Expedition to the ancestors. The most important “solar boat” and its structure

62
Expedition to the ancestors. The most important “solar boat” and its structure
Transporting the solar boat from the foot of the Khufu pyramid to the new museum


Glory to you, Osiris, God of Eternity, king of the gods,
whose names are countless, whose incarnations are holy.
You are the hidden image in temples;
the soul-double will always be sacred to visiting mortals.
Hymn to Osiris. Ancient Egyptian "Book of the Dead"

Artifacts stories. Not long ago, several articles appeared on VO devoted to the ships of Ancient Egypt, and in particular to the “solar boats” of the pharaohs, on which they were supposed to be transported to the afterlife. And... all these materials collected a lot of comments of various kinds. And a number of readers asked to continue and develop this topic, they found it so interesting. The conversation also turned to the architectural features of the Nile ships, and this topic was also approved by VO readers for its further continuation.



Well, this time we will have to start a little from afar and remind our readers that the same pyramids of Egypt did not arise out of nothing and immediately in the form in which they are usually talked about. The first was the step pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser at Saqqara. Moreover, it began as a traditional rectangular mastaba, but its builder Imhotep, adding more and more steps in the shape of a mastaba, achieved that he gave his design a pyramidal shape.

Interestingly, Djoser's royal vizier Imhotep was not only one of the first recorded architects of ancient times, but among his dozens of titles he also held the title of overseer of the pharaoh's shipyard. That is, it was also related to shipbuilding!

After the completion of the first pyramid, the Egyptians continued to hone their building skills. Moreover, by the end of the third dynasty, the pharaoh became the sole focus of all Egyptian life. The so-called "Palermo Stone" is known to record the most important events in the lives of the pharaohs from the first to the fifth dynasties, so it can serve as a useful reference point for our discussion of early Egypt.

Moreover, on the “Palermo Stone” there are records of several pharaohs, each of whom made several trips around the country to conduct a census of the population and tax it. And the people easily obeyed him, and all because the second pharaoh of a united Egypt accepted a title that combined the names of Nekhbet and Wadjet, goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt, respectively. He became the key to maintaining Ma'at, the Egyptian perception of truth, justice and order in society.

And Pharaoh Snefru even took the title “netjer nefer”, which literally meant “perfect god”, and built three pyramids at once - “Broken”, “Red” and “Pyramid in Meidum”.

And just like that, the “Palermo Stone” contains a description of the ships he built from wood, 100 cubits long, and 60 boats, sixteen cubits long. Moreover, one of the 100-cubit boats received the name “Praise of Two Lands” - a direct allusion to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt.

The stone also reports that Sneferu saw "the arrival of forty ships of cedar wood", which is sometimes interpreted as "ships laden with cedar wood". In any case, this description is seen by many historians as a reference to trade with Lebanon or Byblos as it was called in ancient times.


Bas-relief from the tomb of dignitary Ti at Saqqara: construction of a boat

That is, it was Sneferu who started the “Golden Age of Pyramids” of the fourth dynasty and the construction of ships made of cedar wood (and not acacia blocks, by no means!), but it was his son Khufu who built the Great Pyramid in Giza and... buried at least two of them there rooks.

If some seer or visitor from the future could have warned Khufu that his tomb would be plundered immediately after burial, but that his burial ships would remain hidden from people for entire millennia, he might have changed his burial plan. But he was not given any advice for the future, and everything happened as it happened.


“Solar boat” in the museum at the foot of the pyramid of Khufu - oars, which, when transporting the pharaoh’s mummy, his entourage had to hold on to, expressing their devotion to the deceased. Naturally, the boat itself was in tow

What happened was that they began to clear the sand from the base of Khufu’s pyramid and found the remains of the wall that surrounded it on all sides. The existence of the wall was known even before work began, that is, before 1954, and this discovery only confirmed the assumption that this wall originally extended around the entire pyramid.

But the fourth wall was built 5 meters closer to the base than the others, and no one understood why this was so. This was only realized by a young archaeologist named Kamal el-Mallah, who came to the conclusion that this wall was built closer to the pyramid in order to hide something that was under the surface of the plateau.

