Nicknamed La Hire

Nicknamed La Hire
R. Ridings as La Hire

In 1429, the star of Joan of Arc suddenly flashed brightly in France. She did not shine for long, alas. For the first time, a 16-year-old girl appeared before the Dauphin Charles of Valois on March 8, 2 months later - on May 8, the siege of Orleans was lifted, on July 17, the coronation of the Dauphin took place in Reims, and already on May 24, 1430, Jeanne was captured and on May 30, 1431 year was burned in Rouen.

Joan of Arc, medieval miniature

The successes of the provincial peasant woman caused irritation and discontent among the aristocrats. On September 8, 1429, during the storming of Paris, Jeanne was wounded in the leg by an arrow from a crossbow; the troops of the Duke of Alençon La Tremoille were nearby, but until nightfall the girl remained without help. She was captured by the Burgundians (allies of the British) because a fortress bridge was raised in front of the retreating detachment in which she was.

According to the customs of that time, the warring parties did not have the right to hold captive a warrior for whom a fair (corresponding to his position) ransom was offered. They even released La Hire (the hero of the article), who was terrible for the Burgundians and the British. But Charles VII did not want to ransom Jeanne, who actually gave him the crown, but the British offered 10 thousand gold livres for her - a price equal to the ransom of a prince of the blood.

In December, she was brought to Rouen, where she was tried and found guilty... no, not by the British, but by the highest hierarchs of the French Catholic Church and professors at the Sorbonne in Paris. The girl was accused of violating the covenant to honor her parents (since she left home without permission) and that she “shamelessly rejected the decency and restraint of her sex, and without embarrassment accepted the shameful attire and military guise.”

She was declared an instigator of wars, “viciously thirsting for human blood and forcing it to be shed.” Jeanne's words that “the saints speak French, for they are not on the side of the English” were declared blasphemous.

In addition, she was recognized as an idolater, summoning demons and accused of sorcery and predicting the future. And the voices that called on Joan of Arc to defend the fatherland were recognized not as belonging to the Archangel Michael and Saints Catherine and Margaret, but to the demons Belial, Behemoth and Satan - that is, she saved France at the instigation of demons of the highest rank.

And two years after meeting with the Dauphin Charles (May 30, 1431), Joan of Arc was burned in Rouen.

Rouen, monument at the site of the execution of Joan of Arc

She was posthumously acquitted on July 7, 1456 - that is, for 25 years, the savior of France was officially considered a heretic and a witch in this country. And only on May 16, 1920, Joan was canonized by Pope Benedict XV.

Allen Douglas. Saint Joan of Arc in the war with the British

But let's go back to May 1431.

Then in all of Rouen only one person showed sympathy for the unfortunate 19-year-old girl abandoned by everyone. It was an unnamed English archer who, during the execution, threw himself into the fire to give her a homemade wooden crucifix. And two people who were undoubtedly devoted to her were then very far away and were unable to help.

Companions of Joan of Arc

One of the people unconditionally devoted to the Maid of Orleans was Gilles de Montmorency-Laval, Baron de Rais, Comte de Brienne. The meeting with Jeanne made such an impression on the spoiled and dissolute aristocrat that, unexpectedly for everyone, he turned into a hero, and at the age of 25 he received the title of Marshal of France and the right to wear the royal sign of the Lily.

Gilles de Laval, sire de Rais. This is how we see him in the portrait by Eloi Firmin Feron (Versailles, Gallery of Marshals)

And this is a frame from Luc Besson’s film “Joan of Arc”, in the role of Gilles de Rais V. Cassel (in fact, de Rais was a very young man), and the hero of the article, La Hire, stands behind on the left.

In May 1431, Gilles de Rais, at the head of a detachment of mercenaries he had assembled at his own risk, tried to break through to Rouen, but was too late. After the execution of Jeanne, he left the king and settled in the castle of Tiffauges. It is known that he spent 80 thousand ecus on the production of Mystere d'Orleans, in which, in addition to actors and musicians, 140 extras participated. But his main hobby was practicing magic and alchemy.

