Georgian Queen Tamara. Path to power

Georgian Queen Tamara. Path to power
G. Kotaev, B. Sanakoev and U. Gassiev. Queen Tamara and Soslan-David

Queen Tamar (Tamara) is certainly the most famous and popular character of the Georgian stories. She was and is called “Sunny Face”. Other epithets and comparisons were also used, for example, “Crown of all kings","the sun - the sun and the queen - queens, standing out among the crowned brilliance" Tamara is credited with the construction of many fortresses, churches and bridges. Ilya Chavchavadze (Georgian nationalist, died in 1907, canonized in 1987 and is now officially called the “Father of the Fatherland” in Georgia) wrote:

“We attribute every great deed to Tamara.”

There is every reason to believe that Tamara is the heroine of the famous poem “The Knight in the Leopard (Tiger) Skin,” which was written by one of her close associates, Shota Rustaveli.

At a later time, legends spread about the cruel love of this queen, bringing her closer to Cleopatra, who allegedly sold the nights of her love - and the price was the head of the “buyer.” Many people know about Cleopatra’s “venal love” thanks to one of A. S. Pushkin’s “Little Tragedies.” And another great poet, M. Yu. Lermontov, told us about Tamara’s dangerous hospitality:

In that tower high and cramped
Queen Tamara lived:
Beautiful as a heavenly angel
Like a demon, insidious and evil...
And Tamara’s voice was heard:
He was all desire and passion,
He had an omnipotent spell,
There was an incomprehensible power.

As in the case of Cleopatra, the date with Tamara did not end well for the men, because in the morning:

Only the Terek in the Daryal gorge,
Thundering, breaking the silence,
Wave upon wave ran over,
The wave drove the wave.
And with a cry the silent body
They were in a hurry to carry it away;
There was something white in the window then,
It sounded from there: sorry.

In 1924, V. Mayakovsky played on these lines:

In the ottomans of this tower here -
I remember: I led Rustaveli Shota
Pranks with the queen and Tamara.
And then he rolled, crunching his bones,
to dig into the foam of the Terek.
Yes that's what! A love trifle!
And the queen frolicked better.

And more:

I've known you for a long time
I have a lot to say about you
A certain Lermontov spoke.

The time when the legend about the unlucky lovers of Queen Tamara appeared is unknown. The French traveler Jean-François Gamba in 1826 talks not about Tamara, but about some princess Daria, whose name is clearly connected with the Daryal Gorge:

“If you can believe the legends of antiquity, this castle belonged in the Middle Ages to Princess Daria... who detained those she liked so that they would share her bed; she ordered those lovers about whom she thought she had reason to complain to be thrown into the Terek.”

Pushkin writes about the same thing, who derives the name of the gorge from the name Daria, and not vice versa:

“Opposite Darial, on a steep cliff, the ruins of a fortress are visible. Tradition says that some queen Daria was hiding in it, and she gave her name to the gorge.”

But Lermontov dotted all the i's by calling the legendary Daria Tamara. Now in our country this queen is known mainly from his beautiful poem, and also from the episode of the novel by Ilf and Petrov, who forced her to visit Father Fyodor, who was stuck on a steep cliff. There is, however, an opinion that this legend was composed about another Tamara - Imereti, the wife of the Kartlian king Luarsab I, but who knows it except specialists? Another thing is the great queen of Georgia. We'll talk about it today.

Origin of the heroine of the article

The life and deeds of Tamara are described in two works written by contemporaries of this queen. The first is “The Life of the Queen of Queens Tamar”, by Basili Ezosmodzgvari. The second is “History and Praise of the Crowned People,” the author of which is unknown. But at the same time, the date of birth of the future great queen remains unknown - they are still arguing about it. Some believe that this happened in 1160, others say 1166. In honor of her birth, the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, also called the Church of Our Lady of Didube, was built.

The girl received the Jewish name Tamar, which is not very common in Georgia, which in the Synodal Translation is rendered as Tamar - a replacement according to the same principle as in the names Theodore and Theodore, Theophilus and Theophilus. Translated from Hebrew, the name Tamar means “date palm.” In Russia, until the mid-19th century, the name of the heroine of the article was written in two versions, then the familiar form “Tamara” prevailed.