Mallah said he had long been interested in boat pits associated with other Fourth Dynasty pyramids: five empty boat pits were found carved into the rock near the Funerary Temple of the Pyramid of Khafre, also located on the Giza Plateau. Boat pits were also present at other Fourth Dynasty pyramid sites, not to mention the three empty boat pits that had already been discovered around the base of the Great Pyramid of Khufu.


Bottom of the “solar boat”

Mallah workers continued to excavate the unique wall running along the southern base of the Great Pyramid and, going down to the rock, made a shocking discovery. The wall was built on a layer of compressed rubble and mud, forming a plaster-like surface. Even more sensational was Mallah's discovery that beneath the surface of the plaster was a mixture of cement-like mortar, which was used as a binder by the Egyptians of the Old Kingdom.


Steering oars with large blades were certainly used for their intended purpose

It must be said that the Antiquities Service did not share his enthusiasm at all and very reluctantly gave permission to drill one hole in one of the slabs he dug out from under this mortar. And on May 26, 1954, Mallah did just that.

A dark space was revealed, in which there was clearly something worthy of attention. Therefore, excavations were continued. They were carried out carefully so as not to split the stone slabs, which could collapse on any precious treasure hidden underneath them.

After digging two meters below the surface, they reached a rocky outcrop. We now know that this ledge ran the entire length of each side of the huge pit and served as a shelf on which massive stones could rest. Having reached this ledge, Mallah realized that they were already close to the opening.

Years later, recalling the day when he finally opened the hole into the historical pit, Mallah wrote:

“I closed my eyes. And then, closing my eyes, I smelled the incense, a very holy, holy, holy smell. I smelled time... I smelled centuries... I smelled history. And then I was sure that the boat was there.”

His premonition came true: the boat was really there. And not just any boat, but a boat that is undoubtedly the largest and best preserved example of an ancient ship.


The cabin in which the pharaoh's mummy was supposed to be located

Mallah's discovery of the boat pit provoked two significant events at once.

Firstly, it caused a storm of national and even international interest.

Secondly, it brought about a very long conservation process, since the ancient wood had to be preserved at any cost.

Just a few days after Mallah made the first hole in the pit, a Life magazine photographer stuck his camera into it and took one of the first photographs of what lay buried on the outskirts of Khufu's pyramid. In the foreground of the photo you can see one of the ship's pointed oars, lying on neatly stacked planks. In the background, at the far end of the pit, a pile of rubble can be seen, as well as dust and debris scattered across the reed mats covering them. It was a truly historic photograph of parts of the ship that had lain underground for so long.


Model of Khufu's boat with part of the deck removed for demonstration, which clearly shows the method of fastening its planks

The task of putting them together fell to the chief conservator of the Antiquities Service, a man named Ahmed Youssef Mustafa. But he was forced to wait until they were all removed from the pit, and the process of safely removing them took... several months.

A giant canopy was erected around the pit and all the limestone slabs were removed using cranes. However, once each was removed, the team placed a similar-sized wooden roof over the pit, covered with waterproof fabric, to keep moisture in the pit and prevent the wood from warping.

Six months after the discovery, the last stone block was removed, but another full year passed before Ahmed Mustafa could begin dismantling the ship's parts and preparing them in a restoration shed built nearby.

By the end of June 1955, he was able to begin the painstaking process of cataloging each item as it was removed. He photographed each layer, making a composite photograph of the layer so he knew exactly where each piece was placed by the people who buried it, and as the removal process progressed, he began to notice a logical sequence in the placement of the pieces.

Appropriate measures were taken to ensure that nothing was lost that could be saved, and the result was that after two years of work the pit was finally empty.

In total, 1 individual parts were discovered, from the largest plank and bowsprit to small decorative details that decorated the cabins.

Having laid out the parts in his workshop, Ahmed Mustafa began assembling the ship, which was originally intended to be reassembled in the afterlife. And then he noticed that the parts of the boat bear images of four types of signs and realized that in this way the Egyptians divided the hull of the ship into four parts: two left ones (bow and stern) and two right ones, also bow and stern, which made assembly much easier for him this... puzzle.

It is important to understand the fact that before the discovery of Khufu's ship, almost nothing was known about the internal structure of Egyptian boats and ships. Herodotus mentions in passing the fact that Egyptian ships did not have “internal fins,” but many historians have rejected this fact.

