Military Review

Captain A.V. Marievsky: German cars were against *** T-34

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Captain A.V. Marievsky: German cars were against *** T-34

“I could. I held out. Routed five buried tanks. "They could not do anything because they were T-III, T-IV tanks, and I was in the" thirty-four ", whose frontal armor their shells did not penetrate."


Few tankers of the countries participating in the Second World War could repeat these words of the commander of the T-34 tank, Lieutenant Alexander Vasilyevich Bodnar, with regard to their combat vehicles. The Soviet T-34 tank became a legend in the first place because it was believed by those people who sat behind the levers and to the sights of his cannon and machine guns.

In the memoirs of tank crews, the thought expressed by the well-known Russian military theorist A. A. Svechin is traced: “If the value of material resources in a war is very relative, then faith in them is of tremendous importance. Svechin was an infantry officer of the 1914-1918 Great War, saw a debut on the battlefield of heavy artillery, airplanes and armored vehicles, and he knew what he was talking about. If the soldiers and officers have faith in the equipment entrusted to them, they will act bolder and more decisively, making their way to victory. On the contrary, mistrust, willingness to throw a mentally or really weak sample of weapons will lead to defeat. Of course, this is not about blind faith, based on propaganda or speculation. Confidence in people was instilled by design features strikingly distinguishing the T-34 from a number of military vehicles of the time: the inclined arrangement of sheets of armor and the B-2 diesel engine.

The principle of increasing the effectiveness of tank protection due to the inclined arrangement of sheets of armor was understandable to anyone who studied geometry in school. “The T-34 armor was thinner than the Panthers and Tigers. Total thickness approx. 45 mm. But since it was located at an angle, the leg was approximately 90 mm, which made it difficult to break through, ”recalls tank commander, Lieutenant Alexander S. Burtsev. The use of geometric constructions in the protection system instead of brute force by simply increasing the thickness of the armor plates gave the T-34 crews an indisputable advantage over their tank over the enemy. “The Germans had worse armor plates, mostly vertically. This, of course, a big minus. Our tanks were located at an angle, ”recalls the battalion commander, Captain Vasily Bryukhov.

Of course, all these theses had not only theoretical, but also practical justification. German anti-tank and tank guns in caliber up to 50 mm in most cases did not break through the upper frontal part of the T-34 tank. Moreover, even the sub-caliber 50-mm shells of the PAK-38 anti-tank guns and 50-mm guns of the T-III tank with 60 barrel lengths of calibers, which by trigonometric calculations had to pierce the T-34 forehead, in reality they ricocheted from inclined high-hardness armor without causing any harm to the tank. The 1942 research institute 48 conducted in September-October * a statistical study of the combat damage of the T-34 tanks that had been repaired at repair bases No. 1 and 2 in Moscow showed that 109 hit the upper frontal part of the 89% was safe, and dangerous defeats fell on tools caliber 75 mm and above. Of course, with the appearance of a large number of 75-mm anti-tank and tank guns among the Germans, the situation became more complicated. The 75-mm projectiles were normalized (deployed at right angles to the armor when hit), punching the inclined forehead armor of the T-34 hull at a distance of 1200 m. The 88-mm anti-aircraft cannons and cumulative ammunition were just as insensitive to the slope of the armor. However, the proportion of 50-mm guns in the Wehrmacht until the battle of the Kursk Bulge was significant, and the belief in sloping T-34 armor was largely justified. Any noticeable advantages over the T-34 armor were noted by tankers only in the armor protection of the British tanks, "... if the pig pierced the turret, then the English tank commander and gunner can remain alive, since there are practically no fragments, and the armor has crumbled in Thirty-Four. and there was little chance of surviving among those in the tower, ”recalls V.P. Bryukhov.

This was due to the exceptionally high nickel content in the armor of the British Matilda and Valentine tanks. If the Soviet 45-mm armor of high hardness contained 1,0 - 1,5% nickel, the medium-hardness armor of British tanks contained 3,0 - 3,5% nickel, which provided a slightly higher viscosity of the latter. At the same time, no modifications were made to the protection of the T-34 tanks by the crews in the units. Only before the Berlin operation, according to Lieutenant Colonel Anatoly Petrovich Schwebig, the former deputy commander of the 12 Brigade of the Guards Tank Corps on the technical side, metal bed nets were welded onto the tanks to protect against faustpatrons. Known cases of screening "thirty-five" - ​​is the fruit of creativity repair shops and manufacturing plants. The same can be said about the painting of tanks. From the factory, the tanks came in painted green inside and out. In preparing the tank for winter, the task of the deputy commanders of tank units for the technical part was painting the tanks with whitewash. The exception was the winter of 1944 / 45, when the war was on the territory of Europe. None of the veterans remember that camouflage was applied to the tanks.

An even more obvious and inspiring detail on the T-34 was the diesel engine. Most of those trained as a driver, radio operator, or even the commander of the T-34 tank in civilian life somehow encountered fuel, at least gasoline. They well knew from personal experience that gasoline is volatile, flammable and burns with a bright flame. Quite obvious experiments with gasoline were used by engineers whose hands created the T-34. “In the midst of a dispute, designer Nikolai Kucherenko at the factory yard did not use the most scientific, but a clear example of the benefits of new fuel. He took a lighted torch and brought it to a bucket of gasoline - a bucket instantly enveloped in flames. Then he lowered the same torch into a bucket of diesel fuel - the flame went out, as in water ... ”* This experiment was projected on the effect of a projectile entering the tank that could set fire to fuel or even its vapor inside the car. Accordingly, the crew members of the T-34 belonged to the enemy tanks to a certain degree. “They were with a gas engine. It’s also a big flaw, ”recalls sergeant Peter Ilyich Kirichenko, radio operator shooter. The same attitude was with Lend-Lease tanks (“Many died because the bullet hit him, and the gas engine and armor weren’t there,” recalls the tank commander, Junior Lieutenant Yuri Maksovich Polyanovsky), and Soviet tanks and self-propelled guns equipped with a carburetor engine (“Once the SU-76 came to our battalion. They were with gas engines — the lighter was real ... They all burned down in the very first battles ...” recalls V.P. Bryukhov) . The presence of a diesel engine in the engine compartment of the tank gave the crews the confidence that they had far less chances of accepting a terrible death from fire than their adversary, whose tanks were filled with hundreds of liters of volatile and flammable gasoline. The neighborhood with large volumes of fuel (tankers had to estimate the number of buckets each time they refuel the tank) was concealed by the thought that it would be more difficult to set fire to anti-tank gun shells, and in case of fire tankers would have enough time to jump out of the tank. However, in this case, the direct projection of experiments with a bucket on tanks was not entirely justified. Moreover, statistically tanks with diesel engines did not have fire safety advantages in relation to vehicles with carburetor engines. According to statistics from October 1942, diesel T-34s burned even slightly more often than refueling aviation gasoline tanks T-70 (23% against 19%). The engineers at the NIIBT training ground in Kubinka in 1943 came to the conclusion directly opposite to the household assessment of the potential for ignition of various types of fuel. “The Germans' use of a carbureted engine, rather than a diesel engine, in a new tank, launched in 1942, can be explained by: [...] a very significant percentage of tank fires with diesel engines in combat conditions and the absence of significant advantages over carbureted ones in this regard engines, especially with the competent design of the latter and the availability of reliable automatic fire extinguishers. " Bringing the torch to a bucket of gasoline, designer Kucherenko set fire to a pair of volatile fuel. Favorable for igniting a torch vapor over a layer of diesel fuel in a bucket was not. But this fact did not mean that diesel fuel would not erupt from a much more powerful means of ignition - shell hit. Therefore, the placement of fuel tanks in the fighting compartment of the T-34 tank did not increase the fire safety of the “thirty-four” in comparison with peers in which the tanks were located in the rear of the hull and were hit much less frequently. V.P. Bryukhov confirms what was said: “When does the tank catch fire?” When the projectile enters the fuel tank. And it burns when there is a lot of fuel. And at the end of the fighting there is no fuel, and the tank is almost not burning. ”The tankers considered the noise to be the only advantage of the engines of German tanks over the T-34 engine. “A gasoline engine, on the one hand, is flammable, and on the other hand - quiet. T-34, he not only roars, but also claps with caterpillars, ”recalls tank commander junior lieutenant Arsenty Konstantinovich Rodkin. The power plant of the T-34 tank did not initially provide for the installation of silencers on the exhaust pipes. They were led to the stern of the tank without any sound-absorbing devices, rattling the exhaust of a 12-cylinder engine. In addition to noise, the powerful engine of the tank raised dust with its exhaust muffler-free exhaust. “The T-34 raises terrible dust because the exhaust pipes are pointing down,” recalls A.K. Rodkin.

The designers of the T-34 tank gave their offspring two features that distinguished it among the fighting vehicles of allies and opponents. These tank features added confidence to the crew weapons. People went into battle with pride in the equipment entrusted to them. This was much more important than the actual effect of the tilt of the armor or the real fire hazard of a tank with a diesel engine.

Tanks appeared as a means of protecting the calculations of machine guns and guns from enemy fire. The balance between the protection of the tank and the capabilities of the anti-tank artillery is quite fragile, the artillery is constantly being improved, and the newest tank cannot feel safe on the battlefield. Powerful anti-aircraft and corps guns make this balance even more fragile. Therefore, sooner or later, a situation occurs when a shell hit the tank pierces the armor and turns the steel box into hell.

Good tanks solved this problem and after death, having received one or several hits, opening the way for salvation to the people inside themselves. Unusual for tanks of other countries, the driver's hatch in the upper frontal part of the T-34 hull turned out to be quite convenient in practice for leaving the car in critical situations. The mechanic-driver sergeant Semyon Arovich recalls: “The hatch was smooth, with rounded edges, and it was not difficult to get in and out of it. Moreover, when you got up from the driver’s seat, you were already sticking out almost to the waist. ” Another advantage of the hatch of the mechanic-driver of the T-34 tank was the possibility of its fixation in several intermediate relatively “open” and “closed” positions. Arranged the mechanism of the hatch was quite simple. To facilitate the opening, the heavy cast hatch (60 mm thick) was supported by a spring, the stem of which was a rack rail. By rearranging the stopper from the prong to the prong of the slat, it was possible to fix the hatch rigidly, without fear of its breakdown on the bumps of the road or the battlefield. Drivers of this mechanism willingly used and preferred to keep the hatch ajar. “When it is possible, it is always better with an open hatch,” recalls V. AP Bryukhov. His words are confirmed by the company commander, Senior Lieutenant Arkady Vasilyevich Maryevsky: “The mechanic always opens the door to the palm, firstly, everything is visible, and secondly, the air flow when the upper manhole is open is ventilated by the fighting compartment”. This provided a good overview and the ability to quickly leave the car when a projectile hit it. In general, the mechanic was, according to tankers, in the most advantageous position. “The mechanic had the greatest chance of surviving. He was sitting low, in front of him was oblique armor, ”recalls the platoon commander, Lieutenant Alexander Vasilievich Bodnar; according to P. AND. Kirichenko: “The lower part of the body, it is usually hidden behind the folds of the terrain, it is difficult to get into it. And this towers above the ground. Mainly it got into. And more people died in the tower than those below. ” Here it should be noted that we are talking about dangerous for the tank hits. Statistically, in the initial period of the war, most of the hits fell on the tank hull. According to the above-mentioned NII-48 report, the corps accounted for 81% hits, and the turret accounted for 19%. However, more than half of the total number of hits were safe (non-through): 89% of hits on the upper frontal part, 66% of hits on the lower frontal part and about 40% of hits on the board did not lead to through holes. Moreover, from hitting the board 42% of their total number fell on the engine and transmission compartments, the defeats of which were safe for the crew. The tower, on the other hand, made its way relatively easily. The less solid cast armor of the turret weakly resisted even the 37-mm projectiles of automatic anti-aircraft guns. The situation was aggravated by the fact that heavy guns with a high line of fire, such as 88-mm anti-aircraft guns, as well as hits from long-barreled 75-mm and 50-mm guns of the German tanks, entered the T-34 tower. The terrain screen, about which the tanker spoke, was about one meter at the European theater of operations. Half of this meter falls on the ground clearance, the rest covers about a third of the height of the hull of the T-34 tank.

