction of tactical nuclear weapons.

Special equipment and armament self-propelled gun provides:
- shooting from a place with closed firing positions and direct fire;
- overcoming contaminated areas;
- performance of combat missions in any meteorological conditions (in the temperature range + 5PS);
- protection of the calculation against armor-piercing bullets, resistance to shock waves and anti-radiation protection with a three-fold attenuation of gamma radiation.

The crew, or rather, the calculation of the ACS 2C7 "Peony", consists of seven people. Three people are in the control department: the commander of the crew, the driver and member of the crew; Four people - in the department of calculation: loader, a gunner and two members of the calculationNUMX. The commander, driver, gunner and loader perform their functions corresponding to their official duties. The remaining members of the calculation during combat work, to summarize, are busy lifting and placing heavy shells on the tray, removing them from the ammunition, installing the tray and pulling the projectile out of the ammunition load, transporting special ammunition delivered by transport, and other works (for example, assistance in digging and position preparation).

203,2-mm gun 2А44


On the 2C7 “Peony” ACS for the crew, six seats are installed: three seats in the control compartment, two in the calculation compartment and one (gunner) on the gun machine site. The seat in the calculation unit is made for two people, each with a folding cushion and backrest. In the folded down position, it serves as a step for entry and exit of the calculation and can be easily removed.

A few words about the observation devices SAU 2C7 "Peony". The machine is equipped with nine day vision devices TNPO-160, of which seven - on the roof of the control compartment, and two - in the covers of the calculation compartment. If necessary, some of them can be replaced with TVNE-4B night vision devices. TNPO-160 is a periscopic optical system consisting of a series of prisms enclosed in a metal box. TVNE-4B is a periscopic binocular optical system with an electron-optical converter (EOC) operating in the passive-active mode.

The 203,2-mm gun 2А44 includes the following main elements: a barrel with a piston gate and wheel chocks mounted in the cradle; upper machine with balancing, lifting and turning mechanisms; shooting mechanism and sighting device.

SAU 2C7 "Peony" in a firing position


The shutter is a piston, push-pull action. It is installed on the end of the breech, opens from manual and mechanical drives. The cradle (of the cylindrical type) serves to fasten the trunk with knurling and recoil brakes. The front and rear beams enter the upper machine. In the front beam there is a hole under the axle, and in the rear there are skating rinks providing rolling of the gun when it is turned. On the left cheek of the machine there is a platform with a gunner's seat and a lock panel. An aiming device is placed on the left trunnion of the cradle.

Recoil devices consist of a hydraulic brake recoil with a compensator and pneumatic knuckles.

The balancing mechanism consists of two columns located to the right and left of the cradle. The lifting mechanism is of sector type, placed on the upper machine on the left and serves to bring the gun to the required angles (from mechanical or manual drive). The turning mechanism is of screw type, installed in the same place and serves for aiming the gun in the horizontal plane. The firing mechanism is designed for firing a shot from a trigger or manually (trigger cord). The sighting device, which allows direct firing as well as closed positions, includes the D-726-45 mechanical sight, PG-1М panorama, the OP4М-99А direct sight, and the K-1 collimator.

Installation of the loading mechanism.
1 - rammer; 2 - beam; 3 - stop; 4 - swivel; 5 - top machine; 6 - hydraulic cylinder; 7 - jack; 8 - tray; 9 - ram tray; 10 - support; 11 - opener; 12 - hydraulic motor


Special equipment SAU 2C7 "Peony" includes elements of the installation of the gun on the chassis, electrical equipment of weapons, stacking shots, loader mechanism (MH), coulter, diesel engine, as well as a number of other nodes and systems. There is an equipment for receiving, converting and displaying command information.

The electrical equipment is designed to control the opener drives and guide wheels, the bolt and vertical and horizontal gun pointing drives, the execution of a shot, as well as the control of MH drives.



