7 February 1238, after a five-day siege, the troops of Batu began to seize the capital of North-Eastern Russia, the city of Vladimir. Prior to this, the army of Batu ruined Ryazan and the Ryazan principality, defeated the united Vladimir-Ryazan forces near Kolomna. 20 January fell fortress Moscow.
Russia before the invasion
The defeat of 31 on the Kalka river on May 1223, when the combined Russian-Polovtsian army was destroyed by the corps of Jebe and Subedei (the names in different sources are somewhat different), did not become a sign of fate for the Russian princes. Although the threat from the East has not gone away. Affairs in the open spaces of Eurasia were very serious. The troops of Genghis Khan at this time were connected by wars on several fronts. After the defeat of Khorezm, Genghis Khan moved the troops to the kingdom of the Tangut (modern Western China). During the siege of their capital, the “shaker of the Universe” passed away. However, this did not save the Tangut, their capital was taken and devastated. According to Genghis Khan a tremendous trezna was arranged.
The great ruler, before his death, set out the successors of Ogedei. Other sons received inherits - uluses. Central Asia and Western Siberia went to the eldest son - Jochi. However, Genghis Khan had some distrust of him, perhaps he doubted his fatherhood. Juchi was conceived when his wife Borte was captured by the Merkits. These doubts were diligently fueled by other aspirants to Genghis Khan’s legacy. As a result, Juchi was killed. Jochi's inheritance went to his children — Orda-Ichen, Batu, and Sheibani.
At this time, the “Mongol-Tatars” (the author is of the opinion that modern Mongols and Mongolia have nothing to do with the soldiers of Genghis Khan and Batu) were fighting with Polovtsy, Bashkirs and Mansi in the expanses of Siberia and modern Kazakhstan. In 1229, they made their way to the Lower Volga, smashing the Sakasins, the descendants of the Khazarian population. However, the main army at that time were fighting for China. On the western border remained small detachments and auxiliary troops from conquered tribes. The Polovtsi and Bashkirs fought hard, the parties exchanged raids by horse units, so the war dragged on year after year without a decisive result.
It all happened very close to the borders of Russia. However, in the Russian land did not attach any importance to this. The chroniclers did not pay any attention to the terrible events that took place in the Caspian, Ural steppes. Inner quarrels were more important. In 1232, Prince Svyatoslav Mstislavich took Smolensk by storm, the city did not want to recognize him as a prince, after the death of his cousin Mstislav Davidovich from the mora. Crop failures and famine were also mentioned. Swept a terrible epidemic. Tens of thousands of people died in the Novgorod land alone.
Vladimirskaya Russia and Veliky Novgorod
On the eve of the invasion of troops of Baty, the Grand Prince of Vladimir Yuri II made several trips to the Mordovians and Bulgarians (Bulgarians). Together with the Vladimir regiments, the Murom troops routinely acted, and Ryazan joined. Mordva by this time already changed hostility on friendship with Russians. Relations with the Volga Bulgaria, despite constant peace agreements and oaths, were more complicated.
Yuri and his brother Yaroslav decided that it was necessary to return to the policy of the father, the gathering of Russia. It was necessary to begin with Veliky Novgorod. The local “golden belts” increasingly looked to the West. Yuri II attracted the union of his brother-in-law Mikhail of Chernigov. Vladimir, Rostov, Pereyaslav and Chernigov squad in 1224, occupied the Novgorod suburb of Torzhok. The great prince of Vladimir demanded the extradition of activists of the "German party", threatening to march on Novgorod.
It is clear that the freedom-loving Novgorod people were not embarrassed and began to shout about “liberties”, that “they would not give out the brothers” and prepare for a siege. The military demonstration of success was not successful, but the Vladyka Vladyka did not want to fight seriously. Negotiations began. Yaroslav Vsevolodovich on the Novgorod table did not want to take the “golden belts”. The grand duke did not want to send his sons - they were too young, the boyars would continue their policies with them, hiding behind their names. They agreed that Mikhail Chernigovsky would reign in Novgorod.
While Mikhail was engaged in business in Novgorod, his own lot was Chernigov, Oleg Kursky captured. Michael asked for help from Yuri. Vladimir ruler did not refuse, and allocated troops. Mikhail went to Chernigov to expel the invader. At this time, the Lithuanians invaded the Russian lands. They captured the Old Russa, spread over the environs of Pskov and Novgorod, invaded Smolensk. Veliky Novgorod appealed for help to Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, whom he recently rejected and scolded. Yaroslav acted without delay, united with Smolensk regiments and defeated the enemy in a cruel battle under Usvyaty. Many prisoners were released.