If the driver’s hatch is unanimously assessed by veterans as convenient, the tankers are equally unanimous in their negative assessment of the early-release T-34 tank tower hatch with an oval tower, nicknamed the “pie” for its characteristic shape. V.P. Bryukhov speaks of him: “The big hatch is bad. It’s heavy, and it’s hard to open it. If it sticks, then everything, no one will jump out. ” The tank commander Lieutenant Nikolai Evdokimovich Glukhov echoed him: “The large hatch is very uncomfortable. Very heavy". The combination of one manhole for two adjacent crew members, a gunner and a loader, was uncharacteristic for world tank construction. His appearance on the T-34 was not due to tactical, but technological considerations associated with the installation of a powerful gun in the tank. The tower of the T-34 predecessor on the conveyor of the Kharkov plant - the BT-7 tank - was equipped with two hatches, one for each of the crew members located in the tower. For its characteristic appearance with open hatches, the BT-7 was nicknamed by the Germans “Mickey Mouse”. The Thirty-Fours inherited a lot from the BT, but instead of the 45-mm gun, the tank received the 76-mm gun, and the design of the tanks in the fighting compartment of the hull changed. The need for dismantling during the repair of tanks and the massive cradle of the 76-mm gun forced the designers to combine two tower hatches into one. The body of the T-34 gun with anti-recoil devices was removed through a bolt-on cover in the aft recess of the tower, and the cradle with a vertical gear sector was through the tower hatch. Through the same hatch, fuel tanks were also removed, fixed in the fenders of the T-34 tank hull. All these difficulties were caused by the side walls of the tower, beveled to the mask of the gun. The cradle of the T-34 gun was wider and higher than the embrasure in the frontal part of the tower and could only be removed back. The Germans removed the guns of their tanks along with its mask (the width of which was almost equal to the width of the tower) forward. It must be said here that the T-34 designers paid much attention to the possibility of repairing the tank by the crew. Even ... ports for firing personal weapons on the sides and aft of the tower were adapted for this task. The port plugs were removed, and a small prefabricated crane was installed in the holes in the 45-mm armor to dismantle the engine or transmission. For the Germans, the devices on the tower for mounting such a “pocket” crane - the “pilts” - appeared only in the final period of the war.

One should not think that when installing a large hatch, the T-34 designers did not take into account the needs of the crew at all. In the USSR, before the war, it was believed that a large hatch would facilitate the evacuation of wounded crew members from a tank. However, the combat experience, complaints of tankers on the heavy turret hatch forced the team of A. A. Morozov to switch to the two hatches of the tower during the next modernization of the tank. The six-sided tower, nicknamed "nut", again received "Mickey Mouse's ears" - two round hatches. Such towers were placed on T-34 tanks, produced in the Urals (ChTZ in Chelyabinsk, UZTM in Sverdlovsk and UVZ in Nizhny Tagil) since the fall of 1942. The Red Sormovo plant in Gorky until the spring of 1943, continued to produce tanks with a “pie”. The task of extracting tanks on tanks with a "nut" was solved with the help of a removable armor jumper between the hatches of the commander and gunner. The gun was removed according to the method proposed for the purpose of simplifying the production of the cast tower as early as 1942 at Krasnoye Sormovo plant No. 112 - the back of the tower was raised with talis, and the weapon formed between the hull and the tower was opened.

Tankers, in order not to get into the situation “with their hands without a skin they were looking for a latch”, preferred not to lock the door, securing it with a ... trouser belt. A.V. Bodnar recalls: “When I went on the attack, the hatch was closed, but not on the latch. I hooked one end of the trouser belt by the hatch latch, and the other end wrapped around the hook holding the ammunition on the turret a couple of times, so that if something hit my head, the belt would come off and you would jump out. ” The same techniques were used by the commanders of the T-34 tanks with the commander's turret. “There was a double-wing hatch on the commander’s turret, locked with two latches on the springs. Even a healthy person could hardly open them, but the wounded man definitely could not. We have removed these springs, leaving the latches. In general, we tried to keep the hatch open - it is easier to jump out, ”says A. S. Burtsev. It should be noted that neither the design bureau, either before or after the war, used in one form or another the achievements of the soldier's ingenuity. The tanks were still equipped with latches of the hatches in the tower and the hull, which the crews in battle preferred to keep open.

The thirty-four crew daily service abounded in situations where the same load was placed on the crew members and each of them performed simple but repetitive operations that differed little from their neighbor’s actions, such as opening a trench or filling a tank with fuel and projectiles. However, the battle and the march immediately singled out the people in overalls of two crew members, on whom the main responsibility for the tank rested, were being built out of those who were being built in front of the tank at the command “By car!” The first was the commander of the vehicle, who in addition to managing the battle on the early T-34 was acting as the gunner of the gun: “If you are the commander of the T-34-76 tank, then you yourself shoot, you command yourself on the radio, you do everything yourself” (V. P. Bryukhov). The second man in the crew, on whom the lion's share of responsibility for the tank, and therefore, for the lives of his comrades in battle, lay, was the driver. The commanders of tanks and tank divisions rated the driver in battle very high. “... An experienced driver is half the success,” recalls N. E. Glukhov. This rule knew no exceptions. “The mechanic driver Kryukov Grigory Ivanovich was 10 older than me. Before the war he worked as a driver and had already managed to make war near Leningrad. Was injured. He perfectly felt the tank. I believe that it was only thanks to him that we survived the first battles, ”recalls tank commander Lt. Georgy Nikolaevich Krivov.

The special position of the driver in the "thirty-four" was due to the relatively complex management, requiring experience and physical strength. This was particularly true of the T-34 tanks of the first half of the war, which had a four-speed gearbox that required the gears to be moved relative to each other and the necessary gears and drive shafts were brought into gear. The change of speed in such a box was very difficult and required great physical strength. Recalls A. AT. Maryevsky: “You cannot turn on the gearshift lever with one hand, you had to help yourself with your knee.” To facilitate gear changes, gear boxes were developed with gears that were constantly engaged. The gear ratio was changed not by moving gears, but by moving small cam clutches sitting on shafts. They moved along the shaft on the splines and linked with it the desired pair of gears that were already meshed from the moment the gearbox was assembled. For example, the pre-war Soviet motorcycles L-300 and AM-600, as well as the M-1941 motorcycle produced from 72, a licensed copy of the German BMW R71, had a transmission of this type. The next step in the direction of improving the transmission was the introduction of synchronizers into the gearbox. These are devices that equalize the speeds of the cam clutches and gears, with which they are engaged when a gear is engaged. Shortly before the low or high gear was engaged, the clutch entered into friction with the gear wheel. So it gradually began to rotate at the same speed with the selected gear, and when the transmission was engaged, the coupling between them was carried out silently and without impacts. An example of a gearbox with synchronizers is the Maybach type gearbox of German T-III and T-IV tanks. Even more perfect were the so-called planetary gearboxes of Czech-made tanks and Matilda tanks. Not surprisingly, the Commissar of Defense of the USSR Marshal S. TO. Timoshenko 6 of November 1940 of the year, according to test results of the first T-34, sent a letter to the Committee of Defense under SNK, which, inter alia, said: “In the first half of 1941, the plants should develop and prepare a planetary transmission for T-34 and KV This will increase the average speed of the tanks and ease the management. " None of this was done before the war, and in the first years of the war T-34 fought with the least perfect gearbox of those existing at that time. Thirty-fours with a four-speed gearbox required very good driver training. “If the driver is not trained, then he can insert the fourth instead of the first gear, because it is also back, or instead of the second - the third, which will lead to a breakdown of the gearbox. It is necessary to bring the skill of switching to automatism so that it can switch with closed eyes, ”recalls A. AT. Bodnar. In addition to the difficulties in shifting gears, the four-speed gearbox was characterized as weak and unreliable, often failing. Gears of gears that collided during switching broke, there were even breaks in the crankcase of the box. The engineers of the NIBT landfill site in Kubinka in the lengthy 1942 report of the year on joint testing of domestic, captured and lend-leased equipment gave the early series T-34 gearbox a mere derogatory assessment: “Transmission gear boxes of domestic tanks, especially T-34 and KB, are not they fully meet the requirements of modern combat vehicles, yielding to gear change boxes of both allied and enemy tanks, and at least a few years behind the development of tank-building technology. ” As a result of these and other reports on the deficiencies of the Thirty-Four, a decree of the State Defense Committee of 5 June 1942 of the year “On improving the quality of T-34 tanks” was issued. As part of the execution of this resolution to the beginning of 1943. The design department of Plant No. 183 (Kharkov Plant, evacuated to the Urals) developed a five-speed gearbox with permanent gearing, which tank crews who expressed their respect for T-34 expressed with such respect.

Another element of the T-34 transmission, which made the combat vehicle dependent on the driver’s training, was the main clutch linking the gearbox to the engine. Here's how A.V. Bodnar describes the situation, after being injured, trained T-34 driver mechanics: “A lot depended on how well the main friction clutch was adjusted for free running and shutting down and how well the driver could use it when pulls away. The last third of the pedal must be released slowly, so as not to tear, because if it is to tear, the car will slip and the clutch will twist. The main part of the main friction of the dry friction of the T-34 tank was a package of 8 leading and 10 slaves (later, as part of improving the transmission of the tank, received 11 leading and 11 slaves), pressed against each other by springs. Improper shutdown of the friction clutch with disks against each other, their heating and warping could lead to the failure of the tank. Such a breakdown was called "burn clutch", although formally it lacked combustible objects. Ahead of other countries in implementing solutions such as the 76-mm long-barreled cannon and the inclined arrangement of armor, the T-34 tank still lagged behind Germany and other countries in the design of the transmission and turning mechanisms. On German tanks that were the same age as the T-34, the main clutch was with discs working in oil. This made it possible to more efficiently remove heat from the friction discs and made it much easier to turn the friction clutch on and off. The servomechanism, which was equipped with the main friction off pedal based on the experience of the T-34 combat use in the initial period of the war, somewhat improved the situation. The design of the mechanism, despite the servo prefix that inspires some degree of piety, was rather simple. The clutch pedal was held by a spring which, in the process of depressing the pedal, passed the dead center and changed the direction of the force. When the tanker just pressed the pedal, the spring resisted pressing. At a certain moment, on the contrary, she began to help and pulled the pedal toward herself, providing the necessary speed of movement of the backstage. Before the introduction of these simple but necessary elements, the work of the second in the hierarchy tank crew was very hard. “During a long march, a driver was losing two or three pounds in weight. All was exhausted. This, of course, was very hard, ”remembers P. I. Kirichenko. If on the march, the driver’s mistakes could lead to a delay in the journey due to repairs of a certain duration, at least to the crew leaving the tank, then in a battle the failure of the T-34 transmission due to the driver’s mistakes could have fatal consequences. On the contrary, the skill of the driver and energetic maneuvering could ensure the survival of the crew under heavy fire.

The development of the design of the T-34 tank during the war proceeded primarily in the direction of improving the transmission. In the above-cited report of the engineers of the NIIBT test site in Kubinka 1942, the following words were said: “Recently, due to the increase in VET means, maneuverability is at least not less a guarantee of machine invulnerability than powerful armor. The combination of a good car reservation and the speed of its maneuver is the main means of protecting a modern combat vehicle against anti-tank artillery fire. ” The armor protection advantage lost to the final period of the war was compensated for by the improved performance of the thirty-fours. The tank began to move faster both on the march and on the battlefield, it is better to maneuver. Two features that tankers believed in (tilting armor and a diesel engine) added a third speed. A. K. Rodkin, who fought on the T-34-85 tank at the end of the war, put it this way: “The tank crew had this saying:“ Armor is bullshit, but our tanks are fast. ” In speed, we had an advantage. The Germans had petrol tanks, but their speed was not very big. ”

The first task of the X-NUMX-mm F-76,2 tank guns was “the destruction of enemy tanks and other mechanized equipment” *. Tank veterans unanimously called German tanks the main and most serious opponent. In the initial period of the war, the crews of the T-34 confidently went to a duel with any German tanks, rightly considering that a powerful gun and reliable armor protection would ensure success in battle. The appearance on the battlefield of "Tigers" and "Panthers" changed the situation to the opposite. Now the German tanks got a “long arm” that allows them to fight without worrying about disguise. “Taking advantage of the fact that we have 34-mm guns, which can take their armor from the 76 meters in the forehead, they stood in the open,” recalls platoon commander Lt. Nikolai Yakovlevich Zheleznoye. Even snapping projectiles to the 500-mm cannon did not give an advantage to a duel of this kind, because they punched only 76 mm of homogeneous armor at a distance of 90 meters, while the frontal armor T-VIH Tiger had a thickness of 500 mm. The transition to 102-mm gun immediately changed the situation, allowing the Soviet tank crews to fight with new German tanks at distances over a kilometer. “Well, when T-85-34 appeared, it was already possible to go one on one here,” recalls N. Ya. Zheleznov. The powerful 85-mm guns allowed the T-85 crews to fight with their old acquaintances T-IV at a distance of 34-1200 m. We can find an example of such a battle at the Sandomierz springboard in the summer of 1300, in N. Zheleznov’s memoirs. The first T-1944 tanks with the X-NUMX-mm D-34T gun went off the assembly line at the 85 Red Sormovo plant in January, 5. The mass production of the T-112-1944 already with the 34-mm ZIS-S-85 gun was launched in March 85, when new-type tanks were built on the flagship of the Soviet tank construction during the war, plant No. 53 in Nizhny Tagil. Despite a certain rush in the re-equipment of the tank on the 1944-mm gun, the 183-mm gun that was included in the mass series was considered to be reliable crews and did not cause any complaints. The vertical guidance of the thirty-four tool was carried out manually, and an electric drive was introduced to turn the turret from the very beginning of the tank's production. However, tankers in battle preferred to rotate the tower manually. “The hands lie cross on the mechanisms of rotation of the turret and the guidance of the gun. The tower could be turned by an electric motor, but in a battle you forget about it. You twist the handle, ”recalls G. N. Kryvov. This is easily explained. On the T-85-85, about which G. N. Krivov speaks, the handle of the turn of the tower manually simultaneously served as a lever for the electric drive. To go from a manual drive to an electric one, it was necessary to turn the handle of rotation of the tower vertically and move it back and forth, forcing the engine to rotate the tower in the right direction. In the heat of battle, this was forgotten, and the handle was used only for manual turning. In addition, as V. P. Bryukhov recalls: “You must be able to use the electric rotation, otherwise you will jerk it off, and then you have to turn it around.”