The loading mechanism is designed to feed the elements of the shot from the loading position to the delivery position and send them to the gun chamber. Delivery and loading of ammunition to the mobilizer of the MoH can be carried out with the help of a trolley and stretcher. In the event of a failure of the MV, the gun can be manually charged using the tray.

An important role in the preparation of the site and keeping the machine from moving during combat operation ACS performs the coulter device. It consists of a coulter and two hydraulic jacks and is located in the rear part.

The diesel unit is used to supply electric and hydraulic energy to the machine and the implement. It consists of a four-stroke diesel power 24l.s. and pumping station (consists of a gearbox, starter-generator and two pumps).

The main functions of the hydraulic system is to ensure the operation of the MOH, vertical and horizontal pickup (HV and GN) tools, opener hydraulic cylinders and guide wheels. The system includes a braking device designed for smooth braking and shock-free approach of the MZ beam to the feed position.



SAU 2C7 "Peony" (view from starboard). The barrel of the gun is raised. The starboard fuel tanks, the recoil cylinders, the counterbalancing mechanism stands are clearly visible. In the photo on the right: viewed exhaust device, closed with a lid to protect against precipitation, and two bunkers for spare parts. In the photo below left: pay attention to the loading mechanism, the coulter (in the stowed position), swivel and beam MZ.


All operations can be performed both from the main pump (when the diesel unit is operating) and from the backup (when the main engine is running).

The shot of the self-propelled gun of separate loading consists of a projectile and a charge in the burning cap. The main TTX ammunition SAU 2C7 are shown in the table.

When preparing an ACS for firing, the firing position is selected as flat as possible. In case of emergency it is allowed to shoot without preparing a firing position on a reduced charge. Self-digging consists in opening the trench with the help of a coulter device to partially cover the cannon. The trench profile should include:
- a platform for installing an ACS to the level of the wing flaps and a width exceeding the width of the vehicle on 1 — 1,2 m;
- niches for charges and projectiles, overlapped slot, ramp for exit and entry;
- lateral parapet, height 1,3 — 1,4, drainage well and widening of the trench in the zone of overturning of the rammer.

Coulter device


SAU housing

SAU 2C7 "Peony" of armored steel provides bulletproof and splinterproof protection. It consists of a bow, two sides and bottom, a roof and aft.

B.P. Bogdanov, the head of the department where the building was designed, recalled: “There were enough problems with the SAU building. I had to work seriously, and it was not immediately possible. The task was rather contradictory: first, the hull design should be light, since the weight of the gun system itself was already critical for the self-propelled chassis; it is not rational to let down the eighth rink - we lose mobility and other advantages of a short base. N.V. Kurin threw us specialists. Everyone helped: both the calculators and the research laboratories. Hundreds of variants were calculated and many layouts were investigated for the rigidity of the distribution of loads in critical areas, until they saw a rational grain. Secondly, the customer's requirement is good protection from bullets of large-caliber machine guns and splinters. Well, and most importantly - it is the dynamic load from the shot, of the order of 260 t. Yes, and rather big loads when driving on rough terrain at top speeds.

SAU 2C7 "Peony" (view from the left side). One can see the extended hydraulic shock absorber rods, exhaust shutters closed by a grid, fuel tanks, the gunner’s platform with two hand wheels (manual duplicate lifting and turning of the trunk) and the platform with the lock panel


Research, calculations and preliminary design studies showed the only correct solution - to make the body, its elements of two components - the outer (about 13 mm) and the inner (about 8 mm), which additionally “skip”, where necessary, the reinforcement elements. Of course, in places where the loads are concentrated (the axis of the implement, the attachment of the side gears, etc.). It turned out something like a double hull submarine.

Fedorov Gene worked well. I remember he told how other artillerymen "envied" us on tests, that we used a bulldozer, which was an effective opener and dug the trench himself, and they did it by hand. Already about the accuracy of shooting at such great distances - in general legends went, although, frankly, - plausible.

