Ingigerd. Maturity and last years of life of the wise wife of Yaroslav the Wise

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Ingigerd. Maturity and last years of life of the wise wife of Yaroslav the Wise
This is how Ingigerd is represented in the painting by E. Yakushin (2008)


In previous articles, we talked about the origin and early life of Ingigerd, a Swedish princess who became the wife of the Russian prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich (the Wise), her life in her homeland and in Novgorod. Today we will continue and finish this story.



"Educators" of the Norwegian kings


Second article This short cycle ended with the message that the failed husband Ingigerd Olav Haraldson, expelled from Norway, having received help from Yaroslav Vladimirovich, went to his homeland, where he died in 1130 in the Battle of Stiklastalir.

At Ingigerd's insistence, he left his son (and her nephew) Magnus in Novgorod. As befits a future Viking king, he constantly hovered around the warriors, not hesitating to entertain them by walking on the tables on his hands during communal dinners. In the “Saga of Magnus the Good and Harald the Harsh Ruler” from the manuscript “Rotten Skin” it is stated that one day an old warrior tripped him up and knocked him off the table. The offended boy, coming up from behind, killed his offender with an ax (such a “kind” Norwegian king grew up in Novgorod under the supervision of Ingigerd). Yaroslav’s reaction is curious:

“The king said: Royal work, son,” and laughed. “I will pay vira for you.”

After this murder, Magnus's authority increased sharply, the saga says that he now:

“He was in the king’s squad and was brought up with great love, and the older and wiser he became, the more he was loved.”

In 1035, 11-year-old Magnus was elected king of Norway, and in 1046 he was forced to share power with his father’s brother, Harald, whom Adam of Bremen in his writings called “the thunderstorm of the North.”

The future “last Viking” also took part in the Battle of Stiklastalir: he was 15 years old at the time and, in order to hold an adult sword, he had to tie it to his hand. After the defeat and death of his brother, Harald went to Novgorod - “under the wing” of Ingigerd - and fell in love with her daughter Elizabeth.

By the way, the next time the name Elizabeth was recorded on the territory of Rus' was only in the 14th century. It is likely that this daughter Ingigerd actually bore the Slavic name Olisava or the Scandinavian name Ellisif.

At the time of her acquaintance with Harald, the girl was between 4 and 5 years old, and in 1034, when Harald went to serve in Constantinople, she was about 10 years old. Nevertheless, Harald remembered her and, being a good skald, dedicated the cycle of poems “The Hanging of Joy” to her. In The Saga of Harald the Harsh, Sturlson writes:

“During this trip, Harald composed the Vises of Joy, and there were sixteen of them in total, with the same chorus in each. Here is one of them:
The ship passed in front of vast Sicily. We were proud of ourselves.
The ship with people glided quickly, as one could only wish.
The last thing I hope for is that the slacker will imitate us in this.
However, the girl in the Garda does not want to feel any inclination towards me.
This is how he addressed Elisiv, the daughter of King Yaritsleif in Holmgard.”

Let us remember that at the time of Harald’s departure, Ingigerd’s daughter was about 10 years old, and, judging by the poems, she did not like the stray Norwegian at all. But, apparently, there was something about her that left a deep imprint on the soul of the far from sentimental Viking.

Later, Harald's poems were translated into French, and from French into Russian. Here, for example, is the visa that has already been given in interlinear translation:

"The oak horse galloped
Kiel circle of Sicily,
Red and rage
Lynx sea prowled.
The edge has come used here
Not like a coward,
Only virgin in Garda
He doesn’t want to know me.”

(there are two kenings in this passage: “oak horse” is a ship, “sea lynx” is an oar).

At the same time, Harald sent part of the salary and the most valuable trophies for storage to Yaroslav. The prince then honestly returned all this property to him, and by the time of Harald’s return, so much “good” had accumulated “as no one in the Nordic Countries has ever seen in the property of one person.”

According to the sagas, during his stay in the empire, Harald served three emperors and participated in 18 successful battles in Sicily, Bulgaria and Asia Minor. Among his achievements are the assassination of the proclaimed Bulgarian Tsar Peter II Dejan and the blinding of the deposed Emperor Michael V Calafat (we talked a little about this in first article).

The Instructions to the Emperor (1070–1080) says about him:

“Aralt was the son of the king of the Verings... Aralt, while he was young, decided to set off on a journey... taking with him 500 valiant warriors. The emperor received him as befits and ordered him and his soldiers to go to Sicily, for war was brewing there. Aralt carried out the command and fought very successfully. When Sicily submitted, he returned with his detachment to the emperor, who granted him the title of manglavites (belt-wearer).
Then it happened that Delius rebelled in Bulgaria. Aralt set out on a campaign... and fought very successfully... the emperor, as a reward for his service, awarded Aralt spathrokandates (leader of the army).
After the death of Emperor Michael and his nephew, who inherited the throne, during the reign of Monomakh, Aralt asked permission to return to his homeland, but he was not given permission, but, on the contrary, they began to put up all sorts of obstacles. But he still left and became king in the country where his brother Yulav had previously ruled.”

So, the hero literally fled from Byzantium in 1042. The Saga of Harald the Harsh says:

“As here in the North, the verings who served in Miklagard said that Zoe, the king’s wife, herself wanted to marry Harald, And this was the main and true reason for her quarrel with Harald, when he wanted to leave Miklagard, although she was in front of the people put forward another reason."