And so, having started assembling the ship and seeing repeating markings on many of its individual parts, Ahmed Mustafa began to little by little understand how this ship was constructed.

The modern method is to start from the inside of the ship, where the keel is used as the basis for a frame of frames, to which the planking is then attached. Khufu's ship, like many ships of the Ancient World, was built completely differently: construction began with the outer skin and moved on to a reinforcing frame without frames. This method is often called the "shell first" method or the "edge joining" method, both names being taken literally.

Builders began construction of the hull by joining irregularly shaped planks together along their long edges, achieving a hull shape typical of a boat. The edge-joined planks of Khufu's ship are also a prime example of the ancient technique of using mortise and tenon to join planks together. In this case, slits were made on the long edges of the boards, and the boards were fastened together using tenons, which were a wooden strip that fit equally into both slots and prevented the boards from slipping.

One way or another, all the boards were secured with these grooves and tenons, and reeds were placed between the edges of the boards as caulk. Because the reeds expanded when wet, they worked well as a tight water barrier while the ship was in the river. On the inside of the body, along the inner seam of each edge of the board, there was a wooden support strip, which was a wooden rod flat on one side.

V-shaped holes were then cut into the inside edge of each board at regular intervals. The hole was not punched all the way through, and this allowed the builders to further strengthen the joint of the boards, since they could thread rope through holes running perpendicular to the edge of each board and secure the wooden support battens tightly along the seams.

In the description it looks somewhat abstruse, but the photograph clearly shows the structure of the bottom of such a ship and all its fastenings.


View of the inside of the "shell" of Khufu's ship at the Giza Museum. All the features of the rope fastenings of the hull parts are clearly visible

Another image of the various construction methods used to waterproof Khufu's ship. In practice, the design of Khufu's ship was quite ingenious because as soon as the boat was lowered into the water, the wood swelled and the lashings along the internal structure contracted, tightening the fastenings even further and keeping the ship watertight for the Nile journey.

And such a ship could easily be disassembled, transported overland, and then reassembled for return to the next body of water.


Internal structure of Khufu's ship: the hull planks are held together partially by pegs (1), but more importantly, by a system of ropes threaded through seam holes (2) and not extending to the outer surface of the boat. Long, thin hemispherical slats (3) are fixed in an arc so that caulking is unnecessary. Frames (4), inserted into the hull to strengthen it, support a series of struts (5), which in turn carry the weight of a central beam or stringer (6) running the entire length of the ship. Beams or deck beams (7) are inserted into the grooves of the stringer. Side shelves (8), similar to the central stringer, rest on the sides and provide additional rigidity to the hull structure

It is clear that even after the Egyptians began building wooden ships, they still deliberately sought to recreate the style and shape of their first watercraft, the papyrus boats. Khufu's ship is a perfect example of this, as the curved ends of the hull resemble the shape of curved bundles of papyrus.

We see this homage to papyrus not only in the silhouette of the ship, but also in the small decorative details of the papyrus bud carved on the columns of the ship's cabin, or in the imitation of the rope fastenings of the papyrus reed raft that we see on the bow of the ship.

This ship was built with traditions in mind, but none of them associated with Ancient Egypt were more important than its religious rituals.


The shape of the boards from which the body was assembled. Now it’s not a problem to cut them out of thin wood with a laser or on a CNC machine, but then I simply can’t imagine how to assemble an authentic model with a length of, say, 30 cm from them, and I won’t undertake this task!

Then we must ask the questions: what motivated the Egyptians to build such a magnificent ship? And why did they only use it once and then bury it?

By the way, there is evidence of its use.

Rope markings on some parts of the wood indicate that they were likely immersed in water for a short period of time, allowing the wood to swell and the ropes to leave their marks on them.

However, all the answers to these questions can be easily found if you get acquainted with the Pyramid Texts. These texts were found inside Old Kingdom tombs and sarcophagi dating from the 5th and 6th dynasties. Their detail and widespread use in tombs suggests that these texts must have existed before they were written down, just as oral traditions always lead to written traditions.

Thus, it turns out that these religious concepts were present in the thinking of the Egyptians even at the time when Pharaoh Khufu was buried in Giza. The Pyramid Texts indicate that the sky is separated from the earth by a body of water. After death, the pharaoh's path to heaven lay through water, and the person who took him there was a certain ferryman.