The descendants of the biblical Canaanite Tamar were the Jewish kings David and Solomon, as well as Christ. The Georgian dynasty of Bagrations also claimed descent from Tamar and King David the Psalmist, as indicated by the cymbal in their coat of arms. It is believed that by calling their daughter Tamara, her parents wanted to once again emphasize their origins from the Old Testament Canaanite woman.

Tamara's father was the Georgian king George III, and her mother was the Alan princess Burdukhan. Looking ahead a little, let's say that in this marriage another girl was born - Rusudan, who became the wife of the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Andronikos Komnenos - Manuel. Tamara's nephew Alexy, thanks to her help, in 1204 became the first emperor of the Trebizond Empire (a fragment of Byzantium) and the founder of a new dynasty - the Great Komnenos. The title “Great” assigned to him and his descendants looks simply inappropriate when compared with the truly great Byzantine emperors of the Komnenos dynasty: Alexius, John and the last of them, Manuel, whose son was killed by his own uncle, the usurper Andronikos.

Tamara's great-grandfather was a great king David IV the Builder, grandfather - Demeter I, both canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church.

Coronation of Tamara

In 1177, the aristocratic Orbeli (Orbeliani) clan, whose head was Prince Ivane Orbeli, rebelled against Tamara’s father. He owned the well-fortified fortress of Lori. At that time, Ivane was in the high position of state amirspasalar (commander of the troops), and his son-in-law was the nephew of the king Demeter (Demna), who was in love with his cousin Tamara.

Considering that George III had no sons, Demna could make a claim to the throne of Georgia - but after his death. The chronicle gives the following characteristics of Demna:

“Demeter, clear-faced, skilled in military affairs, comprehending science, as befits the men of his family.”

But the continuation is mysterious and full of some incomprehensible and unexplained hints:

“Sin nullifies all virtue and learning, perfection of appearance and military valor, darkened his life and ruined him. This sin—the absence of the fear of God and the trampling of the faith of Christ—is the congenital vice and misfortune of his reigning family.”

This rebellion was suppressed thanks to the help of Shirvanshah Akhsitan. Ivane Orbeli died in battle, his relatives were expelled from the country. One of the distant descendants of representatives of this family was probably the Chancellor of the Russian Empire under Alexander II, M. T. Loris-Melikov - his surname can be translated as “Owner of Lore.”

Demna, who, allegedly, himself confessed to the king, having fled from the besieged Lore, was blinded and placed in prison, where he later died. However, there is a version that few people seriously consider that Demna escaped from prison, took the name “Shota from Rustaveli” and wrote the poem “The Knight in the Leopard (Tiger) Skin.”

Despite the defeat of the rebels, George III, who had no sons, did not feel very confident and feared new unrest after his death. Therefore, he decided to crown his eldest daughter in advance, making her his co-ruler. He died 6 years later - in 1184, and Tamara was re-crowned in Gelati. One of Tamara’s first orders, as a sovereign queen, was the order to rebuild the cave Assumption Church founded by her father and build premises for the organization of a new monastery - the famous Vardzia. Here, by the way, you can see the famous fresco depicting George III and Tamara; it is considered lifetime and was created between 1180 and 1184:

Tamara and her father, fresco of the cave monastery complex of Vargia

Significant events of 1185

Meanwhile, the year 1185, in which, as you remember, the Severn princes, led by Igor Svyatoslavich, set off on an unfortunate campaign against the Polovtsians, was marked by two more significant events. The first of them took place in Constantinople, where the father-in-law of Tamara’s younger sister Andronikos, one of the worst emperors of Byzantium, was overthrown and killed.

Andronikos I, portrait from the manuscript History of John Zonaras

He was the cousin of Manuel Comnenus, the last successful emperor of that glorious dynasty, and the son of Isaac Comnenus.

It must be said that Isaac Comnenus and his children were born troublemakers and adventurers. My father tried to seize power in the empire in 1122, then fled to Konya. Having been forgiven, he tried to organize a palace coup in 1130. In 1139 (or 1140) during the siege of Neocaesarea, he again betrayed his brother, John Comnenus, and after the death of the emperor he tried to challenge the throne from his heir, Manuel. Some call the wife of Isaac Komnenos the daughter of the Zvenigorod and Przemysl prince Volodar - Irina, others - the daughter of the Georgian king David IV. The eldest son of Isaac Komnenos, John, went over to the Seljuks in 1139 or 1140, converted to Islam and married the daughter of Sultan Masud. The Turkish sultans then laid claim to the throne of Constantinople and all the lands of Byzantium on the grounds that John allegedly became the great-grandfather of Sultan Osman I Ghazi. But everyone was surpassed by the second son of Isaac Komnenos, Andronicus, who cheated on his cousin many times, but invariably received forgiveness. He was even in prison, but managed to escape from it - to Yaroslav Galitsky, who received him well. Manuel Komnenos died in 1180, leaving his son Alexius a fairly strong and authoritative state. However, the heir was only 11 years old, and his wife Anna (Agnes), daughter of the French king Louis VII, was 9 years old. And once again, the forgiven Andronicus at that time was the governor of Paphlagonia, close to the capital.