But the English chronicler William of Malmesbury (first half of the 12th century) claims that Harald dishonored a noble woman and was thrown to the lion, but strangled him with his hands.

There is a third - the most prosaic, but probably the most plausible version, according to which Harald was accused of quietly appropriating some valuables from the imperial palace during the last palace coup.

Elizabeth (Olisawa or Ellisiv) was already 18 years old, and now she finally reciprocated Harald’s feelings (or her parents did not take an interest in her opinion): in the winter of 1043–1044, she was married to a promising Norwegian and soon became Queen of Norway.


Elizaveta Yaroslavna on the fresco of the Kyiv St. Sophia Cathedral


Monument to Harald Hardrada as the founder of Oslo

Two daughters were born in this marriage. One of them entered history, as the first Norwegian woman named Mary. The second was named after her grandmother - Ingigerd.

Note that 5 years later, Harald, for political reasons, married Tora Thorbergsdatter, a representative of the powerful Norwegian family of Giske. We remember that Ingigerd’s father also had two wives, so there was nothing surprising in this second marriage for Harald’s subjects. Thora's two sons occupied the Norwegian throne after Harald's death.

But let's return to Kyiv, where, during the wedding feast, Harald spoke about the unrest in Constantinople, which he had abandoned. After the death of Michael IV, his nephew, carelessly adopted by Empress Zoe and declared Emperor Michael V, sent his adoptive mother to a monastery.

However, after 4 months, an uprising began in the city, Zoya was freed, and Michael V was blinded (apparently, it was Harald, this was mentioned in first article), and executed, the imperial palaces were plundered.

But the most important piece of information was the message that during the turmoil almost the entire fleet of the empire was burned, including its fire-carrying ships. And just then news came to Kyiv about the murder of some noble Russian merchant in Constantinople (confirmed by a message from Skilitsa), this incident was used as a reason for a campaign against Constantinople, to which in 1043 an army under the command of 400 sailed on 23 ships. the year-old son of Yaroslav and Ingigerd - Vladimir of Novgorod.

However, the real leadership was probably carried out by the experienced governors assigned to him - Vyshata Ostromirovich and Ivan Tvorimovich. In this army there was also a detachment of Norman mercenaries; there is reason to believe that these were the people of Ingvar the Traveler, who probably earlier (in 1036) participated in the last great battle with the Pechenegs, on the site of which the Kiev St. Sophia Cathedral was later built. And, perhaps, they were led by the hero of the saga of the same name.

The fact is that Ingvar is often sent to the Caspian Sea, they even claim that information about his campaign can be found in eastern authors; some analogies are found, for example, in the manuscript of the Persian historian and poet Ibn Miskaweikh. The only problem is that these sources tell about the events of 943–944.

Meanwhile, Ingvar’s detachment arrived in Rus' no earlier than 1035, and during the period of his stay here, only one large ship cruise was recorded in which he could take part - to Constantinople in 1043.

In Ingvar’s detachment was the Icelander Ketil, nicknamed “Russian,” an ally of his alleged father Eymund and one of the murderers of Boris the Saint. During the naval battle near Constantinople, a storm scattered and sank almost all the allied ships, the crews of the ships washed ashore were killed or captured.

You see a miniature from the Radziwill Chronicle (late 15th century) illustrating this campaign:


The inscription reads:

“In the summer of 6551... And Volodimir went to the boats, and came to the Danube, and went to Tsar-grad. And a great storm came, and the ship of Rus' was broken, and the prince’s ship was broken by the wind, and Prince Ivan Tvorimich and the governor of Yaroslavl were taken into the ship.”

В first article You've seen photographs of two rune stones installed on the shores of Lake Mälaren, look at two more:


Blasie and Dyarv erected this stone after Gunnleif, their father. He was killed in the east with Ingvar.


Andvett and kiti, and Kar, and Blasi, and Dyarv, they erected this stone after Gunnleif, their father. He fell in the east with Ingvar.

The death of several thousand young men was a real demographic catastrophe for sparsely populated Sweden. It was then that the Viking Age ended in this country.

And for Norway, the end of this great and terrible era was 1066, when in England, Elizabeth’s husband and Ingigerd’s son-in-law, Harald, died in the battle of Stamford Bridge. Of more than 200 Norwegian ships, 24 returned to their homeland, on one of them was the son of Harald (Elizabeth’s stepson), 16-year-old Olav, who was then left to guard the ships and did not take part in the battle. Gwyn Jones wrote:

“The Norwegians had to wait for a new generation of warriors to grow up before they could undertake another expedition across the sea.”

In the painting by P. Arbo we see the climax of this battle - the death of Harald:


The set of sagas “Earthly Circle” says that in that battle Harald fought like a berserker:

“Coming forward from the ranks, he cut with his sword, holding it with both hands. Neither helmets nor chain mail were protection from him. Everyone who stood in his way jumped back. The British were close to fleeing."

But:

“The arrow hit King Harald son of Sigurd in the throat. The wound was fatal. He fell, and with him all who went ahead with him.”

