He spent his childhood in Andijan, where he was happy. Here he received an education, he showed love for poetry. Before he dies, he will yearn for Fergana. Already at 11, he was forced to take over the reins of the Fergana Principality - his father died on June 9, 1494, at the age of 39. From the very beginning of the reign, Babur had to fight for his destiny and for Maverannakhr - the region between Amudarya and Syrdarya (Sogdiana), including such famous cities as Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, etc. His position was precarious. In the region were constant strife. There were enough feudal lords, who wanted to grab something from their neighbors, subjugate them, or simply plunder. Even his brother came out against Babur, and he had to divide the Fergana principality into two parts. His main opponent was the Uzbek Khan Mohammed Sheybani (the founder of the state of Sheybanids). The strife among the Timurids led to the fact that Shaybani Khan 1501 finally seized Samarkand and made it the capital of his state. Babur was entrenched in Tashkent, where he tried to knock together a coalition of feudal rulers against Sheibani. However, due to the betrayal of several princes, he was defeated. In 1500 — 1505, Babur was ousted by Khan Sheibani to Afghanistan, where he created a new state with its capital in Kabul. Before 1512, he unsuccessfully tried to repel Bukhara and Samarkand. The idea to conquer India was born already in 1504, when Babur was just 21 a year. However, due to the short-sightedness of relatives and feudal lords, this idea had to be postponed and tried to reclaim the native lot.
In Afghanistan, Babur created a strong army, and after failing with Samarkand, he decided to seize India. Northern India had already been subordinated to the Muslim rulers by this point - the Delhi Sultanate was created in the 13 century. However, by the end of the 14 century, the sultanate was already weakened and after the invasion of the army of Timur, fell apart. In the 15 century, the limits of the sultanate were limited to the two confines of the Ganges and Jamna. The Indian subcontinent divided dozens of small and large state entities, often hostile to each other. In 1518 - 1524, Babur's troops made several raids on Punjab (northwestern India), seizing large loot. The turning point in the moods of the nobility occurred as a result of the fact that the powerful enemy of Babur Sheibani-Khan started a campaign against Afghanistan. He was joined by other Central Asian rulers. Resist such a power was not possible, because of the constant strife Afghan tribes. “I was left alone in Kabul, the enemy is very strong, and we are very weak,” says the emir of Kabul to those close to him. - Having such a strong and powerful opponent, we must find a place for ourselves; while there is time and opportunity, we need to get away from such a powerful and formidable enemy. ” We decided to go to India not with a robber raid, but with an aggressive campaign.
The governor of Punjab Daulat Khan, who was at enmity with the Sultan Ibrahim Lodi who reigned in Delhi, decided to support the actions of Babur. Daulat Khan had supporters in Delhi, where they were unhappy with the rule of the cruel Sultan Ibrahim Lodi. Prince Sangram Singh was among the conspirators. Thus, the conspiracy of the Indian political elite became the main prerequisite that predetermined the fall of the Delhi Sultanate. Instead of meeting the enemy on distant frontiers, the highest dignitaries of the Sultan launched him inland to overthrow the Sultan with Babur’s hands.
Daulat Khan himself planned to take the throne in Delhi, believing that Babur’s campaigns, like Timur’s invasion, are predatory. The troops of Babur, laden with rich booty and satiated with violence, will leave India themselves. However, he miscalculated. Babur took Lahore in 1524 and did not leave, and next year he made a new campaign. Punjab governor opposed him, but was defeated.
21 April 1526 of the year on the Panipat plain, on the way from Lahore to Delhi, a decisive battle took place 12-thousand. case of Babur with 40-th. the army of the Delhi Sultan. The victory of Babur’s troops was predetermined by the use of artillery and guns, in which the ruler of Kabul had a complete advantage, and the tactics of covering the enemy’s flanks by cavalry detachments. In India, firearms weapon they knew, but the useless commander Ibrahim neglected them and planned to crush Babur's squad with the pressure of powerful cavalry. Babur tied the wagon train between them, covered them with shields. Between the carts there were openings for guns, musketeers and cavalry. The flanks of the defense line were covered with moats and abutments. All the attacks of the enemy cavalry troops Babur reflected the harmonious rifle-cannon volleys and horse counterattacks. When the Delhi cavalry was upset, it was overturned by flank blows of cavalry. The Delhi Sultan laid down his head in this battle. Thousands of Indian warriors laid down their heads in this battle. The road to Delhi was open.
30 April 1526, Babur became the first padishah of Delhi, who founded the Mughal state. The rout of the troops of the Delhi Sultan under Panipati, the news of his death were a shock to North India. Without delay, Babur captured the two main cities of the sultanate, Delhi and Agra. His warriors occupied all government buildings, palaces and treasury. There was almost no resistance. His troops immediately began restoring order in the district. Babur immediately issued a decree prohibiting robbing and offending families of defeated enemies, which inclined many people to his side and did not provoke a response wave of resistance that terror could cause. Babur also immediately rewarded his comrades-in-arms and soldiers. From the Indian treasures of warlords and ordinary soldiers issued money, as well as various goods, weapons and horses. In addition to these distributions, land, land, and pastures were distributed. Generous gifts received Kabul, Ghazna, Kandahar and even Mecca, where they were sent through wanderers. This generosity has caused many rumors that have reached neighboring countries. According to one of them, the incoming padishah distributed all the treasures of India he had captured and left nothing for himself, acting as a wandering dervish. Vladyka Babur himself reflected this thought in verse: "I do not belong to the fraternity of dervishes, but, as a king, I am their brother in spirit."