Paphlagonia on the map

Under the pretext of fighting foreign domination and protecting the rights of his nephew, Andronik usurped power. He organized a massacre of Catholics in the capital, and then began large-scale repressions against the dissatisfied. He lost lands in Asia Minor, Serbia, Dalmatia, Bulgaria, as well as the island of Cyprus, where Isaac Komnenos, nephew of Emperor Manuel, began to rule. Andronicus executed his brother’s widow, Maria of Antioch, the mother of the young emperor, and ordered him to be strangled with a bowstring. After that, he married the widow of the murdered man, Anna French, who at that time was either 11 or 12 years old. The residents of Constantinople, driven to despair, rebelled, and on September 12, 1185, the emperor, who tried to escape, was captured. Three days later he was killed at the hippodrome, and Isaac the Angel came to power in the empire. The rebels killed almost all the relatives of Andronicus Komnenos; apparently, then his eldest son, Manuel, the husband of his younger sister Tamara, also died. Rusudan with two sons, Alexy and David, returned to Georgia, where they lived for about 20 years, and then, as already mentioned, thanks to the help of Tamara, Alexy became the first emperor of the Trebizond Empire, which lasted until 1461.

The second significant event took place in Georgia. Here the members of the State Council (darbazi) seriously thought about the queen’s marriage. The choice of the Georgian aristocrats was, to put it mildly, unexpected: a certain Russian prince Yuri, who was among the Polovtsians, was invited as a groom, whom many consider the youngest son of Andrei Bogolyubsky, who was killed in 1174 as a result of a boyar conspiracy.

Novgorodians receive Yuri Andreevich, miniature of the Facial Vault

It is believed that Yuri was expelled from the borders of Rus' by his own uncle, Vsevolod the Big Nest. In Georgia they called him George.

Russian husband of the Georgian Queen Tamara

The relationship between the spouses somehow did not work out right away, and it is not entirely clear who neglected whom. Or was the hostility mutual? One way or another, Yuri almost did not communicate with Tamara, but he became close to many provincial aristocrats, and, judging by the further development of events, enjoyed considerable authority among them. It is alleged that Yuri, being a good horseman and a skilled warrior, managed to make several successful military campaigns - to northern Armenia, to Shirvan and to Erzurum. This strange marriage came to an end after two and a half years: Yuri was accused of disrespect for the queen, drunkenness, homosexuality, and even bestiality. But, quite possibly, Yuri was slandered by his enemies and his unloved wife - after all, the reason for divorce in those days was required more than serious, it was impossible to say that they simply did not get along in character. Having received consent to the divorce from the church hierarchs, Tamara ordered the exile of her ex-husband to the territory of the Eastern Roman Empire, and paid him a very large compensation. Byzantium in those days was a popular place of exile for the overthrown rulers of surrounding countries. For example, the famous grandson of Yaroslav the Wise Oleg Gorislavich, cousin of Vladimir Monomakh, was sent there by relatives.

And Tamara very soon married again - this time to Prince David from the Ossetian Bagration family. From childhood, he was raised at the royal court by Tamara's aunt Rusudan and was familiar with his cousins. It is curious that some researchers propose to consider David Soslan as the prototype of Tariel in the poem “The Knight in the Leopard’s Skin” - after all, the main character of the poem was the son of a vassal king, brought up at the court of the father of his beloved, the Indian princess Nestan-Darejan.

Nestan-Darejan illustrated by S. Kobuladze

Yuri in this case turns out to be Rosan - the son of "stricken with an evil disease» Tsar Kadzhi (Andrei Bogolyubsky?). The Kajas (Russians?) are given the following characteristics:

Kadji are the same people, only possessing secrets,
Each kaj resembles a sorcerer and sorcerer.
He can blind us better than any villain,
And fighting him, the damned one, is a useless idea.