A.K. Tolstoy wrote about this in the ballad “Three Massacres”:

“He piled bodies on top of bodies,
Blood flowed from the field to the sea,
Until the arrow squealed, the arrow rushed
And it didn’t get stuck in his throat. ”

And in manuscript “C” of the 12th century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the following description of the feat of the last Norwegian hero of the Viking Age is given:

“The Norwegians fled from the English, but a certain Norwegian stood alone against the entire English army, so the English could not cross the bridge and win. One of the English shot an arrow at him, but missed. Then another climbed under the bridge and hit the Norwegian from below, where the chain mail did not cover him.”

Ironically, the first wife of Vladimir Monomakh, the grandson of Ingigerd, was Gita, the daughter of Harold Godwinson, in the battle with whom Harald Hardrada, the husband of Ingigerd’s daughter Elizabeth, died. Her father died less than a month after the Battle of Stamford Bridge - in a battle with the Norman army of William the Conqueror.


Death of Harold in the Bayeux Tapestry

“The Saka army marched victoriously from York,
Now they are quiet and quiet
And their corpse Harald can not be found
Among the corpses there are wandering mnikhs. "

(A.K. Tolstoy).


Edith Swan-Neck identifies the body of Harold Godwinson after the Battle of Hastings


Stone at the site of Harold Godwinson's death

Elizabeth and her daughters were waiting for Harald in the Orkney Islands. One of them, Maria, died here. With her second daughter, Harald's widow returned to Norway, where they lived at the court of their stepsons Magnus and Olav. Later, Elizabeth's daughter Ingigerd became first the queen of Denmark and then of Sweden.

In addition to Elizabeth, two more daughters, Ingigerd, became queens of European countries. Anna Yaroslavna, as you probably remember, was married to King Henry I of France, and her son Philip also became king of this country. And the great-grandson was Louis VII, the first husband of the famous “queen of courtly love” - Alienora of Aquitaine, with whom he went on the Second Crusade.


Statue of Queen Anne in the monastery of St. Vincent, which she founded, 18th century.

Anastasia became the wife of the Hungarian king Andras I. It is known that she founded two Orthodox monasteries in Hungary - in Vyshgorod and Tormov.


Anastasia on the fresco of the Kyiv St. Sophia Cathedral

Her son Shalamon fought with his cousins, who were supported by Anastasia’s brother Izyaslav. Eventually, Chalamon lost the throne, and Anastasia died in exile, believed to be in one of the monasteries.

The wife of Vsevolod-Holti was a certain Monomakhina, a relative of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomakh, who came to Rus' as the pledge of a new union of two states concluded in 1046.


Vsevolod Yaroslavich on the fresco of the Moscow Novospassky Monastery, 17th century.

She brought with her a list of the famous icon of the Mother of God Hodegetria (Guide). Since it later passed to her son, the Smolensk prince Vladimir Monomakh, this relic began to be called the icon of the Smolensk Mother of God. Variants of the Hodegetria are the icons of the Mother of God of Kazan, Tikhvin and some others.


Icon of the Mother of God “Hodegetria”, kept in the Novodevichy Convent. First quarter of the 15th century, Byzantium

Izyaslav married the daughter of the Polish king Mieszko II, Gertrude, who, by the way, is considered the oldest Polish writer known by name (the author of prayers in the codex written in Latin in her name).


Gertrude of Poland, falling at the feet of the Apostle Peter, in a miniature from her “Code”

The wife of Svyatoslav (father of the famous Oleg Gorislavich) was Oda of Staden, whom Western European sources call the daughter of Ida of Elsdorf, the granddaughter of the brother of Emperor Henry III and the daughter of the sister of Pope Leo IX.


Svyatoslav Yaroslavich with his family. Miniature of “Izbornik” 1073

The sons of Yaroslav and Ingigerd entered into a confrontation immediately after the death of their father and passed this enmity on to their children, the most famous of whom were Vladimir Monomakh and Oleg Gorislavich.

Death and canonization of Ingigerd


Ingigerd died around 1050. You remember that in Rus' she was baptized according to the Orthodox rite, received the name Irina and in Kyiv founded the monastery of the Holy Great Martyr Irene of Macedonia.

But, it is believed, before her death she took monastic vows (“the first set an example for great princes and princesses to take monastic vows”) and therefore entered the pantheon of saints as the blessed princess Anna of Novgorod. Her church veneration on February 10 and October 4 was established in 1439 by Novgorod Archbishop Euthymius.


Icon “Blessed Princess Anna of Novgorod”

The place of her burial is still disputed: some believe that the burial place of the princess was the Kiev St. Sophia Cathedral, others believe that she was buried in the St. Sophia Cathedral of Novgorod.


The alleged tombstone of Ingigerd in the St. Sophia Cathedral of Novgorod (pictured on the right)

In January 1939, members of a special commission of the USSR Academy of Sciences opened the marble sarcophagus of Yaroslav the Wise, located in the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv. The bodies of three people were found there.

Firstly, an elderly man 65–70 years old with a congenital subluxation of the hip joint and a damaged knee joint, his facial features were determined to be mixed - Scandinavian and Slavic.


Yaroslav the Wise at the plastic reconstruction of M. Gerasimov, carried out by him on behalf of the Institute of the History of Material Culture and the Institute of Ethnography of the USSR Academy of Sciences

The second remains belonged to a woman with Northern European facial features, about 50 years old, 162 cm tall.


Anthropological reconstruction of the face of a woman buried in the Kiev St. Sophia Cathedral, carried out at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences by Dorota Łorkiewicz-Muszyńska

In addition, the tomb contained the bones of a 3-year-old child.