The former marshal was not interested in business, and soon many of his estates were mortgaged, which played a fatal role in his fate. It was the creditors who slandered Gilles de Rais, who was eventually sentenced to hanging and burning his corpse. A companion of Joan of Arc was accused of kidnapping and murdering 140 children, insulting sacred objects, serving the devil, apostasy and heresy.

Execution of Gilles de Rais

Nobody believed in the fairness of the verdict; in the Monstrele chronicle you can read that

“The majority of the nobles of Brittany ... were in the greatest sadness and embarrassment from the shameful death of Gilles de Rais, famous as the most valiant of the knights.”

At the grave of the “serial maniac,” nursing mothers began to pray for an abundance of milk to be sent down to them. Just 2 years later, Gilles de Rais was rehabilitated by the King of France. Nevertheless, it is Gilles de Rais who is considered the prototype of Duke Bluebeard.

By the way, in 1992, de Rais was acquitted by the Senate Tribunal, created on the initiative of the writer Gilbert Prouteau. However, the verdict of the judicial panel is not valid, since the assembled composition of the court did not have the authority to review cases of the XNUMXth century.

But today we will talk in detail about another admirer and supporter of Joan of Arc - the Gascon Etienne de Vignoles, who, after the execution of Joan of Arc, took revenge on the Burgundians and the British for several years.

Etienne de Vignoles, La Hire

The hero of today's article was distinguished by an indomitable and ferocious disposition; he is even called the person who most clearly embodied the choleric temperament. He was born either in 1380 or 1390 in the city of Préchec-des-Bains (modern department of the Southern Pyrenees), although some researchers believe that this happened in Saint-Gaudens (Haute-Garonne).

Coat of arms of Etienne de Vignolles: "of sand with three clusters of silver vines placed second and first, each cluster accompanied by a leaf."

However, the nickname of this man is much more well known - La Hire (La Hire, de La Hire). Many believe that it came from ire - “anger”, “fury”, others believe that La Hire received his nickname from the word herisson - “Hedgehog”.

He was called the “god of hire,” and some called him “an inveterate hangman” and “the Devil’s favorite.”

Etienne was an illiterate blasphemer and an incorrigible foul speaker, which Voltaire did not fail to ironically mention in his poem “The Virgin of Orleans”:

"In the council of warriors and sages
Streams of noble words flowed,
Calls were heard to save the fatherland;
Especially La Hire is eloquent
He spoke well and for a long time.”

In Russia, readers usually don’t pay much attention to these lines, but the French consider this passage one of the funniest in this parody poem.

It was La Guira who “forced” Voltaire to kill the young lover of one of the Englishmen:

“Young Rosamore walked next to him,
Holding a sharp sword in a lily hand,
Visor, helmet, military outfit
Reminiscent of a slender page...
She walked forward fearlessly
Whispering to him barely audibly: “My beloved”...
And he delivers the fatal blow
Beautiful Rosamore.
She fell,
The chest opened, two delicate flowers,
The high forehead flashed from under the visor,
Her silk curls scattered,
And a gaze bluer than sapphire.”

It is all the more surprising that it was La Hire who was the first to recognize the divine inspiration of Joan of Arc; under her influence, he even began to go to communion.

True, La Hire’s “conversion” had a very specific connotation, quite consistent with his character. Jeanne always swore by the “staff of her banner”, imitating her, La Hire also began to swear by the “staff”, but not of the banner, but “of his own” - that which distinguishes a man from a woman.

La Hire is credited with the following prayer:

“Dear Lord God, I ask You to do to La Hire as La Hire would do to You if You were La Hire, and he was God.”

Mark Twain later noted in the notes to his (very reliable with historical point of view) to the novel “Personal Memoirs of Joan of Arc by Sieur Louis de Comte”:

“This prayer has been stolen many times and by many peoples over the past 460 years.”

(Louis de Comte is a fellow countryman and associate of Joan of Arc, a witness at the process of her rehabilitation in Paris in 1455, his testimony under oath is recorded in the protocol and, along with other documents of that era, is used by historians as a primary source).

History has preserved other words of La Hire:

“If the Lord were a soldier, he would also rob!”