The only inconvenience that caused the introduction of 85-mm guns, was the need to carefully ensure that the long barrel does not touch the ground on the bumps of the road or battlefield. “The T-34-85 has a barrel four meters long or more. On the slightest ditch, a tank can bite and grab the ground with a barrel. If, after this, to shoot, the trunk opens with petals in different directions, like a flower, ”recalls AK Rodkin. The full barrel length of the 85-mm tank gun model 1944 of the year was more than four meters, 4645 mm. The appearance of 85-mm guns and new shots to it also led to the fact that the tank stopped exploding with the collapse of the turret, "... they (the shells. - A. I.) do not detonate, but explode in turns. On T-34-76, if one projectile blew up, then the entire combat pack detonates, ”asserts AK Rodkin. This somewhat increased the chances of the thirty-four crew members for survival, and the picture that sometimes flashes on 1941 - 1943's frames - T-34, which lies next to the tank or turned over after falling back to the tank, disappeared from the photo and newsreels of the war. .

If the German tanks were the most dangerous enemy of the Thirty-Fours, then the T-34 themselves were an effective means of defeating not only armored vehicles, but also the weapons and manpower of the enemy, hindering the advancement of their infantry. Most tankers whose memories are listed in the book have, at best, a few enemy armored vehicles, but the number of enemy infantrymen shot from a cannon and machine gun is estimated to be in the tens and hundreds. The ammunition of the T-34 tanks consisted mainly of high-explosive fragmentation projectiles. Regular ammunition "thirty" with a tower "nut" in 1942-1944. consisted of 100 shots, including 75 high-explosive fragmentation and 25 armor-piercing (of which 4 are snapping from 1943 of the year). The standard ammunition of the T-34-85 tank included 36 high-explosive fragmentation shots, 14 armor-piercing and 5 sub-caliber. The balance between armor-piercing and high-explosive fragmentation projectiles largely reflects the conditions in which the Thirty-Fours fought during the attack. Under heavy artillery fire, tankmen, in most cases, had little time for aimed shooting and fired on the move and short stops, counting on suppressing the enemy with a mass of shots or hitting a target with several projectiles. G. N. Kryvov recalls: “Experienced guys who were already in battles, we are told:“ Never stop. Beat on the move. Heaven is the land where the projectile goes - hit, squeeze ”. You asked how many shells I fired in the first bout? Half ammunition. He beat, beat ... "

As is often the case, practice prompted techniques that were not provided for by any statutes and methodological manuals. A typical example is the use of a lockable clanging shutter as an internal alarm in a tank. V. Bryukhov says: “When the crew is well coordinated, the mechanic is strong, he himself hears what kind of projectile is driven in, the click of the wedge of the bolt is heavy, more than two pounds ...” The guns mounted on the T-34 tank were equipped semi-automatic opening the shutter. This system worked as follows. When fired, the gun rolled back, after absorbing the recoil energy, the reamer returned the body of the gun to its original position. Just before returning, the lever of the shutter mechanism ran into the copier on the gun carriage, and the wedge went down, the ejector legs connected with it knocked out an empty shell shell from the breech. The loader sent the next projectile, knocking the bolt wedge on its legs. Heavy detail, under the influence of powerful springs, abruptly returning to its original position, produced quite a sharp sound, blocking the roar of the engine, the chanting of the chassis and the sounds of combat. Hearing the clanging shutter, the driver, without waiting for the command “Short!”, Chose a fairly flat stretch of terrain for a short stop and an aimed shot. The location of ammunition in the tank did not cause any inconvenience to the loaders. Shells could be taken both from stacking in the tower and from the “suitcases” on the floor of the combat compartment.

The goal that did not always appear at the crosshairs was worthy of a cannon shot. The T-34-76 commander or gunner T-34-85 fired from a machine gun that was paired with a cannon that ran or appeared in the open space of German infantrymen. A machine gun, mounted in the hull, could only be effectively used in close combat, when enemy infantrymen with grenades and incendiary bottles surrounded the tank immobilized for one reason or another. “This is a melee weapon when a tank was shot down and he stopped. The Germans are suitable, and they can be mowed, be healthy, ”recalls V. P. Bryukhov. In movement, it was almost impossible to fire a machine gun because the machine gun's telescopic sight provided insignificant opportunities for observation and aiming. “And I actually had no sight. I have such a hole there, not a damn thing in it, ”remembers P. I. Kirichenko. Perhaps the most effective exchange rate machine gun was used when shooting from a ball mount and was used for firing from a bipod outside the tank. “And it began. They pulled out a frontal machine gun - they came at us from the rear. The tower unfolded. With me the machine gunner. The machine gun on the parapet was set up, we are firing, ”recalls Nikolay Nikolayevich Kuzmichyov. In fact, the tank received a machine gun, which could be used by the crew as the most effective personal weapon.

Installing the radio on the T-34-85 tank in the turret next to the tank commander had to finally turn the radio operator into the most useless member of the tank crew, the “passenger”. Ammunition of machine guns of the T-34-85 tank in comparison with tanks of early releases was reduced more than twice, to the 31 disc. However, the reality of the final period of the war, when the German infantry had faustprony, on the contrary, increased the usefulness of the arrow machine gun. “By the end of the war, he became needed, protecting him from the“ faustnik ”, clearing the way. So what, what is not clear, he sometimes prompted the mechanic. If you want to see, you will see, ”recalls A. K. Rodkin.

In such a situation, the space freed up after moving the radio into the turret was used to place ammunition. Most (27 of 31) drives to the DT machine gun in the T-34-85 was located in the control compartment, next to the shooter, who became the main consumer of machine gun cartridges.
In general, the emergence of faustpronov increased the role of the thirty-four small arms. Began to practice even shooting at the "Faustnik" from a pistol with the hatch open. The crew’s personal weapons were TT pistols, revolvers, captured pistols, and one PPS submachine gun, for which a place was provided for laying equipment in the tank. The submachine gun was used by the crews when leaving the tank and in battle in the city, when there was not enough angle of elevation of the cannon and machine guns.

As the German anti-tank artillery intensified, visibility became an increasingly important component of tank survival. The difficulties that the commander and driver of the T-34 tank experienced in their combat work were largely due to the scant possibilities of observing the battlefield. The first "thirty-four" had mirror periscopes at the driver and in the turret of the tank. Such a device was a box with angle-mounted mirrors at the top and bottom, and the mirrors were not glass (they could crack from the shells), but from polished steel. The image quality in such a periscope is not difficult to imagine. The same mirrors were in periscopes on the sides of the tower, which was one of the main means of monitoring the battlefield at the tank commander. In the letter cited above by S. K. Timoshenko from November 6 of 1940, there are such words: “To replace the instruments of the driver and radio operator with more modern ones”. The first year of the war tankers fought with mirrors, and later instead of mirrors they installed prismatic observation devices, i.e. the entire height of the periscope was a continuous glass prism. However, a limited overview, despite the improvement in the characteristics of the periscopes themselves, often forced the T-34 driver to drive with open hatches. “The triplexes on the driver's hatch were completely ugly. They were made from a disgusting yellow or green Plexiglas, which gave a completely distorted, wavy image. It was impossible to disassemble something through such a triplex, especially in a jumping tank. Therefore, the war was fought with hatches ajar in the palm of the hand, ”recalls S. L. Aria. A. V. Marievsky agrees with him, who also points out that the driver's triplexes were easily splashed with dirt.

Experts of the Research Institute-48 in the fall of 1942, according to the results of the analysis of armor protection lesions, made the following conclusion: “A significant percentage of dangerous defeats of T-34 tanks on the side parts, and not on frontal ones, can be explained either by the weak acquaintance of tank teams with tactical characteristics of their armor, or poor review of them, so that the crew cannot detect the firing point in time and turn the tank to the position that is least dangerous for penetrating its armor. It is necessary to improve the acquaintance of tank crews with the tactical characteristics of booking their cars and to provide a better overview of them. ”

The task of providing a better overview was solved in several stages. “Mirrors” of polished steel were also removed from the commander’s and loader’s surveillance devices. Periscopes on the cheekbones of the tower T-34 replaced by cracks with glass blocks to protect against fragments. It happened during the transition to the tower “nut” in the fall of the year 1942. New devices allowed the crew to organize, circular observation of the situation: “The driver is looking ahead and to the left. You, commander, try to observe the circle. And the radio operator and the loader are more to the right ”(V. P. Bryukhov). On the T-34-85, MK-4 observation devices were installed at the gunner and loader. Simultaneous observation of several directions made it possible to promptly notice the danger and adequately respond to it with fire or maneuver.

The problem of providing a good overview for the tank commander was solved the longest. The item on the introduction of a commander's turret on T-34, which was present in the letter of S. K. Timoshenko 1940 of the year, was carried out almost two years after the start of the war. After long experiments with attempts to squeeze the freed tank commander into the “nut” tower, the turrets on the T-34 began to be installed only in the summer of 1943. The commander remained the function of the gunner, but now he could lift his head from the eyepiece of the sight and look around. The main advantage of the turret was the possibility of a circular view. “The commander's turret revolved around, the commander saw everything and, without firing, could control the fire of his tank and keeping in touch with others,” recalls A.V. Bodnar. To be precise, it was not the turret itself that rotated, but its roof with a periscope observation device. Prior to that, in 1941-1942, the tank commander had, in addition to the “mirror”, a periscope on the tower’s cheekbone, formally called a periscope sight. Rotating his vernier, the commander could provide himself an overview of the battlefield, but very limited. “In the spring of 42, the commander’s panorama was on the KB and on the Thirty-Fours. I could rotate it and see everything around, but still it is a very small sector, ”recalls A.V. Bodnar. Commander of the T-34-85 tank with a ZIS-C-53 gun, relieved of his duties as a gunner, received in addition to the commander's turret with slots around the perimeter its own prismatic, rotating periscope in the hatch - MK-4, allowing you to even look back. But among the tankers there is also such an opinion: “I did not use the commander’s turret. I always kept the hatch open. Because those who closed them, they burned. They did not have time to jump out, ”recalls N. Ya. Zheleznov.

Without exception, all the tankers interviewed admire the sights of German tank guns. As an example, let us give the memoirs of V. P. Bryukhov: “We have always noted the high-quality Zeiss optics of sights. And until the end of the war, it was of high quality. We did not have such optics. The sights themselves were more comfortable than ours. We have an aiming mark in the form of a triangle, and from it to the right and to the left are risks. They had these divisions, corrections for wind, for distance, something else. ” Here it must be said that there was no fundamental difference in informational content between the Soviet and German telescopic sights of the gun. The gunner saw the aiming mark and, on either side of it, the “small fences” of amendments to the angular velocity. In the Soviet and German sight, there was a range correction, only it was introduced in various ways. In the German sight, the gunner rotated the pointer, exposing it opposite the radially located distance scale. For each type of projectile there was a sector. This stage was taken by the Soviet tank builders in the 1930's, a T-28 three-turreted sight had a similar design. In the “thirty-four” the distance was set by a string of sight moving along vertically located distance scales. So functionally, the Soviet and German sights did not differ. The difference was in the quality of the optics itself, which especially deteriorated in 1942 year due to the evacuation of the Izyumsk optical glass factory. Among the real disadvantages of telescopic sights of the early thirty-fours can be attributed to their alignment with the bore of the gun. Pointing a weapon vertically, the tankman was forced to raise or lower in his place, keeping his eyes on the eyepiece moving with the gun sight. Later, on the T-34-85, a “breaking” sight, characteristic of German tanks, was introduced, the eyepiece of which was stationary, and the objective followed the barrel of the gun due to the hinge on the same axis with the gun trunnions.
Deficiencies in the design of surveillance devices adversely affected the habitability of the tank. The need to keep open the hatch of the mechanic-driver forced the latter to sit behind the levers, “besides, a stream of chilling wind sucked by a fan turbine roaring behind his back” (S.L. Aria). In this case, the “turbine” is a fan on the motor shaft that sucks air from the crew compartment through a flimsy engine wall.