In Novgorod, in the sarcophagus of Ingigerd’s son Vladimir, there were the remains of a woman of Scandinavian origin; the inscription discovered by Karamzin read:

“Holy Blessed Princess Anna, mother of the Holy Blessed Prince Vladimir Yaroslavich, Swedish Princess, Olaf the First, Swedish King, daughter. In her land she was called Ingegerda, who was formerly the bride of Olav, the king of Norway, then the wife of Yaroslav Vladimirovich of Novgorod and Kyiv. She died in the summer from the village. m. 6559, from R. X. 1051. Her relics were laid in the Novgorod St. Sophia Cathedral.”

But the age of this woman was determined to be 30-35 years old - and therefore it was suggested that this was not the mother of Vladimir Yaroslavich, but his wife.

However, during the Swedish occupation of Novgorod during the Time of Troubles, the St. Sophia Cathedral was looted, the graves were opened, the remains were scattered, and therefore, when re-burial, the bones were collected “at random” - they could have been mixed up. Supporters of this version believe that Ingigerd died 4 years before her husband in Novgorod, where she was buried.

The fact is that in the last years of his life Yaroslav was very ill, he could hardly walk, and his character deteriorated greatly. And therefore Ingigerd could move to her eldest son in Novgorod, next to whom was Ladoga, which she received as a “wedding gift.” And many fellow countrymen lived in Novgorod, because at the beginning of the 12th century the author of “The Tale of Bygone Years” directly says that the Novgorodians “became enchanted”:

“Novgorodians are those people from the Varangian family, but before they were Slovenes.”

And the body of one of his unmarried daughters and a grandson who died in early childhood could have been placed in Yaroslav’s Kyiv grave.
44 comments
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  1. +3
    11 June 2024 05: 37
    Excellent analysis of the era based on Scandinavian sources, thank you!
    Of the more than 200 Norwegian ships, 24 returned to their homeland,

    An interesting question here is how the route from the Varangians to the Greeks was used. The Scandinavians used their ships (drakkars and snekki) or Slavic boats. However, “ships” should be understood as their crews.
    1. VLR
      +5
      11 June 2024 07: 48
      According to one version, the Scandinavians on the territory of Rus' began to be called “Rus”, due to the fact that they transferred from their ships to small rowing boats in Ladoga. Ladoga was the base of the Scandinavians in this territory; according to the legendary version, it was founded by the god Odin himself. According to history, settlers from Swedish Uppsala. The Rus - in this case, an adapted Finnish word for "oarsmen" - the Normans came from the direction where the Finnish tribes lived. For the same reason, there were no Viking raids on the territory of the Russian principalities: the surprise factor disappeared. They had to either trade or be hired for service.
      1. +3
        11 June 2024 08: 28
        Good morning Valery!
        Ladoga was the base of the Scandinavians in this territory; according to the legendary version, it was founded by the god Odin himself.

        Archaeologists believe that initially the Slavic-Baltic population lived on the territory of Ladoga, surrounded by a Finno-Ugric element. At the turn of the 7th-8th centuries (marked by traces of fires), the Scandinavian factor is added, which later begins to dominate, but Slavic, Blat and Finno-Ugric artifacts do not disappear.
        1. +2
          11 June 2024 12: 07
          Well - the earliest fortification in Ladoga, the Lyubsha fortress, is obviously Slavic. I would say more - Western Slavic. A very typical building...
      2. 0
        11 June 2024 18: 23
        Rus - in this case, an adapted Finnish word for "oarsmen" - Normans

        It is completely incomprehensible why the Slavs would adopt something like the Finnish ruotsi if they knew very well who the Scandinavians were? And they even distinguished them by tribe - Svei, Nurmans, etc. Having already their own names for them.
        1. VLR
          +2
          12 June 2024 07: 33
          Why should the Slavs adopt something like the Finnish ruotsi if they knew very well who the Scandinavians were?

          Here, in my opinion, everything is clear and logical: the Slovenians have been in contact with the surrounding Finnish tribes for a long time, and suddenly some other people come to the borders of Novgorod from the Finns. Novgorodians ask the Finns: who is this? They answer: “ruotsi.” It’s clear, the Russians speak to the Slovenians. And then it turns out that the Rus are not homogeneous: some say that they are Swedes, others call themselves Norwegians, and others call themselves Danes. But they are already accustomed to calling them Russians, especially since they are similar and speak almost the same language. And those of them who want to get into military service call their units “guards” or “security” - varda. What should we call the members of such “brigades”? Half a step to "Varangians" and "Vering". Gradually, the words “Rus” and “Varyag” began to mean not nationality, but occupation. Members of the princely squads are Rus, mercenary detachments are Varangians.
          1. 0
            12 June 2024 07: 42
            If we take into account the close ties of Novgorod with the Western Slavs from the very beginning, in general there is a feeling that it was founded by them, then they should have known the Scandinavians long before the Finns. And therefore - clearly know what they are called.

            Then - why do they ask the Finns what the new characters are called? Why not ask them yourself? It’s more logical, don’t you think? Moreover, the Scandinavian element did not appear there suddenly - the Baltic is small, and people have been wandering around it back and forth almost since the Stone Age. Everyone there knew each other very well for a long time.