And here is another of his aphorisms:

“If you want to survive, strike first.”

And such a person began to unquestioningly obey Joan of Arc - a very fragile and pious girl, about whom the Dauphin’s chamberlain Charles Perceval de Boulainvilliers wrote (in June 1429) to the Duke of Milan Filippo Visconti:

“This virgin is graceful in build; she behaves like a man, speaks little, and shows extraordinary prudence in her speeches; she has a pleasant feminine voice. She eats little and drinks even less.”

Joan of Arc in a drawing by the Secretary of the Paris Parliament Clément Faucombert, dated May 10, 1429: not a powerful, masculine “boy-woman,” but a very thin, slender girl

The strength of personality of the Maid of Orleans was indeed great, and in the mentioned novel Mark Twain had the right to write about her:

“God sent her or not, but there is something in her that elevates her above the warriors, above all the warriors of France, which inspires them to feats, turns a gathering of cowards into an army of brave men, and they gain fearlessness in her presence.”

And also:

“She was great in her ability to discover abilities and talents, wherever they lurked; great with her wonderful gift to speak convincingly and eloquently; is incredibly great in the ability to ignite the hearts of those who lost faith, to instill hope and passion in them; the ability to turn cowards into heroes, crowds of lazy people and deserters into battalions of brave men. "

At the time of his meeting with Jeanne, Etienne de Vignolles was considered almost an old man - about 40 years old; few of the constantly fighting soldiers managed to live to that age. Below you see an idealized portrait of him, painted in 1835 by Louis-Féliz Amiel:

However, in fact, he was not handsome (rather, on the contrary), and he also limped badly, because in 1421, in one of the inns, a chimney fell on his right leg, and the broken bone apparently healed incorrectly.

He and his friend Jean Poton de Xaintrailles joined the army of the Dauphin Charles back in 1418. In the same year, Etienne captured the Burgundian-controlled castle of Coucy, after which he adopted the motto:

“I am not a king, I am not a prince, I am not a duke, I am not a count; I am Lord de Coucy."

However, the very next year, some maid released the captured Burgundians, who again captured the castle.

La Hire and de Centrale fought in Vermandois, Lanois and Lorraine, where they were part of a mercenary detachment formed by Cardinal de Bar.

La Hire and Poton de Centrale in a 15th-century miniature

In 1421, Etienne de Vignolles took part in the Battle of Beaujeu, in which the French, in alliance with the Scots, defeated a detachment of the English. In September 1427, he was in the army that lifted the siege of the northern French city of Montargis. In October 1428, La Hire and de Centrale found themselves at Orleans, besieged by the English, as reported in the “Diary of the Siege of Orleans and a Trip to Reims” (Le journal du siege d'Orleans et du voyage de Reims), written by a certain cleric Pierre Soudan:

“Many noble lords, knights, captains arrived... and Etienne de Vignoles, nicknamed La Hire, whose fame is extremely great, and with him other brave people.”

Voltaire wrote:

“We didn’t forget to take reasonable measures
La Hire is in danger, as is Poton.
Their every step was weighed and decided,
And they all foresaw and knew.”

La Hire constantly participated in skirmishes with enemy troops, went to the Dauphin with requests for reinforcements, the archives contain a document according to which, on behalf of Chinon’s treasurer Pierre de Fontenille, Etienne de Vignolles was given “one hundred ecus in gold and 825 Tours livres”, and then - another 512 livres.

La Hire also took part in the battle that took place near Rouvray (north of Orleans) on February 12, 1429. The English convoy, which John Fastolf led to Orleans, contained 300 carts with food and military equipment. Seeing the superior forces of the French of Count Charles of Bourbon, Falstaff ordered to build a Wagenburg from carts and surround it with “sharp stakes and a palisade, leaving a single long and narrow passage for entry.”

But the French had artillery pieces with which they could literally smash this improvised British fortification to pieces. Falstaff tried to negotiate passage for a ransom, but Charles Bourbon, confident of victory, rejected this offer. The French cannons smashed the carts with herring, which spilled onto the ground - and therefore this small battle went down in history under the strange-sounding name “Battle of the Herrings.”