And the secondary hero of this poem, Avtandil, is proposed by supporters of this version to be considered the alter ego of the author - Shota Rustaveli.

Tariel and Avtandil illustrated by M. Zichy

Another very clear analogy can be seen in these lines:

And Davar, the king’s sister, became a widow in the kingdom of the Kadjas,
This best of maidens taught all the wisdom.

Tamara’s father’s sister, Rusudan, was married for a short time to the grandson of Vladimir Monomakh, Izyaslav Mstislavich of Kyiv (cousin of Yuri Dolgoruky), after his death she returned to Georgia. And again it turns out that the Kajis of Rustaveli’s poem are Russians. However, according to another version, Rusudan was the wife of one of the Seljuk sultans, and some other Georgian princess became the wife of Izyaslav Mstislavich.

Let's return to Tamara and David Soslan. Their wedding took place in 1189 in Didube - in the temple that the queen’s father, George III, once built in honor of her birth. Looking ahead, let's say that two children were born in this marriage. Son George was born in 1191, daughter Rusudan - in 1193.

Meanwhile, in 1191, Tamara’s first husband, Yuri, returned to Georgia - and the aristocrats of Imereti and Samtskhe immediately joined him. Having occupied Kutaisi and Gori, Yuri was crowned in Geguti and approached Tbilisi. Agree that it was difficult for a pathetic drunkard, homosexual and bestiality to expect such support from the subjects of his ex-wife. But Tamara and David with loyal troops invaded the province of Samtskhe, which was the center of this rebellion. Under pressure from the allies, Yuri was forced to abandon his plans and go to defend their possessions. Here he was defeated in the battle of the Nigala Valley. In 1193, he again attempted to regain power, but it was even less successful. Yuri left Georgia forever, and nothing is known about his further fate.

In the next article we will continue the story and talk about Tamara as the great queen of Georgia, and at the same time a little about the famous poem by Shota Rustaveli “The Knight in the Skin of a Leopard (Tiger)”.
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  1. +2
    4 May 2024 04: 30
    I remember there was a Soviet book for children and youth, where Yuri, Soslan, Tamara, and Shota Rustaveli appear.
    In it, the army of the Russian prince Yuri goes to help Georgia, but is attacked, as a result, the stunned youth is lost and the Georgians find him, and adventures begin.
    I don't remember the name of the book.
  2. +1
    4 May 2024 04: 38
    Apparently the Georgian kings were prolific. They poked their daughters everywhere, from Seljuk Turks to Russians. For some reason, the article did not mention the “great Armenians” and “formidable Azerbaijanis”?
    1. +8
      4 May 2024 05: 32
      For some reason, the article did not mention the “great Armenians”
      The Seljuks had long ruled this territory and there were no longer any “great Armenians” there. They will appear in this place at the beginning of the 19th century, when Russia comes here and begins to resettle here. Well, then they will come up with a “great and thousand-year-old” history for themselves and begin to erect monuments to their “heroes”, as they did in Armavir
      1. +3
        4 May 2024 09: 11
        They forgot “Armenian Radio”.
    2. -2
      4 May 2024 13: 39
      Where are the Great Ears in the chronicle? Ban on all publications by the author. He insulted the entire outskirts. And the Institute of National Memory.
      These are all Russian tsars who rewrote all the chronicles in order to destroy the memory of the authors of the Black Sea and all alphabets.
      Just like the Germans ruined the entire history of Rus'
  3. +1
    4 May 2024 05: 57
    There were only a few truly worthy natives of Georgia - Bagration, Beria and the greatest of the 20th century figures, Stalin... I mean statesmen...
    1. +10
      4 May 2024 06: 48
      There were only a few truly worthy natives of Georgia - Bagration, Beria and the greatest figure of the 20th century, Stalin... I mean statesmen

      Well, Bagration is a statesman, like a “ballerina”. He did not consider himself such, he was a military general and an unsurpassed master of vanguard and rearguard combat.
      By the way, Bagration has never been to Georgia, literally at all.
      But why did you forget about Sergo Ordzhonikidze? His role as a statesman is no less significant than the above-mentioned Beria.
      I think every industrial city can boast of a district or street named after it.
      However, the topic of famous Georgians is inexhaustible. Although Comrade will definitely top this list. Ivanov (Stalin)..
      1. +3
        4 May 2024 07: 04
        According to Bagration, there is uncertainty about the place of birth, that’s why I wrote - a native of Georgia... But S. Ordzhonikidze, yes, I forgot... I repent smile
      2. +1
        4 May 2024 13: 43
        About the Georgian Stalin, the golden heart of Russia beats rhythmically in my chest. Georgian with a Russian heart.
        And some Georgians or Russians had French and Italian hearts. "What does the soul lie for" and the heart
    2. 0
      4 May 2024 12: 26
      Quote: Medvedev_Dmitry
      There were only a few truly worthy natives of Georgia - Bagration, Beria and the greatest of the 20th century figures, Stalin... I mean statesmen...