A typical claim to Soviet-made military equipment from both foreign and domestic specialists was the Spartan situation inside the car. “As a disadvantage, we can single out the complete lack of comfort of the crew. I climbed into American and British tanks. There the crew was in more comfortable conditions: the tanks from the inside were painted with light paint, the seats were semi-mild with armrests. On the T-34, none of this happened, ”recalls S. L. Aria.

The armrests on the crew seats in the T-34-76 and T-34-85 turrets really did not exist. They were only on the seats of the driver and radio operator. However, in themselves, the armrests in the crew seats were a detail mainly characteristic of American technology. Neither the British nor the German tanks (except for the "Tiger") crew seats in the tower had no armrests.

But there were real design flaws. One of the problems faced by the creators of tanks 1940-s, was the penetration into the tank of gunpowder gases guns of ever-increasing power. After the shot, the bolt opened, threw out the cartridge case, and gases from the gun barrel and the discarded cartridge went into the fighting compartment of the vehicle. "... You shout:" armor-piercing! "," Fragmentation! "You look, and he (loader. - A. I.) lies on the ammo pack. Gone from the powder gases and lost consciousness. When a tough fight, rarely could anyone stand it. Still, you get angry, ”recalls V.P. Bryukhov.

Electric exhaust fans were used to remove the powder gases and the ventilation of the fighting compartment. The first T-34 inherited from the BT tank one fan in front of the tower. In the tower with an 45-mm gun, it looked appropriate, since it was practically above the breech of the cannon. In the T-34 tower, the fan turned out to be not above the breech smoking after a shot, but over the gun barrel. Its effectiveness in this regard was questionable. But in the 1942 year, at the peak of a shortage of components, the tank even lost this - the T-34 came out of the factories with empty caps on the tower, there were simply no fans.

During the modernization of the tank with the installation of the tower “nuts” the fan moved to the rear of the tower, closer to the area where the powder gases accumulated. Tank T-34-85 has already received two fans in the stern of the turret, a larger caliber of guns required intensive ventilation of the crew compartment. But during the intense battle, the fans did not help. Partially, the problem of protecting the crew from powder gases was solved by blowing the barrel with compressed air (the “Panther”), but it was impossible to blow the sleeve that spreads the asphyxiated smoke. According to the memoirs of G. N. Krivov, experienced tankers advised to immediately throw the sleeve through the loader's hatch. Radically, the problem was solved only after the war, when an ejector was introduced into the design of the guns, “pumping out” gases from the gun barrel after the shot, even before the shutter was opened by automatics.

The T-34 tank was in many ways a revolutionary design, and like any other transitional model, it combined novelties and forced, soon outdated, solutions. One such decision was the introduction of a radio operator to the crew. The main function of the tanker sitting at the ineffective exchange machine gun was maintenance of the tank radio station. In the early thirty-fours, the radio station was installed on the right side of the control section, next to the gunner-radio operator. The need to keep in the crew of a person engaged in setting up and maintaining the efficiency of the radio, was a consequence of the imperfection of communication technology of the first half of the war. The point was not that it was necessary to work with a key: the Soviet tank radio stations that were on the T-34 did not have a telegraph operation mode, could not transmit dashes and dots to the Morse code. The radio operator was introduced because the main consumer of information from neighboring machines and from higher levels of command, the tank commander, was simply unable to maintain the radio. “The station was unreliable. The radio operator is a specialist, and the commander is not such a big specialist. In addition, when hit by armor, a wave was lost, the lamps failed, ”recalls V. P. Bryukhov. It should be added that the commander of the T-34 with the 76-mm gun combined the functions of the tank commander and gunner, and was too heavily loaded to even engage in a simple and convenient radio station. Allocation of an individual to work with the radio was typical for other countries - participants of the Second World War. For example, on the French tank "Soma S-35" the commander served as a gunner, loader and tank commander, but there was also a radio operator, freed even from servicing the machine gun.

In the initial period of the war, the Thirty-Fours were equipped with 71-TK-3 radio stations, and not all the cars. The latter fact should not be embarrassing; such a situation was usual in the Wehrmacht, the radioification of which is usually greatly exaggerated. In reality, the transceivers were from the commanders of units from the platoon and above. According to the February 1941 state, in a light tank company, Fu.5 transceivers were installed on three T-II and five PG-III, and on two T-II and twelve T-III only Fu.2 receivers were installed. In a company of medium tanks, transceivers had five T-IV and three T-II, and two T-II and nine T-IV - only receivers. Fu.1 transceivers were not installed at all on the T-5, with the exception of special commanding kIT-Befs. Wg.l. In the Red Army there was a similar, in fact, the concept of "radio" and "linear" tanks. Crews "linear"; tanks were to act, watching the maneuvers of the commander, or receive orders flags. The space for the radio station on the “linear” tanks was filled with discs for shops of machine guns DT, 77 discs with a capacity of 63 cartridge each instead of 46 on the “radio”. On 1 June 1941, the Red Army had a 671 "linear" T-34 tank and 221 - "radial".

But the main problem of communication means of T-34 tanks in 1941-1942. there was not so much their quantity, as the quality of the 71-TK-3 stations themselves. Tankers rated its capabilities as very moderate. “On the move, she took about 6 kilometers” (P. I. Kirichenko). The same opinion is expressed by other tankers. “The 71-TK-W radio station, as I remember, is a complex, unstable radio station. It very often failed, and it was very difficult to put it in order, ”recalls A.V. Bodnar. At the same time, the radio station to some extent compensated for the information vacuum, since it allowed listening to the reports transmitted from Moscow, the famous “From the Soviet Information Bureau ...” with the voice of Levitan. A serious deterioration of the situation was observed during the evacuation of radio equipment plants, when, from August 1941, the production of tank radio stations was practically ceased until the middle of 1942.

As the evacuated enterprises returned to service by the middle of the war, there was a tendency towards 100-percentage radioing of tank forces. The crews of the T-34 tanks received a new radio station, developed on the basis of the RSI-4 aviation, the 9Р, and later its upgraded versions, the 9PC and 9РМ. It was much more stable in operation due to the use of quartz frequency generators in it. The radio station was of English origin and was produced for a long time using lend-lease components. On the T-34-85, the radio station migrated from the control section to the combat compartment on the left wall of the tower, where the commander, who was relieved of his duties as a gunner, was now engaged in servicing. Nevertheless, the concept of "linear" and "radion" tank remained.

In addition to communication with the outside world, each tank had equipment for internal communications. The reliability of the early T-34 intercoms was low, the main means of signaling between the commander and the driver was the boots mounted on the shoulders. “Intercom worked ugly. Therefore, the connection was carried out with the legs, that is, I had boots of the tank commander on my shoulders, he pressed on the left or on the right shoulder, respectively, I turned the tank to the left or the right, ”S. Aria recalls. The commander and the loader could talk, although more often the communication took place with gestures: “He put his fist under the nose, and he already knows that it is necessary to charge the armor-piercing, and his outstretched palm - fragmentation”. The TPU-34bis intercoms mounted on T-3 of the later series worked much better. “The internal tank intercom was mediocre on the T-34-76. There we had to have boots and hands to command, and on T-34-85 it was already excellent, ”recalls N. Ya. Zheleznov. Therefore, the commander began to give orders to the mechanic-driver in an intercom voice — there was no longer any technical opportunity to put his boots on the shoulders of the commander T-34-85 — he was separated from the management department by the gunner.

Speaking about the means of communication tank T-34, it is also necessary to note the following. From movies to books and traveling back история about a call by the commander of the German tank of our tanker to a duel in broken Russian. This is completely untrue. All Wehrmacht tanks from 1937 used the 27 - 32 MHz band, which did not intersect with the range of radio stations of the Soviet tank radio stations - 3,75 - 6,0 MHz. Only a second shortwave radio station was placed on the commander’s tanks. It had a 1-3 MHz band, again, incompatible with our tank radio stations.

The commander of the German tank battalion, as a rule, had something to do besides calling for a duel. In addition, commanders often had tanks of obsolete types, and in the initial period of the war they were completely unarmed, with mock guns in a fixed turret.

The engine and its systems practically did not cause complaints from the crews, in contrast to the transmission. “I will tell you frankly, the T-34 is the most reliable tank. Happens, stopped, something is wrong with him. Oil struck. The hose is loose. For this, a thorough inspection of tanks was always carried out before the march, ”recalls A. S. Burtsev. Caution in controlling the engine required a massive fan mounted in the same block with the main friction clutch. Errors of the driver could lead to the destruction of the fan and the failure of the tank. Also, some difficulties caused the initial period of operation of the received tank, getting used to the characteristics of a specific instance of the T-34 tank. “Each machine, each tank, each tank gun, each engine had its own unique features. They can not be known in advance, they can be identified only in the process of everyday use. At the front, we were on unfamiliar cars. The commander does not know what kind of fight at his gun. The mechanic does not know what can and what can not his diesel. Of course, in the factories, tank guns were shot and 50-kilometer mileage was carried out, but this was completely not enough. Of course, we tried to get to know our cars better before the fight and used every opportunity to do this, ”recalls N. Ya. Zheleznov.

Significant technical difficulties for tankers arose during the docking of the engine and gearbox with the power plant during the repair of the tank in the field. It was. In addition to replacing or repairing the gearbox and the engine itself, the gearbox was removed from the tank when dismounting the side clutches. After returning to the site or replacing the engine and gearbox was required to install in the tank relative to each other with high precision. According to the repair manual for the T-34, the installation accuracy should have been 0,8 mm. To install units that moved with the help of 0,75-ton hoists, such accuracy required time and effort.

Of the entire complex of components and assemblies of the power plant, design flaws that required serious improvement had only an engine air filter. The old-type filter installed on the T-34 tanks in 1941-1942 did not clean the air very poorly and interfered with the normal operation of the engine, which led to rapid wear of the B-2. “The old air filters were inefficient, they took up a lot of space in the engine compartment, they had a large turbine. They often had to be cleaned, even if you are not walking along a dusty road. And “Cyclone” was very good, “- says A.V. Bodnar. The Cyclone filters performed well in 1944-1945, when Soviet tankers fought hundreds of kilometers. “If the air cleaner was cleaned according to the standards, the engine worked well. But during fights it is not always possible to do everything correctly. If the air cleaner doesn’t clean enough, the oil doesn’t change at the right time, the booster is not washed and the dust passes, then the engine wears out quickly, ”recalls AK Rodkin. "Cyclones" allowed even in the absence of time for maintenance to pass the whole operation before the engine fails.

Invariably positive tank crews speak of a duplicated engine start system. In addition to the traditional electric starter, there were two 10-liter compressed air cylinders in the tank. The air launch system allowed the engine to be started even when the electric starter failed, which often occurred in a battle from shells.

Tracked chains were the most frequently repaired element of the T-34 tank. Trucks were the spare part with which the tank even went into battle. The caterpillars sometimes burst on the march, were broken by shell hits. “The tracks were torn, even without bullets, without projectiles. When the ground gets between the rollers, the caterpillar, especially when turning, stretches to such an extent that the fingers and the tracks themselves do not stand up to themselves, ”A.V. Maryevsky recalls. Repair and tension caterpillars were the inevitable companions of the combat operation of the machine. In this case, the tracks were a serious unmasking factor. “Thirty-four, she not only roars with diesel, she also clicks on the tracks. If the T-34 is approaching, you will hear the caterpillars, and then the motor. The fact is that the teeth of the working tracks must exactly fall between the rollers on the drive wheel, which, while rotating, captures them. And when the caterpillar stretched, developed, became longer, the distance between the teeth increased, and the teeth hit the roller, causing a distinctive sound, ”recalls A. Rodkin. The forced technical solutions of wartime, primarily skating rinks without rubber bandages around the perimeter, contributed to the increase in the noise of the tank. “... Unfortunately, the Stalingrad Thirty-Fours came, whose track rollers were without bandages. They rumbled terribly, ”recalls A.V. Bodnar. These were the so-called rollers with internal depreciation. The first skating rinks of this type, sometimes called “locomotives,” began to produce the Stalingrad Plant (FCZ), even before the really serious interruptions in the supply of rubber began. The early onset of cold weather in the fall of the 1941 year led to a standstill on the ice-bound rivers of barges with skating rinks that were sent down the Volga from Stalingrad to the Yaroslavl Tire Plant. The technology provided for the manufacture of a bandage on special equipment already on the finished rink. Large batches of finished rollers from Yaroslavl were stuck in transit, forcing STZ engineers to look for a replacement for them, which became a solid cast roller with a small shock-absorbing ring inside it, closer to the hub. When rubber supply shortages began, other factories took advantage of this experience, and from the winter 1941-1942 until the autumn 1943, T-34 tanks descended from the conveyors, the chassis of which fully or mostly consisted of rollers with internal cushioning. Since the fall of 1943, the problem of a shortage of rubber has finally become a thing of the past, and the T-34-76 tanks have completely returned to the skating rinks with rubber bands. All T-34-85 tanks were manufactured with rubber tires. This significantly reduced the noise level of the tank, ensuring relative crew comfort and making it difficult for the T-34 to detect the enemy.