The Pyramid Texts 263 mentions “two celestial rafts of reeds” that were “set up for Ra so that he could cross on them to the horizon.” Statements 300 to 311 describe the carrier himself and explain to the pharaoh that in order to board his ship, he needs to know the names of its parts and ... all the names of the carrier himself.

By the way, there were two pits with ships near the pyramid, but the western pit was ignored.

It was only in 1987 that radar research revealed the presence of a second boat in the western pit. That same year, archaeologists drilled a hole in its roof to insert a tiny camera into it and photograph the wooden planks. However, it was only recently, in 2008, that more than $10 million was raised to begin work on its extraction and restoration.

In 2011, workers began removing the stone lining of the pit, and even then it took another two years before the boat began to be removed in June 2013. It was necessary to lift approximately 600 fragments discovered during scanning from the pit.

So the second ship was smaller than the first, so experts expect the restoration process to take another four years.

However, the discovery of this second ship is very important. Indeed, in order to transport Khufu to the next world, exactly two ships were required: one for the day, and the other for the night...
62 comments
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  1. +2
    12 May 2024 05: 35
    Quote: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky
    drill one hole
    Hole. I'm nitpicking again. But this didn’t make the article any worse. wink
    1. +8
      12 May 2024 05: 50
      The Antiquities Service may have authorized drilling a “hole” rather than a hole!
      You weren’t “standing” there!
      1. +2
        12 May 2024 05: 51
        drill exactly the hole
        Holes are not drilled wink
        1. +4
          12 May 2024 06: 37
          It's like that. But if I had written “hole”, there wouldn’t have been four extra comments!
          1. +2
            12 May 2024 07: 14
            Quote: kalibr
            But if I had written “hole”, there wouldn’t have been four extra comments!

            I’ll try to throw something on the fan and provoke new comments. You often use the word in the text boards. Not particularly strong in wooden shipbuilding, but it seems to me that this term is not entirely successful - in my opinion, the word boards more applicable to a fence or ceiling, but in the case of an element of a ship's structure, it would probably be more correct to call it sheathing. Boards in this context, it somehow hurts the ear. If I'm wrong in the definitions, I'm ready to listen to the correct version...
            1. +6
              12 May 2024 08: 39
              Vessel hull, a waterproof shell designed to provide the longitudinal and lateral strength and buoyancy of the vessel. O.S. made from a number of belts (belts) - steel sheets, wooden boards, etc.

              About the boards - below is a scan from Samoilov's "Nautical Dictionary".
              1. +4
                12 May 2024 10: 45
                Quote: Dekabrist
                About boards

                I know very well what a board is...

                Quote: Dekabrist
                from Samoilov's "Marine Dictionary"

                Plank board - this is just a slavish translation from the poor vocabulary of the English language into the Russian language words board. Plank board - something like a side or upholstery strip, well planed and polished. But in Russian this sounds even more complex, confusing and hurts the ear even more. A literary translation, understandable to any native speaker of the Russian language, from a librarian far from technical issues to an engineer, will be simple - cladding, which can be amplified or not very strong, but that’s something else...

                Well, the phrase Plank of a ship's side, copied by you without thinking at all, you deign to translate it yourself, I’ll just remind you that in the English language there are words and phrases that will simply be impossible to translate into Russian, for example, such as board from Marine dictionary Samoilova...
                1. +7
                  12 May 2024 14: 49
                  Well, the phrase Plank of a ship's side, copied by you

                  Sorry, but your emergency is so great that it obscures the rest of the world. Therefore, you did not consider that I did not copy anything and did not translate anything. I cited scans from the Naval Dictionary, well known among specialists, compiled by Rear Admiral K.I. Samoilov, professor, teacher of the Naval Academy named after K. E. Voroshilov. The dictionary was published by the State Naval Publishing House of the NKMF of the USSR.
                  Against this background, your claims to some kind of super knowledge of language and terminology look, to put it mildly, frivolous.
                  1. +3
                    12 May 2024 17: 31
                    Quote: Dekabrist
                    I cited scans from the Naval Dictionary, well known among specialists, compiled by Rear Admiral K.I. Samoilov

                    Below are scans of those who have been building ships for several centuries. Please pay attention to the word planking ..
                    P.S. What about Plank of a ship's side? Google translator not working?
            2. +6
              12 May 2024 09: 23
              You often use the word boards in the text. I’m not particularly strong in wooden shipbuilding, but it seems to me that this term is not entirely successful - in my opinion, the word boards is more applicable to a fence or ceiling, and in the case of an element of a ship’s structure, it would probably be more correct to call it sheathing.