            Why not from the Vagir-Vagr tribe? Why not from the Ruyan Island and the elder Ruyan tribe? Or, for example, the Rugians, to whom it is not clear for what reasons Germanity is attributed? After all, it’s not for nothing that Olga is referred to in Western sources as the queen of rugs? Not at all Russians.
            1. VLR
              +1
              12 June 2024 08: 28
              The dispute between Normanists and anti-Normanists is also irrational. Because the national anality of this unfortunate Rurik does not change anything at all in the course of Russian history. Well, suppose the Novgorodians called up a Scandinavian - so what? Then they call anyone, this is an ancient tradition of this city. The Pskovites called the Lithuanian Dovmont and then made him their saint - no one is hysterical. The German Catherine II usurped the Russian throne, killing two legitimate emperors - “long live Mother Catherine!”
              The presence of the Scandinavians in Ancient Rus' and their close family and allied ties with the Russian princes are indisputable and are confirmed, as they say, from all sides. Of course, we are not talking about their creation of Russian statehood. But, of course, there was a role in history.
              1. +3
                12 June 2024 08: 31
                Yes, that's the point. That from Rurik’s supposedly Scandinavianism they make absolutely wild conclusions about the type of inability of the Slavs to independent statehood..
    2. +3
      11 June 2024 09: 36
      A much more interesting question is whether there was a route from the Varangians to the Greeks along the Dnieper at all... Because there are some strong doubts about this.
      1. VLR
        +4
        11 June 2024 09: 44
        But there definitely was a path “from the Varangians” down the Volga :)
        1. +3
          11 June 2024 09: 47
          Judging by the huge amount of Arab silver in Scandinavia and Northern Rus', the path from the Varangians to the Arabs along the Volga took place... And walking along the Volga is not along the chronicle path, with a bunch of rapids at every step, portages and spitting rivers like Lovat in the upper reaches..
      2. +1
        11 June 2024 11: 14
        . ..a much more interesting question is whether there was a route from the Varangians to the Greeks along the Dnieper at all...

        In Grekov’s monographs I came across interesting research, where the author connects the development of the route from the Varangians to the Greeks along the Dnieper, during the periods of “zamyatni”, “invasions” and “wars” in the middle and lower reaches of the Volga.
        Moreover, the northern route through Ladoga and Novgorod (Rurik’s settlement) was also not static. For example, through the Western Dvina. All this determined the emergence and development of Pskov and Polotsk.
        1. +4
          11 June 2024 11: 33
          Well - I think so.
          1. The classical path is extremely problematic. Anyone who has tried to walk along the Neva, even on a motorboat, understands how hemorrhoids it is. And the Ivanovo rapids no longer exist. Ladoga is an extremely dangerous place for navigation, extremely. Volkhov is also not a pleasant place. Fishing is a real hassle in the upper reaches; you can’t get anything serious through there. And so on and so forth. In general, it is extremely doubtful.

          2. What exactly did the Scandinavians trade in Byzantium? Furs, walrus ivory, honey and wax? So there’s a lot of this in Rus', what’s the point of dragging it through where the hell? Like slaves? Well, try to transport them such a distance, well, well... But there seems to be nothing more...

          3. Where are the Byzantine coins in Scandinavia? Why are there overwhelmingly Arab dirhams there, and not nomisms?

          4. Where are Byzantine goods in Scandinavia? After all, not a single merchant will go back empty, what’s the point?

          5. There is no mention in any sources of Scandinavians in Byzantium before the 11th century.

          6. The Scandinavians themselves did not know the way there, which is clearly visible from Russian chronicles.

          And so on and so on.
          1. VLR
            +2
            11 June 2024 11: 45
            Yes, merchants from Scandinavia went straight to the Volga. But those who ended up in Kyiv could move from there to Constantinople - most often as verings, highly paid mercenaries and even personal guards of the emperors. By the way, the Swedish scientist A. Strinnholm considered the words “Varangian”, vering and “guard” to have the same root:
            “The name of the Varangians is easiest and most natural to form from the word vaeria found in ancient Swedish laws - to protect, defend, or from varda - to guard, to protect; from this varda, in another pronunciation garda, the word Gardingi, meaning in ancient Visigothic laws of royal bodyguards, hence - Garde - guard."
            1. +2
              11 June 2024 11: 55
              Let's remember the classic examples - Vladimir took Kuev, and the hired Scandinavians decided to go to serve in Byzantium. On this occasion, they asked for guides, because they did not know the road there. How is it that among the bunch of seasoned Vikings there was not a single one who knew the supposedly well-established popular path??

              Yaroslav sent his dad and refused to pay. Vladimir became very angry and was about to straighten out the brains of his son and the people of Novgorod. On this occasion, he ordered bridges and roads to be repaired. I don’t understand - was he planning to go there on foot? But what about the waterway, which is much more convenient?

              Sigurd the Crusader, deciding to return home, sells ships in Constantinople and leaves along the Danube in boats. Then he gets on horses and gallops through Hungary and Germany. After which he again buys ships and goes by sea to Norway. But what about the discovered route from the Varangians to the Greeks???