It is worth mentioning that during the war years the role of the T-34 tank in the Red Army has changed. At the beginning of the war, "thirty-four" with an imperfect transmission, which could not withstand long marches, but well armored, were ideal tanks for direct support to infantry. During the war, the tank lost its advantage in booking at the time of the outbreak of hostilities. By the fall of the 1943 - the beginning of the 1944, the T-34 tank was a relatively easy target for 75-mm tank and anti-tank guns, clearly hit by the 88-mm Tiger guns, anti-aircraft guns and the PAK-43 anti-tank guns.

But they steadily improved and even completely replaced elements that were not given due importance before the war or simply did not have time to bring to an acceptable level. First of all, it is the power plant and transmission of the tank, from which they have achieved steady and reliable operation. At the same time, all these elements of the tank retained good maintainability and ease of operation. All this allowed T-34 to do things that were unrealistic for the T-34s of the first year of the war. “For example, from near Jelgava, moving along East Prussia, in three days we passed more than 500 km. The T-34 maintained such marches normally, ”recalls AK Rodkin. For the T-34 tanks in 1941, the 500-kilometer march would be almost deadly. In June, 1941, the 8 th mechanized corps under the command of DI Ryabyshev, after such a march from permanent locations to the Dubno district, lost almost half of its equipment on the way due to breakdowns. A. Bodnar, who fought in 1941 - 1942, assessed T-34 in comparison with German tanks: “From the point of view of operation, German armored vehicles were more perfect, it failed less often. For the Germans, 200 km did not cost anything; you will definitely lose something on the thirty-three, something will break. The technological equipment of their cars was stronger, and the combat equipment was worse. ”

By the fall of 1943, the Thirty-Fours had become an ideal tank for independent mechanized formations designed for deep breakthroughs and detours. They became the main armored vehicle of tank armies - the main tools for offensive operations of colossal proportions. In these operations, the main type of T-34 operations were marches with the open hatches of driver-mechanics, and often with headlights on. The tanks traveled hundreds of kilometers, intercepting the withdrawal paths of the surrounding German divisions and corps.

Essentially, the 1944 blitzkrieg, when the Wehrmacht reached Moscow and Leningrad on tanks with armor protection and the best of the time, but very mechanically reliable, mirrored the 1945-1941 years. Similarly, in the final period of the T-34-85 war, hundreds of kilometers passed through deep embraces and detours, and the Tigers and Panthers trying to stop them massively failed due to breakdowns and were thrown by crews due to lack of fuel. The symmetry of the picture violated, perhaps, only weapons. In contrast to the German tankers of the blitzkrieg period, in the hands of the crews of the Thirty-Fours, there was an adequate means of dealing with the enemy tanks, superior to their armor protection - the 85-mm gun. Moreover, each commander of the T-34-85 tank received a reliable, sufficiently perfect radio station for that time, which allowed the team to play against the German "cats".

T-34, which entered the battle in the first days of the war near the border, and T-34, which broke into 1945 in April on the streets of Berlin, were called the same, but they differed significantly both externally and internally. But both in the initial period of the war, and at its final stage, the tankers saw in the “thirty-four” machine that could be trusted.

At the beginning it was the slope of armor reflecting enemy shells, diesel resistant to fire and a non-destructive weapon. In the period of victories - this is high speed, reliability, stable communication and allowing you to stand up for yourself a gun!
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  1. tomket
    tomket 12 February 2013 08: 35
    22
    Tank Victory - that’s it.
    1. Mikhado
      Mikhado 12 February 2013 08: 58
      39
      Quote: tomket
      Tank Victory - that’s it.

      No, not all. I believe that the article is more about the people of our Soviet people, who are stronger than the tanks, who got this Victory in these simple and crude cars.
      It did not work out before the war to make the tank better - but there were options, it did not work out due to the incredible stress of all forces to switch to new equipment and during the war - T-43, T-44.
      But - at the rear it turned out to make the car ultimately a reliable and hardy fighter, albeit not shining with record parameters, but allowing massive attacks against the enemy.
      And at the front, it turned out to learn how to correctly use it, including the right tactics significantly reduced losses.
      1. ka5280
        ka5280 12 February 2013 10: 18
        10
        Before the appearance of "panthers" and "tigers" in mass quantities, the T-34 was more than a modern machine.
        1. tuts
          tuts 12 February 2013 18: 49
          +6
          tiger can not be compared with T34 these are different classes

          and the panther according to our classification is more likely to be attributed to heavy tanks

          By the way, the question of filling in the site template at the very top is what the tank is shown as something on the IP looks like
          1. jed13
            jed13 13 February 2013 11: 24
            +3
            this is not an IS at the top but a relative, some of the many Objects that did not go into the series and remained on paper or in single copies, the game developers simply release on the battlefield almost everything that was drawn on paper by stoned designers. So the usual t2 / "in the game looks pale against the background of fantastic classmates
            1. zementiy
              zementiy 13 February 2013 13: 46
              0
              In the game this is ST-1
              1. Kuryanin
                Kuryanin 13 February 2013 20: 33
                +3
                This IS4 is depicted as a real tank, was produced in the amount of 200 pieces and stood in service until the end of the 50s.
      2. Vadivak
        Vadivak 12 February 2013 12: 50
        +3
        Quote: Mikhado
        to make the tank better before the war - but there were options,


        Equivalent to the T-34? Can be more? The heavy ones do not count, the wrong concept. There remains the T-46-5 (T-Sh), which did not meet the requirements, the speed is weak 30 km / h. The maneuverability is weak, the weapons are weak 45 mm, the armor is good as much as 60 mm. Again, the T-26 was an infantry support tank. And by then there was already a promising A-20
        1. mkpda
          mkpda 13 February 2013 15: 22
          +3
          There was also a T-28. The best tank of the Red Army of the 30s. A very successful design with great potential for modernization.
      3. nnz226
        nnz226 12 February 2013 17: 23
        10
        AFTER MARCH

        The sun armor is hot
        And dust trekking on clothes.
        Pull the jumpsuit off the shoulder -
        And in the shade, in the grass, but only before
        Check the engine and sunroof open:
        Let the car cool down.
        We will carry everything with you -
        We are people, and it is steel ...
        1944

        Sergey Orlov
      4. ikrut
        ikrut 12 February 2013 21: 27
        11
        Quote: Mikhado
        I believe that the article is more about the people of our Soviet people, who are stronger than the tanks, who got this Victory in these simple and crude cars.

        Exactly! People are stronger than armor.
        Many thanks to the author for the article. Perhaps for the first time I came across such a complete and correct article about the T-34.
        T-34 is a VICTORY tank. And that's it. This is our legend and our pride.
        1. sso-xnumx
          sso-xnumx 12 February 2013 22: 17
          +2
          I completely agree!!! One more addition to the video I strongly recommend, when I listen to tears welling up: "And the battlefield is supported by tanks" - on Yandex.Video
    2. Sakhalininsk
      Sakhalininsk 12 February 2013 09: 00
      +6
      T-34 in fact the best tank of the second world.
      1. bask
        bask 12 February 2013 13: 40
        +5
        Quote: Sakhalininets

        T-34 in fact the best tank of the second world

        TANK OF VICTORY T-34. with a troop compartment in the stern.
        1. bask
          bask 12 February 2013 13: 47
          11
          View from the stern. Airborne squad. In the BMP-T A version. Article on Russians — Soviet people, tank soldiers. Which were stronger than steel armor. Therefore, they won. !!!
          1. cth; fyn
            cth; fyn 12 February 2013 16: 44
            +2
            View from the stern

            That's where the roots come from. good
          2. jed13
            jed13 12 February 2013 16: 55
            +2
            mmmm what an advanced option, thanks I haven’t seen it yet, there was information that simple open boxes were installed along the sides to fight the Faustniks on top of the box, where the machine gunners were sitting: though there was no maneuverability for such cars
            1. 755962
              755962 13 February 2013 01: 03
              13
              Probably few people know ...

              Maria Oktyabrskaya is the only female Hero of the Soviet
              Union, fought in armored units. But the most interesting thing is that her T-34 tank “Fighting girlfriend” was built on her own savings (50 thousand rubles!).

              Maria Vasilyevna decides to sell all her belongings and build a tank with this money. But this money was not enough, then she took up embroidery and with her labor she got the missing amount. Two months, day after day, hard and painstaking work continued. Finally, the money was collected and handed over to the state bank.

              Maria Vasilievna sent a telegram to the Kremlin with the following content:

              Moscow, Kremlin, Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin. Dear Joseph Vissarionovich! In the battles for the homeland, my husband, Ilya Fedotovich Oktyabrsky, regimental commissar, died. For his death, for the death of Soviet people tortured by fascist barbarians, I want to take revenge on fascist dogs, for which I have contributed all my personal savings to the state bank for building a tank - 50 thousand rubles.

              I ask you to call the tank “Battle Friend” and send me to the front as the driver of this tank. I have a specialty as a driver, I have a good command of a machine gun, and am a Voroshilov shooter. Maria Oktyabrskaya

              Soon the answer came:
              Thank you, Maria Vasilievna, for your concern for the armored forces of the Red Army. Your wish will be granted, accept my greetings. Supreme Commander. Joseph Stalin.

              On January 17, 1944, Maria Oktyabrskaya was mortally wounded when she tried to eliminate tank damage under enemy fire. But even after her death, “Fighting girlfriend” (though it was already other cars - only 4) continued the combat path.
              1. xan
                xan 13 February 2013 20: 45
                0
                Quote: 755962
                almost no

                awesome name for a tank - "fighting friend"
          3. Glockxnumx
            Glockxnumx 16 February 2013 21: 48
            0
            The first time I see a similar version of the T-34
      2. Vadimber
        Vadimber 12 February 2013 14: 48
        0
        Great tank and the whole article, undoubtedly the best tank of our victory!

        Guys, help this PURE ENEMY to "clean up" his face in the blog, look what he pulled in his article about the T34!

        http://mi3ch.livejournal.com/2218602.html

        A certain Mitrich "thousand" in LiveJournal, a loose liberal clever man and a loafer without conscience and shame, who is ready for anything for the sake of ratings! I protested as best I could, but everything was removed.
    3. Sasha 19871987
      Sasha 19871987 13 February 2013 11: 23
      +4
      we just did and are doing great military equipment ... nothing to add)
    4. Vlaleks48
      Vlaleks48 14 February 2013 12: 38
      +1
      The most important thing in the tank is the crew!Our soldiers, tank warriors are the main victorious characteristics of the Great Patriotic War worker, T-34!
    5. iafet
      iafet 16 February 2013 21: 51
      0
      how do we get victory today - VOI appeal http://my.mail.ru/community/referendum-mail/24E189564EDAC144.html
      the technical embodiment of democracy in life !! we will return everything! http://my.mail.ru/community/referendum-mail/DD0BBF8C05D09F6.html#comment_279D902
      DD3C668D3
      http://voinru.com/
  2. Vanek
    Vanek 12 February 2013 08: 57
    +4
    Any self-respecting modeler should have a T-34 in his collection. It doesn't just have to, it MUST be in the collection. Well, the "TIGER" should also be.
    1. the47th
      the47th 12 February 2013 18: 55
      +2
      Any modeler should start with the T-34.
  3. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 12 February 2013 09: 00
    +6
    Article +, all in detail.
  4. fzr1000
    fzr1000 12 February 2013 09: 09
    +3
    Interesting stuff.
  5. borisst64
    borisst64 12 February 2013 10: 01
    +9
    The article is very sensible, I have not read such a detailed and competent analysis for a long time. Pinned thinking about the lack of the "Morse" mode on the radio. I imagine this picture - a tank is driving, and the radio operator is trying to fight off the Morse code.
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 12 February 2013 11: 22
      0
      I also drew attention to this. smile
    2. Uncle
      Uncle 12 February 2013 14: 31
      +7
      Quote: borisst64
      Pinned thinking about the lack of the "Morse" mode on the radio.

      It's cool because you don’t know the topic. I’m just such a wireless telegrapher.
      1. mamba
        mamba 12 February 2013 17: 21
        +4
        Quote: Uncle
        I’m just such a wireless telegrapher.

        Does the Russian army still work on the key in the era of digital technology?
        But what about: personal digital radio stations based on the NPO Angstrem processor manufactured by nano-technologies? But the deputy chief of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces, Alexander Postnikov, announced that the military communications system in the army had already been modernized taking into account the war with Georgia in August 2008.

        Last year, 2,5 thousand personal radio stations developed by the Angstrem NGO were supposed to enter the troops. The radio station is based on a dual-core processor with a frequency of 1 GHz of domestic design, thanks to which the communicator can work in communication mode at any military frequency for XNUMX hours. In addition, the radio station is much better protected from the opposition of electronic warfare systems.
        The modern satellite communication station "Liven" entered the troops of the Southern Military District.
        The station is located on the basis of the Ural-4320 vehicle, is equipped with the Glonass satellite navigation system and is capable of automatically pointing the antenna system to the satellite at the specified coordinates.