              A board is a cladding element. Instead of boards, timber, logs, half-logs, slabs, etc. can be used. Boards can be edged or unedged. The latter were used in the plating of Chusovsky and Kama barges.
              1. 0
                12 May 2024 10: 48
                Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                Instead of boards, timber, logs, half-logs, slabs, etc. can be used

                All this is called - cladding, then come the details...
                1. +8
                  12 May 2024 15: 27
                  All this is called casing, then the details come...

                  So I write - “boards are a cladding element.” hi
                2. +3
                  12 May 2024 19: 28
                  All this is called plating

                  which consists of boards. You try to refute the irrefutable with a stubbornness worthy of better use. But be that as it may, the board (plank) is the element that makes up the planking.
                  To sum up, let's go back to the beginning of the discussion. Below is an illustration from the article The Construction of the Khufu I Vessel (c.2566 BC): a Re-Evaluation in the International Journal of Nautical Archeology (January 2009). It shows a planking diagram of boards (plank) with the corresponding designation of the boards of different parts of the cladding.
                  I can also recommend the article Wood Boat Construction: Frames, Planking, Fasteners, etc. from Wooden Boat Magazine, December 2010. It very clearly describes what planking is and what plank is. Moreover, everything is in literary English, of which you consider yourself an expert.
                  Happy reading and all the best.
            3. +7
              12 May 2024 15: 21
              Cladding boards. What's so strange? Sheathing slats. When slats are used. It's already happening now. Sheathing sheets. It's already on metal.
              No problem. Sheathing - this is already clear in meaning. What the set is covered with.
              1. +2
                12 May 2024 15: 37
                Sheathing sheets. It's already on metal.

                Yeah, first time - plywood is often used in yachting.
                ...the meaning is clear. What the set is covered with.

                Yeah, the second time - the set is not always sheathed. In a number of cases, like the “solar boat”, the skin was “stretched” over the frame. Almost all ships of ancient times on the Mediterranean Sea were built in a similar way. And in the Middle Ages, most shipbuilders suffered from this.
                This is hard for a modern person to understand, but facts are facts!!!
                With sincere respect, Vlad!
                1. +5
                  12 May 2024 15: 53
                  As I read, the technology of inserting a set into the assembled skin was always used when ships were sewn. Ropes, branches, leather laces. So most likely this is the original technology. And for everyone. To put the set up, it needs to be some kind of slipway. And on the knee it’s easier, as the ancients did.
                  Apparently, everything comes from dugout boats. They were not only hollowed out of a tree trunk, but sometimes the resulting box began to fall apart to the sides. Then they heated water inside and began to fall apart even better. Even further they began to sew boards on top of the dugout. And then it’s logical to insert the set inside. For durability.
                  At least, this is what they did not so long ago in our country, far from civilization.
                2. +5
                  12 May 2024 15: 55
                  From inserting the set, the question arises: how were these damn ancient Greek triremes built? At least what were you using to fasten the boards? laughing
                  The question is simply rhetorical.
          2. +4
            12 May 2024 19: 27
            . It's like that. But if I had written “hole”, there wouldn’t have been four extra comments!

            Count on five!
            good drinks wassat )))
            I read the article during the day, but my interest, as always, shifted to the Russian question. Just popped in to thank you for the article - thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! Especially for the pyramids.
            hi )))
            1. +5
              12 May 2024 22: 24
              Glad you liked it. About the pyramids... If nothing changes and does not happen, then in the fall my granddaughter’s father will go to Egypt and rent everything I need there. The daughter and then also want to go there, but whether they will get to the pyramids is unknown. But if all three are there, then there will certainly be a cycle about the pyramids.
              1. +3
                12 May 2024 22: 39
                . But if all three are there, then there will certainly be a cycle about the pyramids.