              And there’s a lot of this... Almost no one went there. Except in rare cases.
              1. VLR
                +3
                11 June 2024 12: 07
                Vladimir then “dumped” the Vikings: he bribed “kind, smart and brave men” who eventually remained in his service, and gave the rest guides to Constantinople instead of payment. At the same time, he warned the Constantinople Emperor in a friendly manner:
                “The Varangians are coming to you, don’t even think about keeping them in the capital, otherwise they will do you the same evil as here, but they settled in different places, and don’t let a single one here (back to Rus'!).”
                1. +2
                  11 June 2024 12: 10
                  Who the hell needs such a horde of thugs around? Moreover, the combat value of the Vikings in Southern Rus' is extremely doubtful - to fight the nomads in the steppe you need completely different skills... The vaunted hird there will simply be shot from afar... And most likely, he will stupidly not find anyone.
                  1. +2
                    11 June 2024 12: 12
                    Defend? Or - on a “friendly” campaign against “beloved relatives”.
                    1. +2
                      11 June 2024 12: 17
                      You need to defend yourself in those parts mainly from nomads. And for this you need a horse squad. There is nothing to do as a pedestrian in the steppe.

                      And by that time, Vladimir seemed to have taken everyone away from his beloved relatives... His sons are still small, his brothers are in the grave - who among his relatives should he fear?
                      1. +3
                        11 June 2024 12: 38
                        It was probably possible to find a use for the Varangians. Provide garrison duty. Take it with you to the open air. To fight against the Baltic tribes. It’s not for nothing that Vladimir’s children and grandchildren constantly used them later. The point, probably, is precisely that Vladimir did not want to pay - “the toad strangled him.” “The Moor has done his job (they occupied Kyiv) - the Moor can leave” (even to Constantinople, where the Caesars, according to rumors, pay well).
                      2. +2
                        11 June 2024 12: 40
                        Can. But it was apparently very expensive to use mercenaries in internal affairs. Extorting tribute or driving the forest workers crazy - there are cheaper options. Here, even your squad will be enough for your eyes.
                      3. +3
                        11 June 2024 13: 31
                        It was probably possible to find a use for the Varangians. Provide garrison duty. Take it with you to the open air.

                        Classic polyudye fell into oblivion under Princess Olga.
            2. +1
              11 June 2024 12: 00
              I still think that the Varangians are from the ancient West Slavic tribe of Vagirs or Vagrs. Moreover, the close connection of the Western Slavs with early Novgorod has been proven by archeology.

              In principle, you can still follow the chronicle path if you really need to. It’s extremely inconvenient to transport goods en masse along it back and forth.. And it’s not clear what to trade in order to recoup such hemorrhoids with all these thresholds and drags..
              1. +1
                11 June 2024 18: 07
                I still think that the Varangians are from the ancient West Slavic tribe of Vagirs or Vagrs

                The Byzantine “Varangi” is phonetically closer, and the Old Slavic word “varog” (enemy) is almost identical...
                Moreover, the close connection of the Western Slavs with early Novgorod has been proven by archeology.

                Agree. Moreover, the rise of Kievan Rus begins after the fall of Great Moravia, which suggests a serious migration influx of West Slavic passionaries.
                .
                In principle, you can still follow the chronicle path if you really need to. It’s extremely inconvenient to transport goods en masse along it back and forth.. And it’s not clear what to trade in order to recoup such hemorrhoids with all these thresholds and drags..

                We are talking about the realities of a thousand years ago. At the end of the century before last, destroyers were able to drag destroyers from the Baltic to the Black Sea along the Dnieper. True, they entered the Dnieper through the Bug.
                My personal assumption is that the Scandinavians did not transfer to any small rowing boats, but moved to Kyiv or Smolensk by sleigh along the rivers. There they sailed on “monuskills” to Constantinople. This path is possible only with the formation of the Old Russian state. With the fall of the Khazar Kaganate, it was reoriented to the Volga.
                1. +1
                  11 June 2024 18: 14
                  Yes, you can push through anything, the whole question is whether this process will pay off. What kind of unique product did you have to have in order for it to be profitable to carry it with such hemorrhoids from Scandinavia??

                  In addition, it is not clear what kind of trade this is. If purely for money, then where are the Byzantine coins? There are practically none. And if these were normal merchants, and they also brought goods back, then where are the Byzantine fabrics, glass, weapons, wine, etc., etc.? After all, all this would definitely go with a bang in the north!
                  1. +1
                    11 June 2024 18: 36
                    Dear Pavel, I understand what the problem is!
                    You conditionally take as a basis the beginning of the PVL text about the description of the path “From the Varangians to the Greeks.” However, the text itself describes four route options: two from the Greeks to the Varangians and one from the Varangians to the Greeks across the Atlantic and one from the Varangians to the Greeks across the Volga.
                    According to the text: 1st option.
                    [quote] When the glades lived separately in these mountains, there was a path from the Varangians to the Greeks and from the Greeks along the Dnieper, and in the upper reaches of the Dnieper - a drag to Lovot, and along Lovot you can enter Ilmen, the great lake; The Volkhov flows from the same lake and flows into the Great Lake Nevo, and the mouth of that lake flows into the Varangian Sea. [[/quote]
                    2. Option.
                    [quote]And along that sea you can sail to Rome, and from Rome you can sail along the same sea to Constantinople[/quote]
                    And option 3.
                    [quote] ...from Constantinople you can sail to the Pontus Sea, into which the Dnieper River flows. The Dnieper flows from the Okovsky forest and flows to the south, and the Dvina flows from the same forest and heads north, and flows into the Varangian Sea.
                    And now the highlight without Kyiv
                    [quote] From the same forest the Volga flows to the east and flows through seventy mouths into the Khvalisskoe Sea. Therefore, from Rus' you can sail along the Volga to the Bolgars and Khvalis, and go east to the inheritance of Sima, and along the Dvina to the land of the Varangians, from the Varangians to Rome, from Rome to the tribe of Khamov. And the Dnieper flows at its mouth into the Pontic Sea; This sea is reputed to be Russian, - as they say, St. Andrew, Peter’s brother, taught it along its shores.[/quote]
                    1. 0
                      11 June 2024 18: 42
                      The main problem is that there are no traces of Scandinavia's vigorous trade with Byzantium. With the Arabs - through the roof, at every step. And with the Greeks it’s just minuscule. How so? The rest is just trifles.
                2. +2
                  11 June 2024 18: 18
                  tobogganing along rivers