        The capabilities of the new station allow high-speed data transmission, provide both open and closed forms of communication, as well as organize a video conference session almost anywhere in the world.
        And what about the latest Barrier-T portable satellite communications station, which joined the program for the re-equipment of troops of the Southern Military District in 2012? This station is intended for the organization of satellite radio communication networks in the interests of units and subunits operating in isolation from the main forces via satellite. It allows you to transfer digital and text messages, negotiate subscribers located anywhere in the world. The work of the station provides formalized official communication and closed telephone mode. When traveling, it looks like a schoolbag in size and can be carried by one person. The time of the transfer to working condition is less than 1 minute. The station operates in the range from 4 to 6 GHz. The data transfer rate is 1200 bps.
        [img] http://function.mil.ru/images/military/military/photo/SAV_5917 [1] .jpg [/ img]

        And KAS-TM and KAS-TR - means of integrated transport multifunctional hardware communications and integrated transport relay hardware communications? The unique, universal multiplexer, which is part of them, made it possible to create an integrated transport infrastructure for field communications of the SDH, PDH and IP architecture and ensured uninterrupted transmission of digital information, including video streaming and video conferencing.
        1. Klibanophoros
          Klibanophoros 13 February 2013 13: 58
          +2
          The most advanced stations in the army are Olkhons, R-353SM Olkhon. Developed during perestroika, there are few of them, therefore they are used only by intelligence officers of the Airborne Forces and special forces of the GRU.
        2. Evrepid
          Evrepid 14 February 2013 18: 39
          0
          Do not believe it! In aircraft construction, the transmission speed is specifically limited to a transmission rate of 50 characters per second. so that a person can receive the package
    3. Nechai
      Nechai 12 February 2013 16: 53
      +4
      Quote: borisst64
      Pinned thinking about the lack of the "Morse" mode on the radio. I imagine this picture - a tank is driving, and the radio operator is trying to fight off the Morse code.

      Why did the tankers keep IDEAS. In the post-war p / stations, such a regime already existed, including on the P-123ih. He - the telegraphic mode was used to carry out communications at a distance when the sensitivity power for voice ALREADY is not enough. And naturally from a place.
      Let me give you such a case: the reconnaissance battalion 1Gv.TA, acting on a significant separation from the main forces and conducting reconnaissance in the main attack area of ​​the Army, reached the line of fortifications at the Zeelovsky Heights WHEN they were NOT yet occupied by field troops. Impressed by the scale and equipment of the border, the battalion commander (Captain Gusarovsky Hero of the Soviet Union, if I am not mistaken) tried to contact the headquarters. Expected balalaika! He sends one tank with the task of approaching the distance of confident voice communication and reporting the acquired data. And he himself, being confident that soon the advance detachments of the Army, would hastily march out on the fortifications and occupy the necessary lane in them, for the development of the offensive, and continued reconnaissance, according to the order received. BUT at this time, 1Gv.TA already received the order of the Headquarters to redirect to strike north, to Pomerania. While the crew of the messenger tank was able to reach the appropriate headquarters, the issue was no longer relevant. Time was wasted! And it’s not a fact that if the Supreme Person at that moment had information that the German defensive line was NOT occupied by the troops, would not have taken any steps to get ahead of the chances!
      At reconnaissance, the situation soon also became peak. Nemchura squeezed them between the lakes and canals, reconnaissance tankers suffered significant losses. Destroying the remaining equipment, carrying the wounded, we got out on foot ...
      1. Igarr
        Igarr 13 February 2013 13: 10
        +6
        Guys ...
        since I have a working diploma of a radio operator (marine) I will inform you:
        Telegraph operation - NOBODY and NEVER .. will cancel.
        Transmission by Morse code is able to go beyond the NOISE THRESHOLD. This is true for very experienced operators.
        Easier ... or harder ... the signal-to-noise ratio is always higher than 1.
        The key is shaking (either a tank, or an airplane, or a steamboat) - it does not play a role. The work is carried out at the expense of the brush / fingers (transmission), and at the reception - if only the EI .. did not come off ..
        And the article was read.
        More ... a detailed and truthful article - have not yet met.
        Thanks to the editors - for such material.
        1. Colonel
          Colonel 13 February 2013 14: 32
          +5
          The first time I read the article was in the book by A. Drabkin "I fought in the T-34". If anyone has not read it, I heartily recommend it. Now I read it with pleasure. And at the expense of the auditory telegraph, they do not work with a key now (only as an emergency option) they use Morse code sensors (DKM R-020, for example) this is when you press the key with the letter "a" and ti-taa flies into the air. Of course, in terms of efficiency, this connection loses to automated control systems, but as a back-up, requiring much less resources, I think it will be used for a long time.
      2. AlexW
        AlexW 13 February 2013 17: 34
        0
        Nechai, There was no telegraph regime on R-123. The radio station is great. Used in inter-garrison communication networks. They put in a hospital, power through the battery + rectifier. For the telegraph mode, the craftsmen made a prefix - a tone generator. Excellent communication was provided. Often, on it soldiers (in the GSVG) heard taxi drivers talking either in Voronezh or in Kursk. Sometimes they managed to wedge themselves into the negotiations - the soldiers were kidding.
        1. Igarr
          Igarr 13 February 2013 20: 17
          +1
          Guys .....
          any radio station ... ANY ... provides telegraph work ..
          What is morse code? There is ... a package ... no - packages ...
          So .... turning on the radio on the TRANSMISSION - this is the premise.
          And the inclusion - any of you know ... click the lamp switch in the TV room.
          Another thing ... how these parcels ... to decipher.
          The prison alphabet of revolutionaries is one of the variants of Morse code.
          Sound underwater acoustic communication is another option ...
          In short ... options .. sea.
          .
          And ..... T-34 ... was ... the most successful tank ... in terms of BATTLE GLORY.
          just ... shit .... well not fighting!
          And there are no losses .. massive .... for the same reason ... that ... gamble ..
  6. 689valera
    689valera 12 February 2013 10: 26
    +3
    great tank, great article
  7. Predator-74
    Predator-74 12 February 2013 10: 35
    12
    The author did not mention two more significant factors - this is manufacturability and maintainability. Here, the advantage of the T-34 was overwhelming and this greatly contributed to the victory.
    1. Predator-74
      Predator-74 12 February 2013 10: 49
      +6
      In addition, a very important quality, especially during the Second World War, was the cost of manufacturing the T-34, it was several times lower than that of German tanks.
      Even if the T-34 was inferior in some respects to its German counterparts, even with that money the country could produce 3-4 tanks against one. This difference was especially pronounced in the second half of the Second World War.
    2. AlNikolaich
      AlNikolaich 12 February 2013 12: 20
      +6
      Absolutely agree. On the Tiger to replace the clutch (the main clutch) had to be sent to the factory. On the T-34, the crew did this, even in a forest glade, and in less than a day.
  8. SPIRITofFREEDOM
    SPIRITofFREEDOM 12 February 2013 10: 46
    +4
    Now, too, the smell of war has begun to start, so we need our designers to push us
    Right now we need a breakthrough in the defense industry !!!!
  9. Zerstorer
    Zerstorer 12 February 2013 10: 56
    +2

    T-34 shielded concrete

    There was a case of reinforcing the reservation of a tank with concrete.
    http://stan-1.ru/zhelezobetonnye-tanki-chego-tolko-um-inzhenernyj-ne-pridumaet/.
    1. Nechai
      Nechai 12 February 2013 17: 02
      +2
      Quote: Zerstorer
      There was a case of reinforcing the reservation of a tank with concrete.

      Experiments were carried out - concrete with reinforcement with periodicity. The result was great. Only now they didn’t think of modularity of this reservation. Therefore, in the field, the restoration of the belt, after hits, of reinforced concrete armor was not possible. Here is the method and died, essentially not born.
  10. Tatar-in
    Tatar-in 12 February 2013 11: 01
    +8
    Front armor reinforcement was not possible due to the heavy load on the front suspension due to the turret located in front of the tank. As a result of this, designers took the path of increasing maneuverability and armament.
    The tank was much ahead of its time. But the main merit is the merit of our soldier. Eternal memory to the heroes.
  11. Black Colonel
    Black Colonel 12 February 2013 11: 45
    +1
    I learned a little more about the tank than I knew before. By the way, not so long ago there was an article on the same site that our tanks and guns were equipped with optics somewhat better than the Wehrmacht. Somehow does not fit in with this article. The article is a plus!
    1. jed13
      jed13 12 February 2013 16: 51
      +1
      you just didn’t understand everything in the article correctly, the location, the viewing sectors plus the pan-panorama were superior to the Germans on these things, BUT provided the quality of the instruments was equal. In 41-42 we drove an ersatz, I mean the quality and transparency of the glass. Yes, the most perfect the monitoring device will become a fecal mold if the glass is opaque and defective
    2. Nechai
      Nechai 12 February 2013 17: 06
      +2
      Quote: Black Colonel
      there was an article that our tanks and guns were equipped with optics somewhat better than the Wehrmacht. Somehow does not fit in with this article.

      In the manufacture of optics, the Germans used at least a triple antireflection lens coating, in most of their optical partitions. So the LIGHT of their optics was much higher. This is noted by ALL of our veterans who had a chance to communicate with her.
    3. stalkerwalker
      stalkerwalker 13 February 2013 22: 11
      +4
      That's right. With optics (high-quality, not plastic) we had and have problems, because this requires high-quality materials and equipment, qualified personnel. Our submarines in optics reached the level of German times of World War II only at the end of the 70's.
  12. Fitter65
    Fitter65 12 February 2013 13: 13
    +6
    In my opinion, this is an abbreviated version of Drabkin's book "I fought in a T-34". But the article does not matter +, because judging by the comments, many simply did not see the book, I’m not talking about reading it. There are so many interesting things. Alexander Mikhailovich Fadin is just great. Yes and the rest are no worse.
    1. Kars
      Kars 12 February 2013 15: 48
      +8
      Quote: Fitter65
      Drabkin's book "I fought on the T-34".

      Rather like compiling from intro to the series
      http://flibusta.net/b/234603/read
      http://flibusta.net/b/286155/read
      And the article could be diluted with illustrations. More interesting and easier to read.
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 12 February 2013 15: 52
        +2
        Quote: Kars
        And the article could be diluted with illustrations

        Hi, Andrew. What do you think objectively?
        1. Kars
          Kars 12 February 2013 16: 03
          +4
          Quote: Vadivak
          What do you think objectively?

          Most likely, it’s more objective if you don’t get into the jungle, there’s simply nothing. Here it’s precisely a technique with sections of memories. And memories are subjective.
          So that’s it.
      2. Castor oil
        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 30
        +3
        Quote: Kars
        to dilute with illustrations. more interesting and easier to read.

        Clickable
        1. Castor oil
          Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 31
          +2
          dilute with illustrations.

          Clickable
          1. Castor oil
            Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 42
            +2
            Clickable
            1. Castor oil
              Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 44
              +1
              Clickable
              1. Castor oil
                Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 45
                +1
                Clickable
                1. Castor oil
                  Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 46
                  +2
                  Clickable
                  1. Castor oil
                    Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 47
                    0
                    Clickable
                    1. Castor oil
                      Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 48
                      +2
                      Clickable
                      1. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 49
                        +1
                        Clickable
                      2. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 49
                        0
                        Clickable
                      3. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 51
                        0
                        Clickable

                      4. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 54
                        0
                        Clickable
                      5. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 55
                        0
                        Clickable
                      6. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 56
                        0
                        Clickable
                      7. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 57
                        0
                        Clickable
                      8. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 57
                        0
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                      9. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 58
                        0
                        Clickable
                      10. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 21: 59
                        0
                        Clickable
                      11. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 22: 00
                        0
                        Clickable
                      12. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 22: 00
                        +2
                        Clickable
                      13. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 12 February 2013 22: 01
                        +1
                        Clickable
                      14. honest jew
                        honest jew 13 February 2013 15: 26
                        +2
                        What website is the picture from?
                      15. Castor oil
                        Castor oil 13 February 2013 19: 26
                        +1
                        Quote: Honest Jew
                        What website is the picture from?

                        Here: http://tipolog.atspace.com/doc_plakats.htm
  • Kars
    Kars 13 February 2013 01: 23
    +2
    I think there are no longer sketchy photos of the mass media of the Second World War. Namely the T-34, and not only against the background of burning tigers, but also more tragic ones that will focus on the heroism of those people who sat down at the controls, looked at the sights, and fired shells.
    1. Kars
      Kars 13 February 2013 01: 26
      +2
      ___________________
      1. Kars
        Kars 13 February 2013 01: 30
        +1
        ____________________
        1. Kars
          Kars 13 February 2013 01: 31
          0
          ______________________
          1. Kars
            Kars 13 February 2013 01: 32
            +1
            ____________________
            1. Kars
              Kars 13 February 2013 01: 34
              +2
              ___________
              1. Kars
                Kars 13 February 2013 01: 39
                +2
                If honestly, I just love to illustrate articles on armored vehicles. It’s a pity that Koshkin’s humorous stories with my selection of photos are reluctant to publish.
                http://flibusta.net/b/216362/read

                Well, don’t cry, anyway, I love you. You just overworked it. Take a trip to the Alps or Paris, take a break, and then I will entrust you with another matter, I have one idea ... “The mouse is called,” the Führer giggled and went to Aders.