                Thank you in advance! Anyway, let's do this loop. Pyramids have many, many meanings. The stones speak. And they sing. Architecture - yes, frozen music. And I want to think with everyone about what the pyramids sing about)))
                1. +2
                  13 May 2024 07: 12
                  Quote: depressant
                  what do the pyramids sing about?

                  Read the book “If the Sphinx Spoke” by Guy Petronius Amatuni. You'll like it.
                2. +2
                  13 May 2024 16: 16
                  Pyramids have many, many meanings. The stones speak. And they sing.

                  Maybe they sing somewhere, but not the pyramids. Up close they make no impression. And inside too.
                  1. +2
                    13 May 2024 23: 56
                    . Maybe they sing somewhere, but not the pyramids.

                    In the imagination.
                    You are a boring bore, Viktor Nikolaevich. A pragmatist is also a realist, unable to go beyond what is given in sensations drinks wassat hi )))
                    1. +2
                      14 May 2024 07: 22
                      unable to go beyond the given in sensations

                      Just the opposite. I had the opportunity to get to know the pyramids much closer than ordinary tourists. And the feeling is like visiting a cemetery.
                      And I saw and heard singing stones. In South Africa and Norway. A truly amazing phenomenon.
                      1. +2
                        14 May 2024 07: 33
                        . And the feeling is like visiting a cemetery.
                        And I saw and heard singing stones.

                        She felt slightly envious and blamed herself.
                        This means that I, not sufficiently informed, said something stupid, imagining that it was something smart...
                        But, you know, what's the matter? Whatever the indiscriminate stupidity, there will always be conditions in which this stupidity turns out to be cleverness. The question is about the coordinates "time - place".
                      2. +2
                        14 May 2024 07: 52
                        said something stupid

                        Why immediately stupidity? It’s just that the pyramids in books and films and the pyramids up close are different pyramids. Films and books are available to everyone. Not everyone can visit the dusty, gloomy burial chambers, breathe their musty air and feel all this decay. Hence the different perceptions.
                        Again, these are purely personal feelings. Perhaps all this would delight you.
    2. +5
      12 May 2024 17: 51
      Quote: Dutchman Michel
      Hole.

      They drilled as best they could. A hole came out.
      But the found boat did not become any worse. laughing
  2. +6
    12 May 2024 05: 43
    I was looking forward to the story of the solar boat, thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. +6
      12 May 2024 06: 38
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      I was waiting for the story

      A continuation was promised, dear Vladislav, and promises must be kept.
  3. +5
    12 May 2024 06: 03
    Article - in good Despite the fact that it is rather technical, it is very easy and interesting to read!
    Ps. I have never seen such detailed diagrams before.
    1. +5
      12 May 2024 06: 36
      Despite the fact that it is rather technical, it is very easy and interesting to read!
      The article once again proves that a lyricist can write intelligibly about physics, although sometimes there is a fly in the ointment in the terminology. But given the diverse target audience, consisting of both poets and physicists, the article is quite readable, and most importantly, understood by untrained readers. On my own behalf, when writing such articles, I can suggest attaching to them for dessert a small glossary, with interpretations of the concepts used in writing accessible to both lyricists and physicists
      1. +5
        12 May 2024 09: 28
        Quote: Dutchman Michel
        On my own behalf, when writing such articles, I can suggest attaching to them for dessert a small glossary, with interpretations of the concepts used in writing accessible to both lyricists and physicists

        The idea is good for a book, but not for online journalism. Many people won't read this. And if so, then we work for the majority!
  4. +7
    12 May 2024 09: 15
    Just a few days after Mallah made the first hole in the pit, a Life magazine photographer stuck his camera into it and took one of the first photographs of what lay buried on the outskirts of Khufu's pyramid.

    Here this very photograph is asked to be included in the text. Unfortunately, the current format of the site does not allow comments to be properly illustrated, so “photo below”.
    1. +4
      12 May 2024 09: 27
      The most curious thing is that the number and letter designations had elements of the design of the ships of the Carthaginian and Roman fleets, which confidently gives reason to assume that they were built using an in-line method. By the way, this is two thousand years before G. Ford!!!
      1. +1
        12 May 2024 09: 54
        The most curious thing is that the number and letter designations had elements of the design of the ships of the Carthaginian and Roman fleets, which confidently gives reason to assume that they were built using an in-line method. By the way, this is two thousand years before G. Ford!!!

