According to the writings of modern Chechen-Ingush chroniclers, their fellow tribesmen were the most faithful servants of the sovereign-emperor, fought for the white matter to the last drop of blood and at the same time played a role in the victory of the Bolsheviks. In fact, the main achievements of the predecessors of Dudayev and Basayev, as in modern times, were robberies and massacres of the civilian population.
Chronicle of events:
In November, the Union of the United Mountaineers of the Caucasus declared the creation of the “Mountain Republic”, which claimed the territory from the Caspian to the Black Sea, including the Stavropol region, the Kuban and the Black Sea coast. 23 November (6 December) 1917, the executive committee of the Chechen National Council sent an ultimatum to the Grozny Council of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, demanding the disarmament of the workers' detachments and the revolutionary 111 regiment located in the city.
The next day, in Grozny, the killing of several horsemen and an officer of the Chechen regiment of the “wild division” was provoked. In the evening, several hundred Chechen horsemen looted and set fire to the Novogroznensky oil fields, which burned for 18 months. The Grozny Council decided to bring the 111 regiment to Stavropol.
However, the main blow fell on the nearby Cossack villages. After the start of 1 nd World War II, when the combat-ready male population from the Cossack villages was taken to the front, Caucasian crime reached unprecedented proportions, residents constantly suffered from robberies, robberies and murders committed by abreas.
At the end of 1917, the Chechens and the Ingush began the systematic expulsion of the Russian population. In November, the Ingushs set fire to and destroyed the village of Field Marshal. December 30 Chechens looted and burned the village of Kokhanovskaya. The same fate befell the stanitsa Ilyinskaya.
Meanwhile, the bloody unrest in the North Caucasus continued to intensify. According to Denikin:
“On the night of 5 on 6 of August 1918, Cossack and Ossetian troops, supported by part of the population of the city, broke into Vladikavkaz controlled by the Bolsheviks. Began heavy street fighting. In this situation, the temporary emergency commissioner of the South of Russia G.K. Ordzhonikidze secretly went to the Ingush village of Bazorkino to negotiate with Ingush leader Vassan-Girey Jabagiyev. In exchange for help in the fight against insurgents, he promised on behalf of the Soviet government, in the event of victory, to transfer the land of four Cossack villages to the Ingush. The offer was accepted. On the same night, armed Ingush detachments began to arrive in Bazorkino. The balance of forces has changed dramatically, and on August X, the Cossacks and their supporters retreated to the village of Arkhonskaya. The next day, the hostilities were stopped, but the red abreks did not miss the opportunity to once again plunder Vladikavkaz, seized the state bank and the mint.
"In fulfillment of the shameful conspiracy, the villages of Sunzhenskaya, Aki-Yurt, Tarskaya and Tarskiy khutor with a total population of 10 thousand people were evicted. After the village was laid down weapon, the Ingush came to her and began looting and robbery and murder. ”
In December 1918, the offensive of the Volunteer Army in the North Caucasus began. January 21 (February 3) white troops approached Vladikavkaz. After six days of stubborn fighting, during which a series of consecutive attacks were made on the Ingush auls, on January 27 (February 9), the Ingush National Council expressed on behalf of its people the complete submission of Denikin’s power.
At the same time, Grozny was also busy. At first, completely in the spirit of today's soft-tempered politics, the white authorities tried to "solve the problem of Chechnya at the negotiating table." Of course, the Chechens immediately perceived this as a sign of weakness.
March 23 (April 5) detachment of the Kuban and Terek Cossacks under the command of Lieutenant-General D.P. Dratsenko defeated the Chechens at the village of Alkhan-Yurt, where they lost a man to 1000, and the village itself was burned down. Realizing that they would not stand on ceremony with them, the Chechens of the Grozny district began to send deputations from all sides with an expression of submission.
In May, 1919, after occupying Dagestan with white troops, the “Highland Government” announced its dissolution and fled again to hospitable Georgia.
Having achieved recognition of their power, the whites began mobilizing Chechens and Ingushes into their army.
As a result, only the Ingush cavalry brigade of two regiments was created. According to the commander of the Caucasian army, Lieutenant-General P.N. Wrangel, the mobilized Ingush were distinguished by extremely low combat capability.
The Chechens did not win special fame on the battlefield. “The 1 th Chechen cavalry regiment, which was in a deep, almost 10 upstroke rounds on the left, was supposed to cut the Olenchevka - Fisheries road, avoiding red reinforcement,” recalled one of the division officers, staff captain Dmitry De Witt, “but the regiment he did not fulfill his assignment, lost contact with the division in the morning and four times unsuccessfully attacked the position of the Reds, until, in turn, he was attacked by the red cavalry and thrown far into the field. Untrained horsemen, having fallen into a difficult situation, fled, and the next day they managed to assemble almost half of the regiment: most of them fled to the steppe and then deserted to Chechnya ”(D. Witt D. Chechen Horse Division. 1919 year C.133). And this is completely unsurprising. As noted by the same De Witt:
“The proportion of a Chechen as a warrior is small, by nature he is a robber-abrek, and, moreover, not a bold one: he always plans for the weak to the weak and, if he defeats her, becomes cruel to sadism. Persistent and long battle, especially on foot, they do not stand up and easily, like any wild man, at the slightest failure exposed to panic. In battle, his only thirst is robbery, as well as a feeling of animal fear of an officer. Having served for about a year among Chechens and having been at home in their villages at home, I think that I will not be mistaken in asserting that all the beautiful and noble customs of the Caucasus and adats of antiquity were created not by them and not for them, but, obviously, by more cultural and gifted tribes.