SAU high power. 2C7 "Peony" (2C7M "Malka")


SAU 2C7 "Peony" in the stowed position. The opener is raised. On the opener brackets are clearly visible for installing additional barrels of fuel. The mobilizer of the Ministry of Health in the position of "hiking"


In order to present the tremendous amount of work on testing the components and systems of the Pion, it is worth mentioning the studies carried out on the individual structural elements of the hull for its strength and rigidity. In particular, the use of a removable aft part was investigated with the aim of obtaining, on the basis of a single hull, several of its modifications for different machines.

Studies were conducted on a model of the hull (scale 1: 4), made of Plexiglas under loads that simulate the operation of tools in different modes. The stresses in the elements of the body were determined under loads simulating transport modes.

At the same time, the scale of force similarity in studies of stresses and deformations ranged from 3857 to 6750, which were carried out using strain gauges (166 pcs.) With Harvov recalculation according to (m).

The smallest margin of safety with respect to yield strength was determined, which amounted to k = 2,4 7-2,82 voltage (without a removable element in the rear part) in transport modes did not exceed 900 kg / cm2.

Several dozens of variants of structural elements of the hull and modes of hanging (on the front stop, various sides, etc. and pt) were investigated. As a result, the 216-50-x2 package was selected, optimized for all indicators.

The main task, contradictory in essence, was solved. In my opinion, the body turned out quite good. The manufacture of the chassis body was entrusted to Izhora Works (Leningrad). It was a skeleton, uniting in a single whole all the aggregates and mechanisms and perceiving all the loads during the movement and combat work of the gun. ”



In the forward part of the hull there is a control compartment (or cabin), where the machine controls are located. Soundproofed on the inner surface of the case.

The sides of the box section; Mounting brackets are welded to them for the engine, guide wheels, supporting rollers, balancer pads and suspension blocks and trunnion for hydraulic shock absorbers. In front of the sidewalls are made boring for installation of the side gearboxes (BR). The sides of the hull are interconnected by partitions between which the engine-transmission compartment (MTO), the calculation unit and the aft compartment are located. In the bottom of the hull there are hatches for servicing gearboxes (KP), bevel gear, engine fuel pump and fuel system, oil system. There are hatches for access to the diesel unit, fuel drainage, installation and maintenance of a rotating oil device, oil drainage and heater maintenance, as well as an opening for draining water from the hull. The MTO has welded the pedestals of the engine, diesel unit and mounting brackets for the systems supporting the power plant.

The aft part of the hull consists of a transverse and two longitudinal beams, between which the vertical axis of the attachment of the tool (the "combat pin") is pressed. Brackets for the opener jacks are also welded in here. The inner surface of the aft is also soundproofed.

Model of the SAU 2C7 case with loading devices


Aft part of the hull model without a removable element


Removable element of the aft hull model


The roof of the case consists of separate removable covers. Above the calculation section there are two hatches for entry and exit of the calculation.

The already mentioned studies on models made of Plexiglas on the scale of 1: 4 played great importance for determining the influence of individual structural elements on the strength and rigidity of the hull. At the same time as the loads were simulated at different modes and elevation angles of the gun, so various modifications of the hull were checked:
- removable element aft hull bolted;
- removed two nasal racks under the beam to install the gun;
- the feed posts and the enclosure under the beam were removed;
- external and internal fodder sheets were removed between the beam and the aft hatches.

On the case byy fixed strain gauges. Stress measurement was carried out using a TsTM-3 instrument (digital strain-gauge bridge) coupled to a perforator, and strain measurements were carried out using ICh-10 mechanical indicators. It was possible to determine with high accuracy on the stress and strain models arising in the metal structures of the hull and its component parts in motion and during combat work. According to the results of these studies, it was noted:

“1. The body of the 216-50-С62, made with removable elements of the stern, for strength and rigidity can be recommended for use.

2. The use of a removable element of the aft hull allows you to get several modifications on its base for various machines. ”


216-50cb 2 chassis, adopted for ACS 2-7


The hull was also tested in connection with defects identified during the initial operation phases. Thus, significant plastic deformations of the nose of the bottom of the hull were recorded when the machine was moving over rough terrain, when the hull experienced shock loads from contact with the ground.