It should be noted that Babur’s desire to stay in India and make it home for all the descendants of Genghis Khan and Timur was not accepted by everyone. Indignation arose in the troops. There were deserters. The first among those who fled was the first adviser to the padishah, Khoja Kalan, who left under the pretext of handing out gifts and became the ruler of Kabul. Warriors in many ways for them strange and unusual in nature, the climate of India. Babur had to gather a council, where he convinced the leaders to remain in India: “For how many years we have been trying and suffering, we went to distant states and led the troops, exposing ourselves and people to the dangers of battle and war! By the grace of God, we have crushed so many enemies and seized so vast lands. What kind of strength and necessity do we now have, without reason, forcing us to abandon possessions, conquered after so many labors, and return again to Kabul in order to put ourselves to the test of poverty and weakness? Let anyone who wants good to us, no longer speak such words, and he who can no longer be steadfast if he wants to leave, let him go and not give up on it. ”
True, he also had to break the resistance of the Rajput princes, led by Sangram Singh, who, seeing that Babur was not going to leave, gathered a large army. The companions of Babur were frightened and persuaded him to leave India, they had already grabbed great riches and were afraid of losing them. They said that "one should be content with the mercy of Allah, which he bestowed." However, for Babur, it was a high point, and he was not going to retreat. The main dream of his life came true. As a token of his faith, he ordered the destruction of wine stocks, although he liked to drink and made a vow not to drink (he fulfilled it). The decisive battle of the Rajputs with Babur's army took place at Khanua (near Sikri) in March 1527. And once again, the superiority of Babur's troops in artillery and handguns played a decisive role. More numerous Rajput troops attacked Babur’s defenses. However, their attacks broke against a skillful defense and counterattacks. Rajput princes suffered a crushing defeat. Their leader Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) was seriously injured and died the same year. None of his descendants dared to continue the fight. This victory over the Rajput confederation led to the final establishment of Babur’s power over Northern India. Having achieved success, Babur moved the center of the newly formed state to Agra. Until the end of his life - 1530, he expanded his power, joining the valley of the Ganges to it, to the borders of Bengal. He defeated 6 on May 1529, the battle of Gogre, the rulers of Bihar and Bengal.
Part of the Afghan troops Babur returned to their homeland, loaded with rich booty. The other part remained in India. The warriors received land plots from the padishah. New landowners usually hired local residents who were better versed in local conditions. Babur conducted the formation of the tax administration and the centralized control system in the new power, but did not manage to complete this work. These tasks were already solved by his successors. Despite a very brief reign - 1526-1530, Babur was able to lay the foundations of a future great power, uniting a significant part of fragmented India. He streamlined land and water relations, the tax system. According to his instructions, a large construction program was launched, mosques, baths, buildings of various purposes were built, and wells were rummaged. In the largest Indian cities - Delhi, Agra, Lahore, Devalpur, the padishah laid gardens and parks with ornamental plants. Apparently, the first such building in India was a large garden, called Kabul-Bakht, founded in Panipat in honor of the victory over the Delhi Sultan Ibrahim Lodi. In the gardens laid out in India, the padishah first applied the experience of growing melons and grapes from Central Asia. During his numerous trips around the country, Babur tirelessly planned the construction of roads that were supposed to be framed by shady irrigated gardens.
Babur paid great attention to the improvement of the major Indian cities subordinate to him. The architecture, the layout of public and private buildings, their exterior details and the interior, took a lot from the style adopted in Central Asia, while at the same time they could organically combine with the Indian style. In architecture, there was a synthesis of two styles. This process was developed under the heirs of Babur.
The founder of the new power actively sought to strengthen trade and economic ties with Afghanistan, Iran, and Central Asia. Babur’s decree was issued on the improvement of the caravanserai, the construction of special wells on trade routes, the preparation of food and fodder for travelers. All these activities were aimed at increasing trade with neighboring countries and the normalization of relations with them. Babur normalized relations with the Sheibanids. Padishah, even shortly before his death, Babur sent an ambassador to the Russian ruler, Vasily Ivanovich.
Before his death, Babur appointed an heir - he became the eldest son Humayun. The rest of the sons received Punjab, Kabul and Kandahar, and were obliged to obey their elder brother.
Babur was noted not only as an outstanding commander and statesman, but also as a very educated person who knows how to appreciate art. In his capital, Agra, the padishah gathered around him many talented writers, poets, artists, musicians, researchers, to whom he paid great attention. He tried to learn more about local customs, traditions, was distinguished by observation. He studied the history and culture of the peoples of Central Asia, Afghanistan and India. The merits of Babur as a historian, geographer, and ethnographer are now recognized by world oriental science. He was noted as a prominent poet and writer who wrote the historical work "Babur-name". In this autobiographical composition, the padishah left a description of the great cities of Central Asia, Khorasan, Afghanistan, Iran and India. For modern science, his reports on Samarkand, Bukhara, Kabul, Ghazni, Balkh, Fergana, Badakhshan, Delhi, Devalpur, Lahore and other cities and places are invaluable. He also described caravan routes, trails leading from Kabul to India, and to Central Asia. The work found an excellent reflection of the descriptions of nature, flora, fauna, geography of Central Asia, Afghanistan and India. The book also contains information about the political life of India, fragmentary data about the history of this country. In "Babur-name" a lot of data on Indian ethnography: it is told about the caste system, customs, the life of the common people and the feudal nobility.
Babur's Peru also owns a treatise on poetics; the poetic presentation of the Muslim law and the development of the alphabet - “Hatti Baburi” (“Alphabet of Babur”). The “Alphabet” was created on the basis of Old Turkic letters and was distinguished by a more simplified in style, as compared with complex Arabic letters.