But this time, the enemy of the “brave dzhigits” got serious: “The red cavalry had a great saber - they were almost entirely red Cossacks, and the wounds of the Chechens were mostly mortal. I myself saw the severed skulls, I saw a severed arm, a shoulder chopped to 3 4, and so on. “So only well-trained cavalry soldiers or Cossacks could chop.”
It is not surprising that mass desertion began in the Chechen regiments: “The regiments of the Chechen horse division suffered heavy losses during the Steppe campaign, but they thawed even more during the retreat from the incessant desertion. The fight against this evil became impossible: no punishment, including the death penalty, could not keep the Chechen from the temptation to flee to his home under the cover of night. ”
By order of General Revishin, 6 2 Chechens from the 54 regiment were shot for armed robbery and desertion, and XNUMX was publicly whipped with a ramrod.
I recently read the memoirs of Denikin. The general writes: “The cup of national patience is overflowing ... While the Cossack and volunteer Russian blood is being shed for the liberation of the Motherland, the Chechens and Ingush mobilized with Russian weapons and deserted the masses, taking advantage of the absence of the male population on the ground, are engaged in looting, robbery, murder and raising open uprisings ”(A.I. Denikin. Essays on Russian Distemper. p. XXUMX).
Meanwhile, from September 28 to December 20 1919, the Chechen division takes part in battles with Nestor Makhno’s insurgents as part of a group of special forces, distinguishing himself for looting:
“Less than a few days later, as in my squadron, there was a new case, so characteristic of the Chechens. Passing through the marketplace, I heard a strong cry from the sidelines, and at the same time a man approached me, saying: “Something amiss is happening to your Chechen.” I entered the crowd and saw my rider 2 of a platoon who had fought off some kind of brave woman who had clung to him in the folds of the Circassian. “I will deliver you, oblique devil, to the boss, if you don’t return the boots!” The woman squealed. I here on the spot dismantled their dispute. It was quite obvious to me that the Chechen had stolen the boots lying on the cart; the Chechen assured that he bought them. I ordered to return them to the woman, and go to the squadron myself and report on the incident to the sergeant. In the evening, having come to the squadron after roll call, I called the guilty rider out of action.
I hardly recognized him: the whole face, swollen and blue from bruises, said that, having passed through the hands of the sergeant, he barely passed by his platoon officer, and that in this case the expression “Mr. Vakhmistr was very sensitive to talk” had not a figurative meaning. The commander-in-chief, a Dagestani himself, treated the Chechens with undisguised contempt and held high his authority, not hesitating to use his weighty fist, which made his riders afraid and stretched in his presence. In the old days, serving in the regular regiment, I was against assault, considering that the officer had other measures to influence his subordinate, but, hitting the natives on Wednesday, I was convinced that physical punishment was the only radical measure. Chechens, as semi-wild people, recognize only power and are subject only to it; any humanity and half measures are taken by them as a manifestation of weakness ”(De Witt D., Chechen Horse Division, s.156 157).
“I was already beginning to convince myself, as if to believe that by holding the Chechens strictly in their hands and not allowing robberies, one could make good soldiers of them; Unfortunately, life was not slow to deny all my dreams. The fight against robberies became almost overwhelming. The robbery was, as it were, legitimized by the whole structure of the camp life, as well as the thievish nature of the mountaineer himself. We stood among the rich, wealthy peasants, in most cases German colonists, without any nutritional deficiencies: milk, butter, honey, bread — everything was enough, and yet there were no complaints about the theft of poultry. In a flash, a Chechen caught a chicken or a goose, twisted their heads and hid their prey under a burka. There were complaints and more serious: the replacement of horses or robbery, accompanied by violence or threats. The regimental commander cruelly punished the guilty, but what could he do when some of his closest assistants were ready to look at all this lawlessness as the seizure of war booty, so necessary for encouraging Chechens ”(ibid., Xnumx).
Major-General Ya.A., who led the defense of the Crimea. Slashov recalled:
"I myself was in the Caucasus and I know that they are capable of plundering dashingly, and just that they can run. Having no faith in the highlanders, when I came to the Crimea, I ordered them to be disbanded and sent to the Caucasus to replenish my units, for which I was scolding from Denikin "(YA Slaschov. White Crimea. 1920: Memoirs and documents. M., 1990, p. 56 57).
9 June 1920 of the 3 command of the 2 cavalry division of the cavalry division decided to destroy the enemy with a night attack. Thanks to the traditionally careless attitude of Chechen dzhigits to military discipline, this was brilliantly succeeded. At dawn 10 June in a fleeting battle, the headquarters of the Chechen division was defeated. On the streets of the village there are a few hundred dead bodies of hacked and shot Chechens. Red losses were only a few wounded.
The defeat of the headquarters of the Chechen division became a crown of its inglorious combat path.
As the captain-captain De Witt, who visited Chechnya, recalled, I have already quoted the following memoirs:
“All homework, housekeeping, gardening, and so on. lies with his wives, whose number depends solely on the means of her husband ... Men, as a rule, do nothing at all and are terribly lazy. Their purpose is to protect their hearth from all sorts of blood avengers. Robbery as a means of existence in their lives is completely legal, especially when it comes to their hateful neighbors - the Terek Cossacks, with whom the Chechens have waged wars since time immemorial. All men, and even children, always with arms, without which they do not dare to leave their home. Rob and kill on the sly, mainly on the road, arranging ambushes; at the same time, they often do not share their loot honestly; they become enemies for a lifetime, avenging the offender and his whole family ”(De Witt D. The Chechen Horse Division ... C. 147).
"Caucasian Eagles" Wild Division
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