They were similar in many ways, but, in the first place, they equally argued that the air defense system should be extremely automated and compact, should not be placed on more than two high-traffic vehicles (otherwise, their deployment time would be unacceptably long).
The first such an air defense missile system was to be the American Mauler, designed to repel attacks of low-flying aircraft and tactical missiles. All the means of this air defense missile system were located on the M-113 amphibious tracked carrier and included a launcher with 12 missiles in containers, target detection and fire control equipment, radar antennas of the guidance system and power plant. It was assumed that the total mass of the air defense system will be about 11 t, which will provide the possibility of its transportation on airplanes and helicopters. However, already at the initial stages of development and testing, it became clear that the initial requirements for the "Mauler" were put forward with excessive optimism. So, a single-stage rocket created for it with a semi-active radar homing head with a launch mass of 50 - 55 kg should have a range of up to 15 km and reach speeds of up to 890 m / s. The realization of these characteristics with rocket technology could only provide design through 25 - 30 years. .
As a result, the development turned out to be doomed to failure, and in July 1965, having spent more than $ 200 million, Mauler refused in favor of implementing more pragmatic air defense programs based on the use of aviation Say-duinder missiles, automatic anti-aircraft guns and the results of similar developments carried out by companies in Western Europe.
The British company “Short” became a pioneer in this area, where, based on the research carried out to replace anti-aircraft guns on small ships, since April 1958 has launched work on the C-rocket with a range of up to 5 km. This rocket was supposed to be the main part of a compact , cheap and relatively simple air defense system. At the beginning of the 1959 of the year, without waiting for the start of its mass production, the system was adopted by the ships of Great Britain, and then Australia, New Zealand, Sweden and a number of other countries. In parallel with the ship version, the ground version of the system with the 62-kg rocket “Taygerket”, which had 200 speed - 250 m / s and placed on tracked or wheeled armored personnel carriers, as well as on trailers. In the future, "Taygerkat" was in service in more than 10 countries.
In turn, in anticipation of “Mauler”, in the UK, British Aircraft began in the 1963 year to work on creating an X 316 air defense system, later designated as “Rapier”. However, its characteristics in almost all parameters turned out to be significantly lower than those presented to “Mauler ".
Today, several decades later, it should be recognized that the ideas embodied in the “Mauler” were implemented to the greatest extent in the Soviet OSR “Osa”, despite the fact that its development was also very dramatic and was accompanied by a change of both program managers and organizations - developers.
ZRK 9KZZ "Wasp"
The creation of the OSA 9KZZ “Wasp” began on October 27 1960 of the year. A government decree issued on this day ordered the creation of a military and naval version of a small-sized autonomous air defense system with a unified 9MZ3 missile with 60 - 65 kg mass. Among the main requirements imposed on the Osa was complete autonomy, which would be provided by the location of fixed assets of the air defense system - a detection station, a launcher with six missiles, communications, navigation and toporavidka, control, computing equipment and power sources on a single self-propelled wheeled vehicle. floating chassis, and the possibility of detecting in motion and damage from short stops suddenly appearing from any direction low-flying targets (at distances from 0,8 to 10 km, at altitudes from 50 to 5000 m).
NII-20 (now NIEMI), the main designer of the SAM system M.M. Lisichkin, and KB-82 (Tushinsky Machine-Building Plant), the main designer of the ADM A.V. Potopalov, and the lead designer M.G.Ollo were appointed head developers. The initial plans envisaged the completion of the OSA by the end of 1963.
However, the difficulty of achieving such high requirements with the existing capabilities at that time, as well as a large number of innovations adopted at the initial stage, led to the fact that the developers met with considerable objective difficulties. In 1961 year, at the stage of launching an advance project, there was a discrepancy in the indicators of the main elements of the rocket and the complex. developed by various organizations. Trying to solve the problems that have arisen, the developers gradually abandoned a number of the most advanced technical solutions that were not yet provided with an appropriate production base. The radar means for detecting and tracking targets with phased antenna arrays, a semi-active radar homing missile combined with autopilot in the so-called multi-functional unit did not emerge from the paper of the experimental stage. The latter literally “scattered” the rocket.
At the initial design stage, based on the size of the launch mass of the rocket, KB-82 assumed that with this unit, the mass of which was estimated at 12 - 13 kg, the rocket would have high targeting accuracy, ensuring the necessary effectiveness of hitting targets with a warhead of 9,5 kg. In the remaining incomplete 40 kg it was necessary to enter the propulsion system and control system.
But at the initial stage of work, the creators of the equipment almost doubled the mass of the multifunctional unit, and this forced the use of the radio command guidance method, which accordingly reduced the pointing accuracy. The characteristics of the propulsion system incorporated in the project turned out to be unrealistic - 10-percent energy shortage required an increase in the fuel supply. The launch weight of the rocket reached 70 kg. To correct this situation, KB-82 started developing a new engine, but time was lost.
During 1962 - 1963, at the Donguz proving ground, a series of missile launches of prototypes of rockets, as well as four autonomous missile launches with a full set of equipment, were performed. Positive results were achieved only in one of them.