                  How is that? In the fall, walking around the Baltic and especially around Ladoga is more expensive and very dangerous. Then what happens - in the summer you go to Ladoga, you sit there for half a year and wait for the ice to rise, and on a sleigh to Kuev? Then you wait for the sludge to go down the Dnieper and continue on by boat? And then - everything is the same only in reverse?

                  It’s your choice - but some kind of painfully complex, expensive and time-consuming construction is coming out...
                  1. +1
                    11 June 2024 18: 55
                    The guest (merchant) is not a modern “Ali Express”. We need to bargain and buy. Perhaps the northern shoulder was integrated into the polyudya system.
                    Essentially, the presence of the Varangian (more precisely Scandinavian) component in the middle reaches of the Dnieper and Volga is reflected both in documentary sources and is confirmed by archaeologists.
                    Thoth de Konstantin Porphyrogenitus gives a description of the Dnieper rapids in two languages, Russian and Slavic.
                    1. +1
                      11 June 2024 19: 04
                      Well, okay - just imagine. You were gored in Byzantium, say, furs and wax, and are going back. Will you go empty? Meaning? Just think, how much can you sell Byzantine glass in Scandinavia? Wine? Decorations? Weapon? Okay, what about the fabrics, the same brocade? I’m generally silent about silk. To go home from there without stocking up on silk is to disrespect yourself. What a fucking mess this is in the north!! Well - where is all this?

                      Is not a fact. I’m not saying that they didn’t exist at all - but the Normanists’ manner of attributing to every Scandinavian object the significance of their constant presence is, to say the least, ridiculous. Didn't they trade then? All these items could have reached those parts through tenth hands. Avon - silk also reached Rome, doesn’t that mean there was a Chinese colony there?

                      Thresholds are a separate matter. Not all types of Scandinavian names are such. Some are simply meaningless in translation. And the couple never translates at all. In addition, we do not know the nationality of the informant Konstantin, what language was his native language and how he conveyed names that were foreign to him.
                      1. +3
                        11 June 2024 22: 03
                        ... but the manner of the Normanists attributing to every Scandinavian object the significance of their constant presence is at least ridiculous.

                        You put me in an uncomfortable position, Pavel, motivating me to defend the “Normanists”. It's okay if you're critical. Burials of the Scandinavian rite have taken place in Ladoga since the 8th century and in Gnezdovo (near Smolensk) since the 9th century. Please note that I do not take into account single graves and mounds in the middle and upper reaches of the Volga. At the same time, Arab and Byzantine sources strongly convince of the existence of a certain Black Sea Rus' first. Constantine Porphyrogenitus writes from internal and external Rus'. At the same time, he consistently contrasts the Rus (Rus) and the Slavs. Moreover, his Princess Olga commands the Rus, and 10 years later her son comes to Bulgaria with an army of Slavs and Pechenegs. Ibn Fadlan, in his story about the Rus, has an extremely reliable description of the funeral rites of the Scandinavians. In the part about the prince, it’s purely a “Kiev oxymoron with a table and a throne,” but about washing from one basin, it’s completely game. Regarding the thresholds, the Gothic version is closer to me, although Trubetskoy’s Iranian version also sounds. Well, lastly, for a snack, who are the Dormonts in Byzantine works and the Kobyaks in Russian Pravda?
                        Conclusions, the possible existence of a certain conditionally Black Sea Rus' (Dormontov, First Rus', Russian Kaganate or Inner Rus'), where the process of integration of the Scandinavians (or the Goths, heirs of the Chernyakhov culture) and the Slavs has already taken place over several generations). In this case, the pretzel from the Varangians to the Greeks makes sense. The penultimate stage is described in detail by Constantine Porphyrogenitus (about monuskills). Or admit that the author of the PVL tritely wrote the route of the Apostle Andrew the First-Called. Or all this had the purpose of trade and military operations of private squads.
                        Everyone stop. Alas, I don’t have a simple answer, Pavel.
                        Sincerely!
                      2. +1
                        12 June 2024 07: 27
                        Ibn Fadlan, in his story about the Rus, has an extremely reliable description of the Scandinavian funeral rites

                        Excuse me - but what is Scandinavian about that???

                        “She said the first time when she was raised, “here I see my father and my mother,” and said the second, “here are all my dead relatives sitting,” and said the third, “here I see my master sitting in the garden.” , and the garden is beautiful, green, and with it are men and youths, and now it is calling me, so lead me to it.”

                        What other garden - where are the Valkyries, Valhalla, golden shields on the roof, Einhiria, the rainbow bridge, Odin finally? What are the father and mother of a SLAVE doing next to a noble warrior? Where is he calling his slave - to Valhalla??? It's like, what should she do there?