Everything was going to the point that the British would be defeated without even being able to engage in battle, but John Stewart’s Scots, allied with the French, arbitrarily attacked Wagenburg, which is why they had to stop shelling it. The advancing Scots suffered heavy losses from the English archers, and the attack of the French cavalry was also unsuccessful.

Then the British counterattacked the enemy and put him to flight. John Stewart died, and the famous Jean de Dunois (Bastard of Orleans) was among the wounded. The commander of one of the cavalry detachments, La Hire, withdrew his people without entering into the battle that had become meaningless. However, some argue that he retreated because he misunderstood the order of Charles of Bourbon.

“The Battle of the Herrings” on a miniature by F. de Mazerolles, manuscript of Jean Chartier’s “Chronicles of Charles VII”, 1470s.

The “Battle of the Herrings” had a great and unexpected impact on the further course of events. The fact is that, according to the anonymous author of the Chronicle of the Virgin, Joan of Arc, who was in Vaucouleurs, predicted the defeat of the French on February 8 - 4 days before the start of the Battle of Rouvray.

Eugene Lenepve. Joan of Arc at Vaucouleurs

Captain Robert de Baudricourt was so impressed by this fulfilled prophecy that he finally agreed to send Jeanne to Charles Valois: on March 8, she met with the Dauphin, recognizing him in the crowd of courtiers (of which there were allegedly 300 people). Here this 17-year-old girl met her most faithful comrades - Gilles de Rais and Etienne de Vignolles.

And then something unheard of happened: after numerous checks (both theological and virginity), the 17-year-old girl was given weapon, which, according to legend, belonged to Charles Martel himself, the royal banner was placed at the head of the army.

By the way, later during interrogations Zhanna stated that the banner was more important to her than the sword, which she never used for its intended purpose.

Next to Joan of Arc

As we have already noted, Etienne de Vignolles was the first to recognize Joan of Arc as the divinely inspired and future savior of France. He was next to her during the campaign against Orleans, and then during the famous Loire operation, during which from June 12 to 16, 1429, three victories were won over the British and the cities of Jargeau, Meun-sur-Loire and Beaugency were liberated.

Jargeau's stone, thrown by one of the English, broke on Jeanne's helmet without harming her, which was perceived as a miracle.

On June 18, at the Battle of Pat, La Hire and his friend Poton de Centrale commanded the vanguard of the French army, which overthrew the English archers and captured the enemy commander John Talbot, after which the units led by Falstaff fled in disarray - the same one who had recently won victory in "Battle of the Herrings"

Many researchers believe that it was precisely because of this flight under Pat that John Falstaff, declared a coward in his homeland, became an unlucky and comical character in three of Shakespeare's plays.

The Battle of Patay in a miniature from Jean Chartier's manuscript "The Chronicles of Charles VII"

On July 16, Reims opened its doors to the army of the Virgin, in whose cathedral the next day the Dauphin Charles of Valois was crowned.

But in November the French were defeated at La Charité.

On the fateful day of the capture of Joan of Arc, Gilles de Rais was away, and La Hire at that time was in Dourdan as a prisoner of the Burgundians - he would later be ransomed by the king.

After the death of Jeanne, Gilles de Rais and Etienne de Vignolles instantly “descended from heaven to earth” and turned into the people they were before meeting her: the first again became a rich tyrant gentleman, the second a highway bandit.

La Hire took revenge for Joan of Arc and, presumably, this revenge brought him great pleasure, as it allowed him to do what he loved - rob, rape, kill. He became famous for his extremely bold and even daring raids on the French possessions of the British in Normandy and was even appointed by Charles VII captain general of the still occupied Normandy. In 1434 La Hire became marshal of France. And in 1435, Etienne de Vignolles and Poton de Centrale defeated the English army at Gerberois.

The fatal wound for La Hire was a wound received in one of the skirmishes in 1442. He never managed to recover from it, and then he also fell ill and died in Montauban on January 11, 1443.

The afterlife of Etienne de Vignoles, nicknamed La Hire

With the growing popularity of card games, “figured” cards in Europe began to be identified with semi-legendary or famous real people.