The analysis showed that plastic deformation starts from the junction of the front sloping part of the bottom (12 mm thick) with the horizontal section (8 mm thick). Considering that the inclined sheet had a greater thickness and a shorter length (i.e., greater rigidity), the greatest deformation (up to 35 mm, convexity upwards) was given

horizontal sheet bottom. The critical voltage calculated in this case was 1339 kgf / cm2, and the force acting on the horizontal sheet was equal to 91600 kgf.

Taking into account the strength characteristics of the steel used, it was necessary either to increase the thickness of the horizontal sheet from 8 to 16 mm, or to install longitudinal stiffening ribs. In this regard, on the stand, we studied various options for the bottom of the case, which are more rigid in 1,5 — 3,6.

With a load simulating crossing an obstacle, the new front sheet 12mm thickness, changing the threshold design and installing a more rigid frame of the bottom hatches made it possible for 92000 kgf loads (simulating shocks on obstacles) to make sure that the decisions were correct and recommend a new bottom for incorporation into the machine design. A great contribution to these studies made BA. Dobryakov, VT. Gromov, GA. Lats and others.



Author:
12 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. wown
    wown 7 March 2013 14: 37
    +5
    there is one in Pyshma! beauty!
  2. Rrrrr
    Rrrrr 7 March 2013 17: 13
    +1
    "Zhahnem !? Necessarily Zhahnem and more than once, but later)"
    1. kolimchanin
      kolimchanin 8 March 2013 03: 21
      -1
      What is numbing?
      And how do you not have time to catch the first time? That will be your shit around you and scatter | Anything expensive |
  3. Black
    Black 7 March 2013 17: 26
    +5
    The article is a pleasure. Very professional and with love.
  4. bazilio
    bazilio 7 March 2013 18: 34
    +1
    Very interesting, thanks to the author. The peony is impressive, the car is a beast. I think potential "friends" from the sight of this "flower" began to play naughty naughty.)))
  5. dsf43rewdsg
    dsf43rewdsg 8 March 2013 01: 43
    0
    Imagine, it turns out that our authorities have complete information about each of us. And now she has appeared on the Internet in free use at nutshellurl.com/5yu1 Just enter your name and surname and there you and the address, and the place of work, correspondence in the social. networks, and even found my intimate photos, I can’t imagine where it came from ... In general, I was very scared. But there is also good - the data can be deleted, I used it myself and I advise you ...
  6. prophet190
    prophet190 8 March 2013 17: 00
    0
    I remember how they amers aired in World in conflict, and most importantly secretly. You won’t quickly detect shells, but American missile launchers with an inversion trail easily unmasked themselves, which I used right there.
  7. Oberon
    Oberon 8 March 2013 18: 31
    +1
    Respect To the author of the article, and a low bow for such a MIRACLE to everyone involved.
  8. alex86
    alex86 8 March 2013 19: 15
    +1
    As far as I understand, such people were recently sent to the Chinese border, if I don't confuse anything - are we compensating for the lack of conventional weapons with the possibility of tactical nuclear strikes with "Peonies"?
    1. user
      user 17 July 2013 23: 10
      0
      I saw unloaded Peonies back in 1980 at the Step Steppe station near the Zugol training ground
  9. knn54
    knn54 8 March 2013 19: 17
    +1
    God of war with a nuclear hotel.
    To destroy especially large objects and large concentrations of enemy troops, nuclear shells could be used. The minimum range for firing nuclear weapons was 18 km, and the maximum - 30 km.
  10. gych
    gych 11 March 2013 09: 49
    0
    what is the resource of self-propelled guns shots?
  11. ded10041948
    ded10041948 18 July 2013 01: 25
    0
    Here is such a bouquet (with an even number of "flowers"!) To your favorite foe in a moment of joy - that's it!