                        As you can see, there is nothing in common.

                        As for burials, no one is saying that the Scandinavians were absent from our area as a class. Of course there were - like the Slavs in southern Scandinavia. The leading role of the Normans in the formation of the Russian state, the epithet Rus' and the Scandinavian origin of Rurik and his dynasty are denied.
                      3. +1
                        12 June 2024 07: 41
                        The leading role of the Normans in the formation of the Russian state, the epithet Rus' and the Scandinavian origin of Rurik and his dynasty are denied.

                        Good morning Pavel!
                        Let me return to the beginning of our discussion. Our modern State arose in 1480-1481.
                        Old Russian protogrsudarsivno, in my opinion, from the moment of the transition from polyudye to graveyards under Princess Olga. The origin of the name “rus”, “ros” is too controversial, but the version about “rowers” ​​does not suit me.
  2. +4
    11 June 2024 07: 37
    Thanks to the Author, a very interesting story about interesting destinies. The destinies of people and nations are intertwined, this tangle is our common history.
  3. +2
    11 June 2024 08: 16
    At Ingigerd's insistence, he left his son (and her nephew) Magnus in Novgorod.

    Magnus was not her nephew. He was the son of the concubine Alfhild, not Astrid, the wife of Olaf the Saint and half-sister of Ingigerd.
    Astrid was Magnus's stepmother, and they had a good relationship.
  4. +4
    11 June 2024 08: 25
    When considering the life history of Yaroslav, a strange thing becomes clear: the great ancient Russian prince was almost always defeated in wars: he was defeated by the Polish king Boleslav, then the Polotsk prince Bryachislav and the Tmutarakan Mstislav were victorious, and his army died near Constantinople. But the prince is one of the greatest.
    1. +2
      11 June 2024 11: 04
      But the prince is one of the greatest.

      The phenomenon of Yaroslav the Wise is primarily associated with the Russkaya Pravda, the first written codified set of legal relations that appeared during his reign (initially, apparently, an agreement on relations with Novgorod).
      And since the popular saying goes, “Don’t be born beautiful, but be born happy.” Paradoxically, Yaroslav the Wise (during his lifetime he was not called that) was more suited to the nickname Udatny (in the form Lucky, Successful).
  5. VLR
    +5
    11 June 2024 10: 23
    Regarding Harald’s triumphant return to Kyiv and his marriage to Elizabeth: I recall Pushkin’s lines from the poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila” - Finn’s story:
    I sailed into the distance, full of hope,
    With a crowd of fearless countrymen;
    We are ten years of snow and waves
    They were stained with the blood of enemies.
    Rumor sped: the kings of the land
    They feared my audacity;
    Their proud squads
    Fled northern swords.
    ............................................
    At the feet of the haughty beauty
    I brought a bloody sword,
    Corals, gold and pearls;
    Before her, intoxicated with passion,
    Surrounded by a silent swarm
    Her envious friends
    I stood as an obedient prisoner;

    Very similar - except for the ending:
    But the maiden hid from me,
    Saying with an air of indifference:
    "Hero, I don't love you!"
  6. +2
    11 June 2024 11: 34
    Anna Yaroslavna's signature has been preserved - she signed herself "Anna Russian". And the Banderaites privatized her, at the opening of the monument in France, in 2005, Yushchenko called her Anna of Kyiv. There is no exact date of death and burial place of Anna, but there is fragmentary information that William the Conqueror, out of old vassal friendship, equipped a ship for the former queen to return to her homeland, but Anna did not make it and died on the way somewhere near Novgorod.
  7. +2
    11 June 2024 12: 15
    At the time of Harald's departure, Ingigerd's daughter was about 10 years old

    To be honest, I thought that she was at least a teenager - about 14 years old. And 10 years old - she was probably more interested in games with her peers at that time, rather than Harald’s sighs. But when he returned, it was a different matter: she was already a grown girl, he was a handsome handsome man with a lot of gold and good prospects for the throne. We must take it before others intercept it.
    1. +3
      11 June 2024 12: 23
      Another interesting thing: would Yaroslav have given the “savings” previously sent to Kiev to Harald if he had not married Elizabeth? It’s not a pity for the son-in-law, let him settle down at home so that his daughter doesn’t need anything. So to speak, the dowry is at the expense of the groom. And give money and treasures to a Varangian just passing by?
  8. +3
    12 June 2024 08: 26
    Quote: paul3390
    Fishing is a real hassle in the upper reaches; you can’t get anything serious through there.

    You are in vain assessing the level of flooding of rivers and lakes based on their current state. In ancient times everything was completely different. It is estimated that Lake Ilmen has lost half its depth over the last thousand years due to siltation alone. Plus drying.
    There is nothing to say about the current state of European rivers; everyone is complaining about catastrophic shallowing.
    1. +1
      12 June 2024 10: 54
      In ancient times everything was completely different. It is estimated that Lake Ilmen has lost half its depth over the last thousand years due to siltation alone. Plus drying.

      Good afternoon!
      With the Baltic, everything is much more complicated. Only in the historical period, at least two rivers (I don’t remember the names) changed not even their bed, but their direction. Lake Peipsi, on the contrary, has increased its area, which has been proven by archaeologists. In addition to the climate, it is necessary to take into account political, economic and other factors that we do not know for certain.
      Have a nice day!