      If you had added: “In the history of Russia and the USSR,” then I would agree with you, but not so...
    3. +2
      4 May 2024 14: 29
      Stalin, Beria and Ordzhonikidze - do you use the epithet “only a few”? these “only three”, to put it mildly, have done a lot... can you name such a “full-fledged” three from any other republic, not counting the RSFSR? somehow it sounds like you are belittling the above..
  4. +3
    4 May 2024 06: 02
    What kind of queen Tamara was - God knows. But the Akhtamar cognac (ah, Tamar!) is super!
  5. +4
    4 May 2024 06: 07
    The relationship between the spouses somehow did not work out right away
    And the echoes of this quarrel are still visible today. Yuri's supporters call Tamara "a girl with low social responsibility", and her supporters consider Yuri a "homosexual"... The truth, apparently, is somewhere in the middle. Married not for love, these two apparently loved power most of all
  6. +6
    4 May 2024 06: 43
    talking about the “great” and even the kings of Georgia or Abkhazia or Armenia means participating in amateur performances at the level of ethnography and folklore of Georgians, Abkhazians or the same Armenians. The same fictitious and decorated amateur folklore is the fiction of the Georgians about some kind of “Golden Age of Georgia” of the 11th-13th centuries. What other “great” Georgian Tamaras and Davids are there, what other “golden” age of Georgia is there! To tell the truth, this is not their golden age, but their stone age. It became golden for the Georgians only after the descendants of these “great” Tamars and Davids crawled to the Russian Emperor to ask for Russian citizenship and asked to become part of the Russian Empire, and he accepted Georgia into Russia. Or rather, what was left of medieval Georgia by that time, because these “great” Georgians simply squandered the rest over several centuries. And it can be assumed that the one who accepted them was no longer the Prince of Moscow, but the Emperor of Russia, who accepted them with disgust, because in exactly the same time while the great Georgians “whooshed” their kingdom, during this same time, from the small Principality of Moscow, the Russians grew their country to a mighty one and the Great Russian Empire. Since then, when Russia accepted Georgia into Russia, the Golden Age of Georgia and Georgians began.
    1. +5
      4 May 2024 07: 51
      Quote: north 2
      talking about the “great” and even the kings of Georgia or Abkhazia or Armenia means participating in amateur performances at the level of ethnography and folklore

      Top ten!
    2. VLR
      4 May 2024 07: 57
      Under Tamara, Georgia, indeed, became a regional superpower for a short time, but it seems to have “strained itself” - after the death of this queen, everything began to crumble and eventually came to the sad situation that you write about. This will be discussed more in the next article.
      1. +2
        6 May 2024 20: 35
        Quote: VlR
        Under Tamara, Georgia, indeed, became a regional superpower for a short time, but it seems to have “strained itself” - after the death of this queen, everything began to crumble

        Unfortunately, there were no eternal states in history. Both the Russian Empire and the USSR did not escape this fate. And the rulers and “elites” are to blame for this. Some Great states died in confrontation with enemies. And some rotted from within
    3. +3
      4 May 2024 08: 49
      when Russia accepted Georgia into Russia, and the Golden Age of Georgia and Georgians began
      The golden age for Georgia began during the era of the Soviet Union and ended when the Soviet Union collapsed into many underdeveloped and impoverished states with a pseudo-great and equally pseudo-glorious history. One of such states is Georgia
  7. +5
    4 May 2024 07: 27
    the Jewish name Tamar, which in the Synodal Version is rendered as Tamar