The developers of the combat vehicle of the complex, the self-propelled 1040 launcher, created by the designers of the Kutaisi Automobile Plant together with specialists from the Military Academy of Armored Forces, also caused problems. By the time of its entry into the tests, it became clear that its weight also exceeded the established limits.
8 January 1964, the Soviet government created a commission that was charged to provide the necessary assistance to the developers of "Wasps". It was headed by the head of the Scientific Research Institute-2 (now GosNIIAS) V. A. Dzhaparidze, and the most reputable developers of an anti-aircraft missile weapons A A Raspletin and PDGrushin. According to the results of the work of the commission 8 September 1964, a joint resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR was issued, in accordance with which KB-82 exempted 9MZZ from the rocket and transferred its development to OKB-2 (now ICB Fakel) PD.Grushina. At the same time, a new deadline was set for the submission of the joint-action system for joint tests - P quarter 1967 of the year.
The experience that OKB-2 specialists had by that time, their creative search for solutions to design and technological problems allowed to achieve impressive results, despite the fact that the rocket had to be developed almost anew. In addition, the OKB-2 substantiated that the demands placed on the rocket in the 1960 year are overly optimistic. As a result, the most critical parameter of the previous task - the mass of the rocket - was almost doubled.
Among others, they applied an innovative technical solution. In those years, it was known that the aerodynamic “duck” scheme — with front-mounted rudders — is most suitable for maneuverable low-altitude rockets. But the airflow disturbed by the deflected rudders further affected the wings, creating undesirable disturbances along the roll, the so-called “oblique moment”. In principle, it was impossible to cope with the differential deflection of the rudders for roll control. It was necessary to install the ailerons on the wings and, accordingly, to equip the rocket with an additional power drive. But on the small-sized rocket there was no extra volume and mass reserve for them.
PD Grushin and his staff ignored the “oblique moment of blowing”, allowing a free roll in the roll - but only the wings, not the entire rocket. ”The wing block was fixed on the bearing assembly, the moment was practically not transmitted to the rocket body.
In the design of the rocket were used for the first time the latest high-strength aluminum alloys and steel, three front compartments with equipment to ensure tightness performed as a single welded monoblock. Solid fuel engine - dual-mode. The telescopic two-channel charge of solid fuel located at the nozzle block created the maximum thrust at the launch site during combustion, and the forward charge with a cylindrical channel - moderate thrust in the cruising mode.
The first launch of the rocket took place on 25 in March on 1965 of the year and in the second half of 1967 of the year, Osu was presented for joint state tests. At the Emba range, a number of fundamental flaws were identified and in July 1968, the tests were suspended. This time, among the main shortcomings, customers pointed to the unsuccessful layout of the combat vehicle with space-borne elements of the air defense system and its low performance. With the linear arrangement of the launcher of the missile defense system and the antenna post of the radar at the same level, shelling of low-flying targets behind the car was excluded, at the same time the launcher significantly limited the radar review sector in front of the car. As a result, the object "1040" had to be abandoned, replacing it with a more load-lifting chassis "937" of the Bryansk Automobile Plant, on the basis of which it was possible to constructively combine into a single radar device and a launch device with four missiles.
The new chief designer of "Wasps" was appointed director of the NIEMI V.P.Efremov, and his deputy - M.Dreese. Despite the fact that the work on the "Mauler" by that time had ceased, the developers of "Wasps" were still determined to bring the matter to the end. A major role in its success was played by the fact that in the spring of 1970, at the Embeni testing ground, preliminary (and additional to firing tests) evaluations of the functioning processes of “Wasps” created a semi-natural modeling complex.
Since July, began the final stage of testing, and 4 October 1971, "Osu" adopted. In parallel with the final stage of state tests, the developers of the complex began the modernization of the air defense system. in order to expand the zone affected by it and increase combat effectiveness (Osa-A, Osa-AK with the 9МЗЗМ2 rocket). The most significant improvements in the ZRK at this stage were the increase in the number of missiles placed in the combat vehicle in transport and launch containers to six, the improvement of the noise immunity of the complex, the increase in the service life of the missile, the reduction in the minimum height of target damage to 27.
In the course of further modernization, which began in November 1975, the ZRK received the designation “Osa-AKM” (9МЗЗМЗ) its main advantage was the effective defeat of helicopters hovering or flying at almost “zero” altitude, as well as small-sized RPVs. These qualities of "Osa-AKM", adopted for use in 1980 year, acquired earlier than its later counterparts - the French "Krotal" and the French-German "Roland-2".
Soon, “Osu” was first used in hostilities. In April, 1981, while repelling bombing attacks on Syrian troops in Lebanon with rockets of this air defense system, shot down several Israeli aircraft. Its high effectiveness of the OSA “Osa” continued even under the influence of intense interference, which made it necessary to use a variety of tactical techniques, in turn, to reduce the effectiveness of strike aircraft, in addition to EW equipment.
Twin launcher ZIF-122 SAM "Osa-M
In the future, the military specialists of almost 25 states, where these SAMs are currently in service, have been able to evaluate the high performance of various variants of the OSA “Osa” and its ship version “Osa-M”. The last of them to receive this effective weapon, which by the criteria of cost and effectiveness still remains among the world leaders, was Greece.