                - Well, what’s up with you ... THIS WHAT ???

                “Skating rinks,” Aders reported with hysterical vigor.

                - I see that the rinks! Why in four rows!

                1. Zerstorer
                  Zerstorer 13 February 2013 09: 38
                  0
                  Quote: Kars
                  Well, don’t cry, anyway, I love you. You just overworked it. Take a trip to the Alps or Paris, take a break, and then I will entrust you with another matter, I have one idea ... “The mouse is called,” the Führer giggled and went to Aders.

                  - Well, what’s up with you ... THIS WHAT ???

                  “Skating rinks,” Aders reported with hysterical vigor.

                  - I see that the rinks! Why in four rows!


                  I remember this work ... It's still funny about Sherman.
    2. alex popov
      alex popov 13 February 2013 17: 40
      +1
      Quote: Kars
      I think there are no longer sketchy photos of the mass media of the Second World War. Namely the T-34, and not only against the background of burning tigers, but also more tragic ones that will focus on the heroism of those people who sat down at the controls, looked at the sights, and fired shells.

      The author correctly said:
      If soldiers and officers have faith in the equipment entrusted to them, then they will act more boldly and decisively, paving the way for victory. On the contrary, distrust, readiness to drop mentally or really weak weapons will lead to defeat

      All these things are interconnected.
  • ICT
    ICT 12 February 2013 14: 17
    +5
    good article, one request to the author of large articles not to make them monotonous, to separate them by photographs (it’s very difficult to perceive the text of the monitor, and when the article is saturated with the photo, it’s easier to read)
  • cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 12 February 2013 14: 33
    0
    Wow lope beech! We read wink !
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 12 February 2013 16: 48
      +1
      Phew! all! cool article.
  • shurikchaevnik
    shurikchaevnik 12 February 2013 14: 34
    +1
    From this article - I understand. How long have I not read such !!!! Nostalgia is straightforward - everything is correctly and clearly explained - it is even indicated that I had never met before - the position of the tank on the battlefield over the years. The author - well done already pipets !! good
  • OLe OLeg
    OLe OLeg 12 February 2013 14: 36
    +4
    Thanks to the author for the work.
  • Fitter65
    Fitter65 12 February 2013 15: 55
    +1
    Quote: Kars
    Kars (1) ↑

    Photo vosoche class !!! Swallow on the background of a burning Tiger.
  • GOLUBENKO
    GOLUBENKO 12 February 2013 15: 59
    +3
    Article plus.
    The article is taken from the book by A. Drabkin "I fought on the T-34", an excellent book, a collection of memoirs of front-line tankers who fought on the T-34. I recommend reading.
  • Nechai
    Nechai 12 February 2013 17: 41
    +8
    Thanks, with a bow, to the Author! Wow!
    In winter, mechanical drivers sometimes came under the court of the military tribunal for cowardice and for avoiding joining the battle. The trick was that if the driver, naturally shod in felt boots, DID NOT REMOVE his foot from the pedal of the main clutch, then just during the movement from the original region to the turn of the attack, the main one was out of order. Since almost all the time I worked in an OFF-state. Since the driver didn’t feel that his leg is lightly and not slightly, but he presses the pedal. And a trendy ... But already in the tribunal it was very difficult to prove consciously or accidentally it happened so. But there were enough of several such sentences in conjunction and the bellows already INSTINCTIVELY always lifted their foot from the damned pedal.
    I had a chance to receive T-34-85s preserved by the "cocoon" method from the storage base in Komsomolsk on the Amur. The most reliable method, I must say, and even in the open air works very reliably. But it is EXTREMELY pipe consumption both during its creation and during de-conservation. No railway knitting wire scissors at all BYADA! Surprisingly, on practically all sights, the flywheels of the range setting rusted at the BR-8 mark. Our grandfathers apparently did not mess with the range too much, but after reaching certain angular sizes of targets, they were already operating the aiming point. The shooting course of that time got caught. So, on a C grade on the move, naturally without any stability, it was enough to get into a DIMENSION that exceeds the area of ​​the enemy's tank by four meters in each dimension.
    But the lumps of the T-34 do not clank! They SLOPE ... This is especially noticeable when he goes through the mud - slap, slap, sends. Like in the paws!
    If the tower hatches are closed, then the driver’s mechanic’s face does NOT fly at all when his hatch is open! Grace! But if you fly into a puddle, then pee-pee-pee-dez! And after all, the WAVE of ICE water, mud, first of all falls right on the most causal place! At first it was difficult to adapt with PMP. After all, there is NO first, second lever position! The gearshift linkage sticks out, stood at all five steps. The turning radius of the tank, as they used to say, depends on the dope with which the driver will clamp the PMP lever! We received them for quick development of motor resources, with subsequent shipment to Ussuriysky RemZavod. Therefore, the command turned a blind eye to the use of cars for personal purposes. To drive for firewood. The weekend will be lucky - the family will take mushrooms to the forest. But already from Primorye, they were shamanized to the level of T-34-85 (69 g.), They were sent to Angola.
    By the way, Japanese automotive companies were chasing all over the world for our equipment, they bought this scrap metal and made a sheet of them to produce excellent corrosion-resistant and durable cars.
  • Alf
    Alf 12 February 2013 22: 28
    +2
    Quote: tots
    By the way, the question of filling in the site template at the very top is what the tank is shown as something on the IP looks like

    This is an IS-4, a rather little-known tank.
    1. labus
      labus 12 February 2013 23: 48
      -11 qualifying.
      What ... oh and what not, is best said by the total loss.
      Germans lost from 45,000 to 50,000 tanks in total
      Soviet Union from 96,500 to 100,000 tanks
      Great Britain: about 20,000 tanks
      USA: 20,000 tanks
      1. ytqnhfk
        ytqnhfk 13 February 2013 09: 14
        0
        Labus, you haven’t lost one; wash and drool your hut will never create anything and will not win anywhere if only in Europe in gay parades there master the skill of victory!
      2. stalkerwalker
        stalkerwalker 13 February 2013 22: 20
        +4
        Please give statistics on losses in tanks following the results of the battle in Manchuria in August 1945 ...
      3. them
        them 13 February 2013 23: 29
        +1
        As Mark Twain said, there is a lie, there is a blatant lie, and there are statistics ... Some knowledge of arithmetic is not enough for your conclusions. Guderian thought differently when he first saw the thirty-four!
      4. 73petia
        73petia 14 February 2013 03: 30
        +1
        The Germans all lost from 45000 to 50000 tanks and their country.
      5. Zopuhhh
        Zopuhhh 14 February 2013 16: 14
        0
        Labus in one word
  • Misantrop
    Misantrop 13 February 2013 00: 00
    18
    Quote: labus
    What ... oh and what not, is best said by the total loss.

    But Mongolia has not lost a single tank. Mongolian tank is the best wassat
    1. them
      them 13 February 2013 23: 31
      +4
      But Mongolia has not lost a single tank. Mongolian tank - the best--
      I do not agree! The best submarines of the Mongols! drinks
  • shurup
    shurup 13 February 2013 02: 38
    +2
    I will add, according to the experience of T-72.
    Generally, a driver can only leave a tank quickly sometimes. The fastest gunner jumps out.
    In case of TPU malfunction, the commander can control the mechanical drive with the help of ropes tied to the shoulders of the latter, and the gunner - by hitting the head with ears.
    When the barrel touches the ground, the breech is able to break the massive stopper and flatten everything that was between him and the roof of the tower.
    Go around the horse in front, the cow behind, and the tank from all sides.
  • yury12
    yury12 13 February 2013 10: 33
    0
    Good, good article. More to such!
  • Beard
    Beard 13 February 2013 11: 27
    0
    I only noticed that this is from Drabkin copy-paste?
  • Fitter65
    Fitter65 13 February 2013 13: 03
    0
    Quote: Beard
    I only noticed that this is from Drabkin copy-paste?

    No, I'm a day earlier ...
  • Krasnoyarsk
    Krasnoyarsk 13 February 2013 13: 22
    -7
    The German "shit" hit the vaunted T-34 with a star on the Kursk Bulge.
    1. Firstvanguard
      Firstvanguard 13 February 2013 15: 29
      +4
      Hello Countryman fellow
      On the Kursk Bulge, the T-34 ran into much younger Hans cars. Heavy tanks and self-propelled guns. And the main reason for the large losses in that battle was the tactical mistakes of the command. In the battles on the Miusfront, the losses were almost equal, although the characters (tanks and self-propelled guns) on both sides were the same. Part of the divisions that took part before that fought on the Kursk Bulge. Read the magazine "Front illustration", I don't remember the issue dedicated to these events, you will find it if you want.
      And for information, the battle on the Kursk Bulge Hans lost. hi
    2. stalkerwalker
      stalkerwalker 13 February 2013 22: 24
      +5
      The main part of the car is between the steering wheel and the driver's seatback. The main conclusion of the battle on the Kursk Bulge is that one cannot find military happiness in defense.
    3. them
      them 13 February 2013 23: 45
      +1
      Krasnoyarsk, Half the panthers burned by themselves. In the photo from the Kursk battle, the tigers are literally riddled with hits - there was not enough caliber of our guns. As one of the military historians (I don’t remember who) the Wehrmacht wrote, it was an army of innovative combat technologies. The Red Army is stuck in this regard somewhere in the era of civil warriors, despite the advanced models of technology. And despite the fact that the 2nd SS corps broke through all our lines of defense, it was the Germans who received the stars near Kursk. And their tank units never recovered after that until the very end of the war.
    4. Zopuhhh
      Zopuhhh 14 February 2013 16: 16
      0
      What bothered? Goebbels mouth
  • sdd23wesdg
    sdd23wesdg 13 February 2013 13: 32
    -2
    The base of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of all citizens of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and other CIS countries is on this http://zipurl.me/sng site and the main thing was done as if to search for lost relatives, but here is all the information about each of us: correspondence with friends, addresses, phones, place of work, and the worst thing is even my naked photo (though I don't know from where ...). In general, I was very scared - but there is such a function as "hide data" of course I used it and I advise everyone not to hesitate, you never know
  • erased
    erased 13 February 2013 13: 58
    +2
    The T-34 tank, like other tanks of different countries and eras, is already thoroughly disassembled. Their strengths and weaknesses are known, the opinions of the participants in the battles, military commanders, and politicians are widely known.
    The T-34 was not the best in the world. He had flaws. But its advantages and value for money outweighed. Therefore, this particular tank is recognized as number one in the world! And during the war years, he pulled out a victory! At the same time, you should not beg other tanks.
    Glory to the designers, technicians and workers who created the tank! Glory to the tank soldiers who smashed the enemy on it! Glory to my Motherland for the Great Victory !!!
    1. Basilevs
      Basilevs 16 February 2013 12: 08
      0
      Quote: erased
      The T-34 was not the best in the world. He had flaws. But its advantages and value for money outweighed. Therefore, this particular tank is recognized as number one in the world!

      Which is better - 1 "Tiger" or 5 "T-34"?
      1. silver_roman
        silver_roman 21 February 2013 11: 49
        0
        Well, which T34 also matters? Those. which of the modifications! for example, if you take the first 34s, then yes, they were extremely difficult to operate. The problems were primarily with the transmission, it was extremely difficult to switch and had only 4 gears. I read an article comparing t34 and panther. so it’s all very well described.
        But T34-85, which Berlin took - this can be said is a completely different machine. so if you take the last t34-85 and one tiger, then I would prefer our Swallows !!!
  • Klibanophoros
    Klibanophoros 13 February 2013 14: 10
    0
    Regarding the diesel engine, a lot has already been said about all its advantages and disadvantages. Yes, the diesel bucket does not burn, but its vapors are explosive, and since the tanks on the T-34 were also from the sides, often the cars suffered such damage, of course the tankers left these tanks empty, or even filled with water.


  • Klibanophoros
    Klibanophoros 13 February 2013 14: 11
    +1
    Regarding the diesel engine, a lot has already been said about all its advantages and disadvantages. Yes, the diesel bucket does not burn, but its vapors are explosive, and since the tanks on the T-34 were also from the sides, often the cars suffered such damage, of course the tankers left these tanks empty, or even filled with water.


  • silver_roman
    silver_roman 13 February 2013 15: 30
    +2
    Here she is ... our swallow, protector. Ukraine, the city of Nizhyn ...
    Each time, passing by her and goosebumps.
    By the way in WOT (in the subject of most drinks ) skated more than 2000 fights on it, and then when the vile developers removed 100mm, I had to refuse due to lack of farm crying
    Favorite Car !!!
    1. Alex
      Alex 13 October 2013 23: 02
      +3
      Here she is ... our swallow, protector. Ukraine, the city of Nizhyn ...