    Is not a fact. Let’s not forget such a famous lady as the Massagetian queen Tomiris (goes back to the Avestan *tahma-rayiš - “beautiful in appearance”). After all, she laid Cyrus the Great himself to rest...
    The character is very popular, mentioned from Herodotus to Jordan. And if we consider that the mother of the Georgian Tamara was an Alan princess, and the Alans are obvious descendants of the Scythians, there could easily have been a legend in their family about the Massageta Tomiris. Whose deeds are sufficiently glorified for the royal daughter to be named after her...
    1. VLR
      4 May 2024 07: 48
      Yet the biblical traces in Christian Georgia seem more obvious than the Masaget ones. And the Bagratids, as was indicated, claimed descent from King David, who was a descendant of the biblical
      Tamar - and Tamar (a) - is a variant of this name.
      1. +3
        4 May 2024 08: 17
        Well, if we take into account the extremely difficult relations of the Georgian kingdom with various state entities on the territory of the former Achaemenid Persia, then calling the princess with the formidable name of the conqueror of Cyrus the Great himself is, in my opinion, much more convincing than the generally unknown biblical Tamar.. Moreover, not It’s very clear which one, there are several of them in the scriptures..

        The name Tomiris was remembered centuries later; her history was very well known, and even more so to the Persians. The hint is obvious. Which Muslims have read the Old Testament?

        However, this is only a version, now unprovable. And in general, it doesn’t matter who that Georgian woman was named after. Who is interested in legends from the history of Georgia now? Just like herself...

        By the way, why then is the name of her sister Rusudan not biblical? And most likely also Iranian - Light Gift?
        1. +2
          4 May 2024 09: 17
          the generally unknown biblical Tamar

          How is this not known to anyone?! Do you think no one in Georgia has read the Bible? Peasants. They may not have read it, but the nobles and clergy did. After all, the same "Knight..." Rustaveli was written for someone - that means there were literate people in the country, and it was to them that there was a message with the name of the king's daughter. But the peasants don’t care. .
          1. +1
            4 May 2024 09: 48
            Oh, come on - me too, the most famous character!! To name the princess after her. The Bible is full of much more popular women. And names. Some are still in use today. And who has heard about this Tamar? For example, are you?

            They could stupidly call it simple mortals from the calendar, but the royal name always has a meaning that is usually understandable to everyone. And - by the way, it runs in the family. So that there would be glorious ancestors with the same. Well - or in honor of famous Christian saints. Georgians seem to be Orthodox, but not Jews at all?

            And again - for some reason, here is her sister Rusudan, and not Sarah or Ruth. Why so? And there are at least four known bearers of this name in the royal family.
        2. +4
          4 May 2024 11: 16
          Quote: paul3390
          Which Muslims have read the Old Testament?
          All. It is included in the Koran. You have to get used to the names, but the plots are the same.
      2. ANB
        4 May 2024 19: 58
        . claimed descent from King David

        Did they consider themselves Jews?
        Although Mountain Jews have been living in the Caucasus for a very long time. Quite respectable people.
    2. +2
      4 May 2024 09: 02
      in their family there could easily have been a legend about the Massageta Tomiris

      There is a version that the etymology of the name Tamara originates from a female name - Dinara, also no less ancient...
  8. +6
    4 May 2024 07: 43
    thanks to Tamara's help, Alexy became the first emperor of the Trebizond Empire

    After the defeat of Byzantium by the crusaders in 1204, it was Tamara who created this Kingdom of Trebizond. She acted very wisely, showing miracles of diplomacy - she did not annex these lands to her kingdom, but created a buffer state, populating it with Georgian tribes, and this state separated her possessions from the encroachments of the Seljuk Turks. Unfortunately, the Kingdom of Trebizond is almost completely forgotten and ignored by historians...
    1. +1
      4 May 2024 14: 12
      Why is it forgotten? There is a whole series of works by Karpov on this topic. And not articles, but monographs. Or Shukurov’s great work Great Komnenos and the East. If you are interested, the Internet helps!
      1. +3
        4 May 2024 16: 01
        Quote: Xenofont
        Why is it forgotten? There is a whole series of works

        These series of works are known only to narrow specialists; for the vast majority of people, the Kingdom of Trebizond is just a set of sounds; it is not even in school textbooks...
    2. ANB
      4 May 2024 20: 00
      . The kingdom of Trebizond is almost completely forgotten and ignored by historians...

      There was a series of articles about the Bosporan and Trebizond kingdoms.
  9. +2
    4 May 2024 08: 10
    Quote: Medvedev_Dmitry
    There were only a few truly worthy natives of Georgia - Bagration, Beria and the greatest of the 20th century figures, Stalin... I mean statesmen...