So, the king of clubs, for example, personified Alexander the Great, and the queen of spades - Pallas Athena or Minerva.

There was no general opinion about the jack of diamonds: some believed that it symbolized the hero of the famous “Song of Roland”, who died in the Roncesvalles Gorge in 778, others spoke about the Trojan Hector.

The jack of spades began to be identified with Ogier of Ardennes (the Dane) - the knight of Charlemagne, about whom the “Song of Roland” says:

“The world has never seen a better fighter.”

The jack of clubs was identified with Lancelot, the knight of the Arthurian legends.

And La Hire became a symbol of the jack of hearts (the suit “hearts” in France symbolized knight’s shields).

Jack of Hearts, cardboard, woodcut, stencil painted. French map (1816–1840)

In addition, he is a minor character in many works telling about the life of Joan of Arc.
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  1. +3
    11 May 2024 06: 12
    Valery, dear! Well, I never expected it from you - “Joan of Arc, medieval miniature.” GOST is in the signature... And the fact that “medieval” is clear even to a baby. And so, I personally liked the material itself and the manner of presentation.
    1. VLR
      11 May 2024 06: 33
      Yes, it happens sometimes, I didn’t finish watching it, I confess. I'll fix it :)
    2. +8
      11 May 2024 08: 28
      And the fact that “medieval” is clear even to a baby.

      The miniature is not medieval at all. This is Jean Pichore, French artist, 16th century. This is already a Renaissance franchise.
  2. +5
    11 May 2024 07: 28
    because in 1241 a chimney fell on his right leg in one of the inns,
    Annoying confusion in date numbers in a historical plot is unacceptable. You need to re-read the material before publishing. hi
    1. VLR
      11 May 2024 07: 44
      Your eyes become blurred, and your brain automatically corrects typos - you read what should be there, and not what is written. And then you wonder how this could have gotten through. Thanks for pointing it out, we'll fix it.
      1. VLR
        12 May 2024 08: 20
        Corrected a typo in the date.
  3. +5
    11 May 2024 08: 23
    Zhanna had a strange and in many ways mysterious fate. In such a short time, from a peasant woman to a symbol of resistance, a star that eclipsed the king and burned at the stake. I think it was simply handed over to the Burgundians and it was handed over, first of all, to the king himself. His motives are simple; such a bright figure nearby seemed dangerous to him. And the fact that local priests burned it is not surprising in the occupied territory.
    And for the star
    What broke and falls,
    There is only a moment ,
    A dazzling moment..
    Her ability to influence people is amazing. Such people are not born in every century.
    1. +2
      12 May 2024 11: 27
      Whatever one may say, Jeanne is the greatest woman in the history of France! Who can be placed next to her? Eleanor of Aquitaine? Catherine de Medici? Saint Genevieve? No, it doesn't work!
      1. 0
        12 May 2024 14: 49
        Whatever one may say, Jeanne is the greatest woman in the history of France!

        The greatest or not, let the French decide, but the fact that the most charismatic is perhaps beyond doubt
  4. +3
    11 May 2024 09: 19
    Still, the French were a great people. But now they have degenerated and are limply handing over their country to migrants, pederasts (this is a medical term, if anything) and transvestites. In the 21st century, the native French will be in the position of Coptic Christians in modern Egypt.
    1. +8
      11 May 2024 10: 38
      After all, the French were a great people
      This is wrong. During the time of Jeanne there were no “French”, and there were none after. The formation of national self-awareness took place after the Thirty Years.
      1. +3
        11 May 2024 11: 17
        I meant that the French in general were a great people, and not the French from the time of Joan of Arc. But the “leaven” was also powerful.
  5. VLR
    11 May 2024 09: 28
    By the way, about the “romantic couple” of the English in Voltaire. At first, he speaks of them not too complimentarily:
    "Some Englishman, angry, arrogant,
    Coming here from afar...
    A true Briton, he himself did not know
    Why does he wander...
    And he despised the saints and everything holy.
    He recognized only one goal in life -
    Harm the French; his name was D'Arondel."
    "Always calm, with a proud posture,
    She never shed tears;
    She liked anxiety and war,
    And a cockfight in her homeland
    He served as her main entertainment in life.
    Her name was Judith de Rosamore,
    The color of Cambridge, the honor of the Bristol offices."