      And in Kiev on Victory Avenue (symbolically!) There is the same one near the Shulyavskaya metro station. So unexpectedly, from the thickets in front of the site, it appears that sometimes it takes a shock.
  • Firstvanguard
    Firstvanguard 13 February 2013 15: 38
    +2
    Article + is needed. But the book "I fought on the T-34" by Drabkin is much more voluminous and categorically needs to be read by those interested good
    Preferably complete with "Tigers in the Mud" by Otto Carius. To create a complete emotional picture. Plus the magazines "Front illustration" - dry facts, objective documentary information. All together forms a rather holistic picture in the head of the thinking reader. soldier
  • xoma58
    xoma58 13 February 2013 16: 01
    0
    Article plus. According to the Discovery Channel, the T-34 is the best tank of all time. There are plenty of links, the film is called "Top Ten Tanks". Here is one of the links http://online-docfilm.com/bbc/bscience/391-desyatka-luchshih-tankov.html
  • Chukcha
    Chukcha 13 February 2013 17: 01
    0
    I read it with pleasure.
  • Crang
    Crang 13 February 2013 18: 10
    +1
    The article is excellent, but unfortunately it was stupidly copied from the book by Anton Drabkin "I fought in the T-34". If the author is and is - respect him and respect. If not, then it's not good to publish someone else's under the guise of your own.
  • galiullinrasim
    galiullinrasim 13 February 2013 19: 46
    0
    I read with pleasure and the machine is also a beautiful truth men. everyone recognizes this is the best machine. where are the books of the authors mentioned.
  • xan
    xan 13 February 2013 20: 50
    +2
    755962,
    awesome name for a tank - "Battle Girlfriend"
    not some "desert rats" or "florida penguins"
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 13 February 2013 20: 55
      +4
      Tank "Battle girlfriend" near the Reichstag.
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 13 February 2013 21: 03
        +2
        TASS photojournalist Yevgeny Ananyevich Chaldey (center) in Berlin near the Brandenburg Gate. In the background is the IS-2 from the 7th Guards Tank Brigade - one of the three (No. 414, 432, 434 “Battle Friend”) of the most famous Soviet tanks in defeated Berlin.
        1. Kars
          Kars 13 February 2013 23: 43
          +1
          Photos famous but not quite T-34

          also Berlin T-34-76 and T-34-85
  • bistrov.
    bistrov. 13 February 2013 22: 17
    10
    My father conquered half of the war as a tanker, met the war in Vilna, as a driver of the BT-7 tank, before that he served in the navy for 4 years and two years of extra strength, then fate threw him to Sevastopol, where he commanded a marine corps, after surrender Sevastopol fell under Stalingrad, where the commander of a tank platoon participated in the encirclement of German troops and was seriously wounded in the Kalach region, after the wound he did not return to battle formations, due to his health he was re-trained in technical units .. He fought in various tanks, including on The T-34 told me a lot about the features of this legendary car, in particular about the very uncomfortable place of the driver, if you close the hatch, you had to control the tank almost in blind, especially in dirty weather, when streams of water and dirt instantly blocked up the triplex, which had just a manual cleaner, so the drivers did not close the hatch on the latch, leaving it slamming freely when the tank was moving, especially when they were going attack, the hatch was hanging, the driver had time to see the road, at the same time there was some protection from bullets and fragments, this was his father’s failure, on the next funnel he switched, unsuccessfully leaned forward and got a hatch on the head and even though he was wearing a tank helmet but lost consciousness from the impact, the tank stopped and died out, it would seem a common thing, but the fact is that he was then the tank commander, and was in the place of the driver, it must be said that his father was a very skilled driver, and in difficult conditions, he sat down by the levers himself, after which he was dragged for a long time to a special department, trying to sew him sabotage, allegedly got scared and put his head under the hatch himself, would not have passed him a penalty battalion if the brigade commander personally knew his father. It was a habit to take the place of a driver and saved his life when our troops completed the German encirclement in the Kalach area near Stalingrad: a heavy shell hit his father’s tank, hit a German masked battery, the tower was torn off the run, two people those who were in it died immediately, the father and the shooter-radio operator were wounded and shell-shocked, waking up from the heat, the tank was burning, he still was able to pull out the unconscious shooter and crawl away from the tank. Subsequently, the shooter also survived and returned to the army, his father was commissary and transferred to non-combatant.
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 13 February 2013 22: 25
      +7
      I bow to your father. You need to write an article based on his memories!
      1. Alex
        Alex 13 October 2013 23: 06
        +3
        Alex 241

        This photo is the best answer in all disputes about the T-34. They don’t bow to bad weapons.
  • ZABA
    ZABA 14 February 2013 01: 48
    0
    The tank is good, but where are such losses?
  • Sunscorpion
    Sunscorpion 14 February 2013 03: 21
    +1
    The article is good, but these are all excerpts from the book "I fought in the T-34" by Artem Drabkin and Alexei Isaev and the mini encyclopedia by Mikhail Baryatinsky on the combat use of Soviet tanks "Soviet tanks in battle from T-26 to IS-2". Serious books, who have not read - I recommend.
  • Fitter65
    Fitter65 14 February 2013 05: 45
    0
    Quote: ZABA

    The tank is good, but where are such losses?

    So you read this book completely and questions will disappear. There simple tankers tell who, how and why. And if you also read M. Baryatinsky, then in general all questions will disappear.
  • AlexxxNik
    AlexxxNik 14 February 2013 07: 45
    +1
    while serving in the SA, he often took the MTLB duty officer, to ride, how many boots were spoiled by the spilled diesel fuel, which stood in his puddle at the feet, I think that in the Second World War it was even worse, even then there was the thought that the fan would suck the benzene pair, but the diesel will hang out until set on fire
  • Nechai
    Nechai 14 February 2013 14: 59
    +2
    In the description (see above) of the sounds created by the T-34 caterpillar drive, I made a mistake. I'm sorry. The memory let me down, first of all I remembered what was heard from the place of the mech.water. To the spanking of the track under the first roller is added, from the stern, the "track-track-track" from the contact of the roller on the driving wheel with the track ridge.
    Quote: AlexxxNik
    how many boots were spoiled from the spilled diesel fuel, which stood at the feet of a puddle (?!?!?!), I think that in the Second World War this was even worse, even then there was a thought that the fan blows off the benzene fumes, but the diesel engine will hang around until it is set on fire

    Alexander, the deplorable state of that MTLB, it is only from SAFETY. No one explained it to a man listed as mechanical water, did not teach him how to properly install dyurit and tighten dyuritny tapes. Does it even look like oil paint - tightly and under pressure, it is expensive.
    During the war: the availability of fuel is the cost of life for a given crew and unit as a whole. For such a ticket ... a pass "ticket" to the MILITARY TRIBUNAL was instantly issued. In addition, you are right, an ADDITIONAL fire hazardous source that is superfluous in the entire reserved space, the stump is clear to anyone and in figs did not give up. The crew would have taken the furs by the scruff of the neck.
  • malkor
    malkor 14 February 2013 22: 06
    0
    The main thing in any war is people - it is they who bring victory, the T-34 is a good tank on which our soldiers brought us victory, but if there were another tank in our place, our soldiers would have won with more or less losses - it could not have been otherwise.
    it’s nice to know in the stats what evolution the T34 tank went through changing its mission in battle, the competent understanding and application of the properties of the BTVT in changing war conditions, both by the tank crew and the generals - this is the key to the success of our army
  • Ermolaich
    Ermolaich 14 February 2013 22: 20
    +3
    MEMORIES OF THE TANKIST
    Sokolenko Sergey Ivanovich, born on October 7, 1922 in the village of Doroshkeevo, Daursky District, Krasnoyarsk Territory. After graduating from the 8-month Omsk Tank School in 1942, he received the rank of sergeant, served in the 10th Minsk Tank Brigade, and the Third Tank Corps. He fought on the Kursk, participated in the famous Prokhorov battle. Minsk liberated Minsk. Then in Poland he liberated the Trimblinka concentration camp. For all the time I had to change 6 combat vehicles. After being wounded, he ended the war in artillery as a gun commander.

    The T-34 tank is a good car, but replaced the 15th sight with the 16th, because the 15th sight was weaker. Two Degtyarev machine guns were poorly suitable, often the trunks were heated from firing, and often while one machine gun fired, the other cooled down. Once the vertical roller broke, I had to replace it at the factory. The engine was 500 horsepower, speed up to 54 km / h, projectile flight at 36 km., The caliber of the gun was 76 mm, but then it was replaced by 85 mm. The barrel was cleaned of soot with a bannik. The most time-consuming for us was just cleaning the gun barrel and digging the tank. Caterpillars were also cleaned by the entire crew, except for the commander. The water was heated in barrels, washed, if lice bothered, diesel fuel helped. We didn’t wash clothes, it wasn’t before, they just changed us over time. Officers and soldiers of other nationalities treated each other normally, as well as non-Russian officers are good towards Russian soldiers. Once in our tank there was once a Tatar, a Moldovan, we all fulfilled our duty to protect the Motherland.
    Our tanks were more reliable and the fact that the towers were cast round, and the Germans with corners. Our tanks rarely broke tracks, but if a projectile got into the transmission, the motor jammed. 55 shells were issued for each tank, the 56th was with a shortened sleeve. The gun is good, but when a projectile got stuck, it was knocked out by a shortened projectile, since only gunpowder was in it. I will say that the most terrible thing for us later was the Faust cartridge. We also suffered losses from German aviation, from bombers. In cities, there was an order to close hatches. If a caterpillar was killed in battle, it was possible to repair and replace the tracks themselves. There was an order when meeting with enemy tanks not to retreat in any case, to accept the battle, even to go to ram. If the tank could not get out of the snow, ice or mud, it was rescued by another tank. If the bridge, then sappers determined whether the tanks can pass on it. When passing through the swamp had to come up with various tricks, tie logs with cables.
    The tank T-34 was refueled with 4 tanks of 200 liters of diesel fuel and was enough for 800 km. After 600 km. cleaned the filters.
    I had to see tanks KV-1, KV-2, IS-1, IS-2, their armor was thick, but low speed. But there were cases that used German tanks, machine guns, guns, machine guns. We studied our own and German tanks, stood next to the lined. There was enough military equipment for practice, we went out to the tankodrome almost every day and fired ourselves, they gave out 3 shells for this. They constantly taught everything: driving, shooting, command and control of the crew, so that in the event of the death of anyone, everyone could replace them. When they were studying, they shot at the target both at 500 and 800 meters, a tank was drawn and fell mainly between the hull and the tower.
    Whether the caterpillar has fallen in battle, but the tank is serviceable, then continuous combat continues, there is no time for repair. The tank was left only as a last resort, if it was unsuitable further, they went through the lower landing hatch. We had to creep out and away from the tank, because at any moment shells could explode. Personal weapons did not have to be used. A PPP machine gun was personally placed on each crew member, and a TT pistol was assigned to the tank commander.

    ps Sokolenko S.I. lives and lives in the small village of Balakhtinsky district of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. He is now 91 years old ...
  • zmey
    zmey 15 February 2013 13: 22
    +2
    Normal machine for those conditions of warfare and the state of the rear. In many ways superior to both opponents and allies (of its class).
    Here some talk about large losses in people and technology. Try on those conditions of war and life and say (quietly the truth to yourself), and you could bear it all ??? !!
  • Alexey M
    Alexey M 15 February 2013 14: 51
    0
    More than 34 units of all modifications were created, more than all the tanks and self-propelled guns of the Germans (only 50000 tigers were released). Before the war, there were about 1500 of them in the army and the Germans were shocked from the first battles with them. The best quality of military equipment is the ratio reliability, power of weapons and maintainability. In general, war is won not only by tanks, aircraft, soldiers, but also by those whom they defend. I live in Nizhny Novgorod in our Kremlin an exposition of military equipment manufactured in the city during the Second World War. And behind the plate technology there were type T-2000-34 tanks manufactured at the Krasnoye Sormovo plant in the amount of 85 pcs. So there are 10000 pieces of equipment and the number is almost four-digit everywhere, and on some five-digit. But I’m telling my son to watch booby and be proud. Learn well so as not to disgrace the ancestors. So that's where I lead the tank good, and our people are golden. Therefore, Russia is not conquered!

    P / S By the way, for some reason the tablets were replaced with others and now the quantity is not indicated there.
  • xan
    xan 15 February 2013 15: 15
    0
    In my opinion, the T 34-85 is the best tank of the war. Let it be inferior to the Tigers and Panthers in armor and gun, but not critically as T 34-76. If he had appeared a year earlier, how many lives of tankers would have been saved.
  • воронов
    воронов 15 February 2013 22: 23
    +2
    The armor is strong and our tanks are fast !!!
  • lemal
    lemal 16 February 2013 20: 15
    0
    Well done !!!