    1. +3
      4 May 2024 11: 07
      Quote: Dozorny severa

      And Dzhugashvili (Dzugaev) is an Ossetian! feel
      1. +1
        4 May 2024 14: 23
        And Dzhugashvili (Dzugaev) is an Ossetian!
        Most likely Dzhugasov
        1. +2
          4 May 2024 14: 27
          In Ossetia it is believed that Dzugaev request
  10. 0
    4 May 2024 08: 14
    Quote: Luminman
    but created a buffer state, populating it with Georgian tribes, and this state separated its possessions from the encroachments of the Seljuk Turks.

    Actually, the Laz, the people of the Kartvelian language family, have lived there since the time of the Golden Fleece :). Trebizond could not be a shield from the Seljuks, since it is located in an area separated from Asia Minor by impassable mountains, and the roads in Georgia pass in a different place.
    1. +4
      4 May 2024 09: 14
      Trebizond could not be a shield from the Seljuks, since it is located in an area separated from Asia Minor
      Trebizond is located in Asia Minor. Let me remind you that Georgia during the time of Queen Tamara occupied a much larger territory than today and related Georgian tribes lived in the east and north of today’s Anatolia. But here a clarification is required - Georgia is not an ethnic concept, but a geographical one, because this kingdom also included autochthons - Greeks with Farsi-speaking peoples. So Trebizond covered the territory controlled by Tamara from both the north and the west. And Trebizond itself was largely inhabited by the peoples of the Kartvelian group...
  11. +1
    4 May 2024 08: 21
    Quote: VlR
    Yet the biblical traces in Christian Georgia seem more obvious than the Masaget ones.

    The Kartvels, which include the Georgians, are a very ancient people, so contacts with Palestine and the interfluve took place for quite a long time. For example, the builders of megaliths in the Caucasus were immigrants from the Middle East. Apparently they were attracted by the copper ores of the Caucasus. It is clear that one way or another , the ancestors of the Georgians were involved in the operation of this trade route.
  12. -1
    4 May 2024 08: 34
    Quote: VlR
    Under Tamara, Georgia indeed became a regional superpower for a short time,

    It has never been and could not be any regional superpower. There has never been a single Georgian kingdom, just like Ukraine for example. This is the legacy of the USSR, which stupid nationalists fell in love with. There were Kakheti, Kartli, Adjara, Mingrelia, Guria, Khevsureti, Tusheti, Svaneti, Lazika, Abkhazia - the last six tribal territories, were never subordinate to the Georgian kings. The Georgians did not have economic resources for expansion. All these maps of Great Georgia from history textbooks are fiction - opportunistic.
  13. +4
    4 May 2024 09: 21
    Probably, Prince Yuri did not want to be a decorative king and was preparing a coup d'etat, but Tamara was informed - and she was the first to give the order of arrest. Otherwise, we would now be reading about the unconventional love for animals not of Yuri, but of his unlucky wife Tamara. But David Soslan, apparently, understood everything and did not apply for the first role in management.
  14. +6
    4 May 2024 11: 17
    One of the distant descendants of representatives of this genus was probably Chancellor of the Russian Empire under Alexander II M. T. Loris-Melikov - his last name can be translated as “Owner Lore”.

    I will not argue about the origin of the Melikovs from the Orbelianis, and David-Soslan from the Bagratids, although these versions are at least controversial (although they have their place)
    But one thing is absolutely certain. Adjutant General Count Loris-Melikov Mikhail Tarielovich was never chancellor of the Russian Empire. Neither by rank, nor by position.
    For in those distant times Gorchakov was the chancellor.
    Mikhail Tarielovich was the Minister of Internal Affairs and the interim Governor-General of St. Petersburg request
  15. +2
    4 May 2024 12: 59
    And Dzhugashvili (Dzugaev) is an Ossetian

    It seems that his father is Ossetian and his mother is Georgian. But in general, it’s still important who he considered himself to be - you never know who has some kind of “blood mixed in.” Levitan, for example, is a Russian artist, not a Jewish one.
  16. +4
    4 May 2024 13: 18
    Why is Shota from Rustavi not mentioned among the great Georgians? After all, it was he who wrote the phrase that we all, armchair marshals, generals and privates, must remember all the time: - “Everyone fancies himself a strategist, seeing the battle from the outside”!