    And then suddenly:
    "In the chaos of horror and disorder
    We immediately found a target to our liking
    Dispassionate, arrogant demeanor,
    The courage of Christopher d'Arondel.
    The brave Briton did not say a word;
    He looked at the fierce battle sternly
    And indifferently, as if in front of him
    No blood flowed, no smoke spread."

    And Rosamore:
    "I walked forward fearlessly...
    Whispering to him barely audibly: “My desired one.”

    Beautiful, what can I say.
  6. +6
    11 May 2024 09: 34
    I'll correct it. It's not Vincent Cassel, who actually played the role of D'Ray, it's Richard Ridings, who played the role of La Hire.
    Thank you, Valery!
    1. +2
      12 May 2024 01: 44
      In the foreground is Tchéky Karyo as Dunois.
      1. +1
        12 May 2024 09: 38
        In the foreground is Tchéky Karyo as Dunois.
        I agree, my bad.
  7. +5
    11 May 2024 09: 45
    I remember there was a series of articles on the AI ​​website about possible encounters with real historical figures. One of the candidates was the Maid of Orelean.
    I don’t remember all the reasons, but...
    1) a man's dress - clearly a man caught in a woman's body
    2) knowledge and skills that the peasant woman from House Remy could not possess
    3) predicting the outcome of the Herring Battle. She could not predict other events, because history changed after her intervention

    where she was tried and found guilty... no, not the British, but the highest hierarchs of the French Catholic Church

    So what?
    For the church in general and the Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon in particular, Edward of England is a completely legitimate contender for the French throne. After all, he is a legitimate descendant of Philip the Fair and, in general, no less French than any other Angevin or Norman.
    But with Zhanna everything is not very simple. He hears voices... and who said that this is from the Lord?
    What do I mean? There is no need to measure the realities of that time by today's standards.
    1. +4
      11 May 2024 11: 15
      But the French themselves, according to polls, consider the trial of Jeanne and her execution to be the most shameful episode in their history.
      1. +3
        11 May 2024 12: 10
        Quote: vet
        But the French themselves, according to polls, consider the trial of Jeanne and her execution to be the most shameful episode in their history.

        Well, who else should they consider? Not Patena...
    2. +2
      11 May 2024 12: 03
      I don’t remember all the reasons, but...
      1) a man's dress - clearly a man caught in a woman's body
      2) knowledge and skills that the peasant woman from House Remy could not possess
      3) predicting the outcome of the Herring Battle. She could not predict other events, because history changed after her intervention

      In general, Wolf Messing was very unlucky... wink
    3. +2
      11 May 2024 12: 35
      For the church in general and the Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon in particular, Edward of England is a completely legitimate contender for the French throne.
      Debatable. 10 years earlier, the Great Western Schism had ended, in which England supported Rome and France Avignon.
  8. +9
    11 May 2024 10: 48
    And a little more than a year after the meeting with the Dauphin Charles (May 30, 1431), Joan of Arc was burned in Rouen.

    Joan of Arc's death penalty was commuted to life imprisonment on the condition that she renounce her "prophecies" and wear women's clothing. She initially agreed, but on May 28, “the voices of the saints returned” and all 27 judges declared her definitively a heretic.
    And only on May 16, 1920, Joan was canonized by Pope Benedict XV.

    Before her canonization, Joan of Arc was beatified (beatified) by Pope Pius X in 1909.
    1. +4
      11 May 2024 12: 12
      Quote: Dekabrist
      She initially agreed, but on May 28 "the voices of the saints returned"

      And they kept clothes nearby just in case recourse
      Well, the security, they say, contributed.
      1. +5
        11 May 2024 12: 47
        And they kept clothes nearby just in case. recourse
        Well, the security, they say, contributed.