        You were a little hasty. The flow method and the conveyor method, which G. Ford developed, are very different methods.
        1. +3
          12 May 2024 15: 42
          The flow method and the conveyor method, which G. Ford developed, are very different methods.

          Viktor Nikolaevich - You are a bore, you can consider it an insult!!! With sincere respect, your erudition and knowledge!
          feel
          1. +1
            12 May 2024 15: 56
            This is not tediousness, this is professional deformation. My last almost ten years of professional activity have been associated with analytics and the preparation of all kinds of reports, plans, information notes and other business plans, where the cost of an error or incorrectly expressed thought could be a figure with a very large number of zeros in the American currency so unloved by local regulars. Now I'm retired, but the habit remains.
          2. +3
            12 May 2024 17: 27
            Well, let's be honest, I'm a bore
            1. +2
              12 May 2024 18: 41
              Well, let's be honest, I'm a bore

              No, Buddy, I’m not afraid of you like VikNik. You shake the cat by the squash and still take it off the fence and say a kind word, but if Victor starts to pinch, he won’t even meow in the attic. Moreover, you will save the horseradish from the clutches of the March Faberge - everything is clear and to the point!!!
      2. +5
        12 May 2024 18: 23
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        the number and letter designations had elements of the design of ships of the Carthaginian and Roman fleets, which confidently gives reason to assume that they were built using an in-line method.

        There are possible options here. That's why logs are numbered? To assemble already fitted parts after disassembly. Also with a ship - they could assemble and fit parts to each other away from the final assembly near the water.
    2. +8
      12 May 2024 09: 30
      Thanks for posting them. I completely forgot about these photos. I wrote it, decided to insert it later and this “later”, of course, was forgotten.
  5. +8
    12 May 2024 09: 34
    After digging two meters below the surface, they reached a rocky outcrop. We now know that this ledge ran the entire length of each side of the huge pit and served as a shelf on which massive stones could rest. Having reached this ledge, Mallah realized that they were already close to the opening.

    It is difficult to imagine the structure of a “boat grave” from the description, but from the attached diagram it is easier. By the way, the diagram also shows “cranes” - hand-held pulleys that were used to lift the blocks. The photographs show this process.
  6. +7
    12 May 2024 10: 52
    built three pyramids at once

    Who would just explain at least somewhat clearly - why the hell did Snefru need THREE of his own types of burial complexes at once? what
    1. +7
      12 May 2024 10: 59
      Quote: paul3390
      Why the hell did Snefru need THREE of his own types of burial complexes at once?

      A successful investment in real estate...
    2. +5
      12 May 2024 12: 54
      Quote: paul3390
      Who would just explain at least somewhat clearly - why the hell did Snefru need THREE of his own types of burial complexes at once?

      There will be another cycle about pyramids. But there is a lot of drawing to be done. So you'll have to wait. And I don’t know how much yet. But there will be a cycle.
    3. +7
      12 May 2024 15: 23
      1. There were grandmothers.
      2. False burials.
      3. At first I didn’t like the first pyramid, then the second.
      1. +6
        12 May 2024 18: 55
        Cmaximus
        +2
        Today, 15: 23
        1. There were grandmothers.
        2. False burials.
        3. At first I didn’t like the first pyramid, then the second.

        Yeah, after the pharaoh expressed dissatisfaction with the results of the construction of his third pyramid, the incarnation of the god Ra on earth suddenly died from hemorrhoidal colic. The block that “accidentally” fell on the ruler was replaced and buried in the first pyramid. The son and grandson of the pharaoh remembered the fate of their father and grandfather, and therefore graciously allowed themselves to be buried in pyramids 2 and 3. The great-grandson pushed traditions and tried to create a cult of the sun. When he was fed to the crocodiles, he sadly thought, would it be better for hemorrhoidal colic or a brick on his head!!!
        1. ANB
          +2
          12 May 2024 20: 55
          . When he was fed to the crocodiles, he thought sadly

          Here the form “fed” is better suited, since when he was already fed, he could hardly still think. :)
          1. +3
            13 May 2024 05: 59
            I agree, and I saw the mistake when reading it, but was too lazy to edit it. I had a good reason - birthday!!! The more gnawing thought was whether there were bricks in that era? It's a shame, but it didn't even occur to me.
            1. +3
              13 May 2024 17: 35
              The more gnawing thought was whether there were bricks in that era?