        In the current “geopolitical” situation at that time, Joan of Arc had no chance. It is no coincidence that it was burned three times until it was “burnt to the ground.” The ashes were to be thrown into the Seine. But in 1867, an urn was found in the attic of a Paris pharmacy, which allegedly contained the remains of Joan of Arc. They were transferred to the Joan of Arc Museum in Chinon, where they were kept until the beginning of the XNUMXst century.
        Around 2007, a team of scientists led by renowned French forensic scientist Philippe Charlier began research to identify the remains.
        According to preliminary results
        the remains belonged to a young woman who was burned several times over a short period of time

        But the final conclusion was still negative. I don’t know the further fate of the remains; we need to find out more.
  9. +3
    11 May 2024 14: 46
    At the time of his meeting with Jeanne, Etienne de Vignolles was considered almost an old man - about 40 years old; few of the constantly fighting soldiers managed to live to that age.
    It is debatable, because John Talbot, mentioned in the article, died on the battlefield at the age of 60.
    1. +3
      11 May 2024 16: 44
      What is of interest is the ratio of those who at that time died before the age of 40 to those who lived to be 80. It seems that the former were an order of magnitude more numerous.
      1. +2
        11 May 2024 19: 20
        No, well, you can take the “average temperature in the hospital,” from a newborn to an elderly person. And then we will find out that life expectancy in the Middle Ages was 25 - 30 years. But this is all complete bullshit! Because it does not take into account the factor of high infant mortality. In addition, we do not have an array of data on the life spans of the first and third estates.
        As for the second estate, examples of experiencing the forty-year mark, more than!
        1. +2
          12 May 2024 08: 39
          I agree that if in the Middle Ages a person did not die in childhood, then he was healthier than our contemporaries. But here we are talking about war and soldiers - try living constantly fighting until you are 40 years old during the Hundred Years War.
  10. +1
    11 May 2024 16: 46
    Interesting quote from Voltaire:
    Her name was Judith de Rosamore,
    Cambridge colorah, honor of the Bristol offices

    Did the girls blink at studying at Cambridge? Or did she live in Cambridge, or was she a native of it?
    1. VLR
      11 May 2024 17: 43
      Probably, Judith de Rosamore was a noble native of the city of Cambridge - her “French” surname also speaks of her belonging to the highest aristocracy of England - apparently, she is from an ancient Norman family and her ancestors arrived in England with William the Conqueror. In Cambridge, the first women's college, Girton, was founded in 1869. In the 70s In the XNUMXth century, men began to be accepted into it. And others
      Cambridge's 4 women's colleges are still all-female.
  11. +1
    12 May 2024 08: 36
    still from Luc Besson's film "Joan of Arc", in the role of Gilles de Rais V. Cassel

    I'll correct it. It's not Vincent Cassel, who actually played the role of D'Ray, it's Richard Ridings, who played the role of La Hire.

    In the foreground is Tchéky Karyo as Dunois.

    Opinions were divided. And, really, the devil knows these French actors in armor laughing
  12. +2
    12 May 2024 11: 32
    People fought for the freedom of their homeland. Even if they are not ideal people, sinful, ambiguous. Are there many ideal heroes in Donbass now? Were there many of these in Grazhdanskaya?
    Well, the Church habitually served those who are currently in power - it declared the heroes heretics, witches, and Satanists. She asserted her authority over their execution. Then, when the government changed, it rehabilitated those who were pointed out. It always has been and always will be.
    1. 0
      16 May 2024 12: 31
      Are you kidding? It was the feudal lords who “fought for the freedom of their Motherland”? You will also say that the French fought against the English invaders, who until the end of the 15th century spoke exclusively French in parliament
  13. +1
    12 May 2024 21: 34
    Rouen, monument at the site of the execution of Joan of Arc

    According to the decision made during the rehabilitation process of Joan of Arc in 1456, there is a cross at the site of her burning
    1. VLR
      12 May 2024 22: 26
      As far as I understand, the cross and statue are nearby - on the Old Market Square - Place du Vieux-Marche, there is also a modern church, the shape of which was supposed to resemble tongues of flame.
      1. +1
        13 May 2024 01: 22
        Yes, nearby, I was there and saw it all. But directly at the place of execution there is a cross.