              In that era there were already bricks, even burnt ones, in Mesopotamia, in the Indus Valley. But for some reason it hasn’t happened in Ancient Egypt yet. The Egyptians began using bricks about 1000 years after the time described. And it’s raw.
              1. +3
                13 May 2024 18: 58
                Thank you Victor Nikolaevich, I know about Mesopotamia, but I “sailed” through Egypt of that era. hi
  7. +3
    12 May 2024 11: 01
    the second pharaoh of a united Egypt took a title that combined the names Nekhbet and Wadjet

    I could be wrong - but it seems that the name was first known from Semerkhet, the penultimate of the 1st dynasty, and in general - for some reasons, almost a usurper.. Before that, the name Hora was used.. And - who should be considered the second, Hora-Akha or Jera? And this is if we do not take into account the personality of Neithotep.
  8. +6
    12 May 2024 11: 44
    What a climate! So many millennia - and everything is whole. Are there any “living creatures” in the tree? I once saw a “sword” from Scythian burials in a museum - it was rusty powder in a golden hollow “glass” of the handle. Only gold survived.
    1. +5
      12 May 2024 12: 56
      Quote: dauria
      This is the climate

      Dry and hot. Therefore, there are no putrefactive fungi, no microbes, no wood-boring parasites.
      1. +2
        12 May 2024 15: 39
        Dry and hot. Therefore, there are no putrefactive fungi, no microbes, no wood-boring parasites.
        Everything is preserved well in peat too.
        Hello, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
        1. +6
          12 May 2024 16: 43
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Everything is preserved well in peat too.

          Good afternoon, dear Anton! And the entire Danish archeology stands on bog peat!
  9. +6
    12 May 2024 12: 29
    Great. The first photo is especially beautiful.
  10. +1
    13 May 2024 08: 22
    A very interesting story, and many of the comments to it are also interesting.

    Thanks to the author of the article and the authors of some comments.

    If Ancient Egypt is not the source of our civilization, then it is very close to the source.

    IMHO, the structure of society in Egypt - according to the descriptions that I read - is somehow clearer than the structure of societies in other ancient states. Either such a description, or a very logical and understandable device.
    1. +3
      13 May 2024 19: 13
      IMHO, the structure of society in Egypt - according to the descriptions that I read - is somehow clearer than the structure of societies in other ancient states. Either such a description, or a very logical and understandable device.

      This is debatable. Probably the most advanced in the ancient world were the Persians. In fact, before the collapse of their power under the blows of Alexander the Great, they ruled, with varying success, almost two dozen satrapies with different peoples, legal customs, religion and structure. Including Egypt. Rome before the era of the emperor "burped" customs, conventions and treaties. The devil will break his leg over Carthage. The rest are with their skeletons in the closet or the flayer on the outskirts! However, it is “ridiculous” to demand a “humane” view of reality from a person of that era; we must cut out the city - we’ll cut it out, sell it into slavery - no problem. By the way, the head of the first king of the Persians, Cyrus, as I remember, ended its existence in a bag of blood. There were still several thousand years left before a humane can of alcohol!!!
      1. +1
        13 May 2024 22: 30
        Well, Rome is definitely the most advanced ancient state, otherwise it would not have lasted for such an indecently long period and would not have served as a model for all subsequent empires.
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. +1
    13 May 2024 17: 22
    Quote: kalibr
    Quote: paul3390
    Who would just explain at least somewhat clearly - why the hell did Snefru need THREE of his own types of burial complexes at once?

    There will be another cycle about pyramids. But there is a lot of drawing to be done. So you'll have to wait. And I don’t know how much yet. But there will be a cycle.

    Thank you for the article.
  13. -3
    14 May 2024 00: 17
    Nonsense. And it’s okay that wood, even under ideal weather conditions in a dry climate, is not stored for more than several decades, well, at most, depending on the variety, 200-300 years. These elements of the “ancient Egyptian” boat, which are in the photo and on display, clearly have nothing to do with the era of the pharaohs.