Yaroslav triumphant entered Novgorod. He tried to consolidate the zone of Russian influence in Finland. Passed with the squad of the whole territory, the Finnish leaders recognized themselves as Russian subjects. But then the Russians ran into the Swedes. In Sweden at that time, civil strife ended, Eric Erickson became king, and Earl Birger became his king. The Swedes considered Finland theirs. They set the Finns on the Russian lands, they pogromed the settlements around Olonets. Yaroslav quickly assembled a army and moved on the enemy, but was forced to stop at the Neva. Novgorodians rebelled and refused to go on. At this time, the Ladoga mayor broke the Finnish detachments, and the Karelians with the Izhoryans slaughtered the retreating.
In Novgorod, the land began a new distemper. In 1228, Yaroslav wanted to make a campaign against the Germans. Yuri sent to his aid the Vladimir regiments. Novgorod rich people were indignant, began to talk about the rise in prices for products due to the appearance of troops, rumors went that Yaroslav was planning to seize Veliky Novgorod. Yaroslav tried to agree on joint actions with the Pskovs, But he was not even allowed into the city. The prince filed a complaint to the Novgorod veche, demanded to deal with Pskov cases, to punish those responsible. Pskov also made an alliance with the Order; in the city came groups of Germans, Livs, and Latvians. Novgorodians also took the side of Pskov, refusing to fight the Order. Vladimir army asked out. Yaroslav was forced to obey the decision of the veche, but left two sons in his place — Fedor and Alexander. He retired to his inheritance - Peryaslavl-Zalessky.
Joint actions of the “golden belts” of Pskov and Novgorod (the veche was usually in their hands a toy) were simply explained. In Western Europe, an alliance of trade cities, the Hansa, was created, and Riga was included in it. Novgorod riches, for whom personal profits were more important than the interests of the Russian land, were very interested in participation in this organization. From 1227, the tip of Novgorod, Pskov, Polotsk and Smolensk conducted secret negotiations with the Germans. Naturally, not only trade issues were resolved. It was a big game. The plenipotentiary ambassador of the Pope, the bishop of Modeni participated in it. Pope Honorius III was so pleased with the success of the negotiations that he sent a message to all the Russian princes, including the “Suzdal king” Yuri II. He promised them prosperity in the composition of the “Latin Church”, asked to express in writing “good will” on this issue. Vladimir "King" did not respond to this message, on the contrary, he expelled from his possessions Dominican missionaries. The “golden belts” were differently configured, they followed the principle where money is the motherland. In the same year, when Yaroslav wanted to fight the Order, Smolensk and Polotsk entered into agreements with the Bishop of Riga and Ganza, establishing free trade with them and giving the Germans great privileges. Yaroslav "crossed the path" Novgorod and Pskov.
As soon as Prince Yaroslav left, passions boiled in Novgorod. Veliky Novgorod openly divided into two parties: the “German” led by posadnik Vodovik and the patriotic - Tverdislavich. Novgorod went wall to wall, threw each other in the Volkhov. The presence of the princes Fedor and Alexander also prevented the Westerners, a conspiracy arose. Friends warned in time, princes taken out. Saved on time, the "German" party won up. Tverdislavich killed. A wave of pogroms of the courtyards of the patriotic party swept across Novgorod. Many fled to Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, under the protection of Yaroslav.
Vodovik and his party called on the Novgorod table of Chernigov Prince Michael. Although he was on friendly terms with Yuri, he did not refuse, it was painfully beneficial and prestigious to hold the Novgorod land. Michael himself could not come, stuck in the southern quarters. Sent son - Rostislav. In 1230, Novgorod and Pskov entered the Ganza, made peace and alliance with the Order of Riga. The process of drawing the wreckage of Russia into the sphere of influence of Western civilization and Rome was gaining momentum.
For Mikhail of Chernigov, the Novgorod table turned into a loss of good relations with the Prince of Vladimir. Yuri wanted to agree with Mikhail in an amicable way. But it did not. Novgorod Westerners were completely brought in and demanded to start a war, to revenge Yaroslav for offenses. Mikhail was promised full support of the people of Novgorod, who allegedly hate Prince Yaroslav of Pereyaslav. Michael sent his son to help the troops. However, he was deceived. The common people, as soon as they found out against whom they were to fight, rebelled. Rostislav and Vodovik expelled from the city. Their supporters fled to Pskov, who to Chernigov.
The squad of Yaroslav, together with the Novgorod militia, ravaged several Chernigov regions. Then Pskov was punished. Yaroslav blocked the roads to him, under the threat of famine, the Pskov sent a delegation to put up. The traitors fled to the lands of the Order, in Odenpe. The Order by this time already had a hefty Russian colony, it even had its own prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich (he had no inheritance in Russia, and he joined the knights). From the "dissidents" formed the army, strengthened its Estonians. The Germans also helped with money weapons. Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich captured Izborsk with a sudden blow. Then the Pskovs opened their eyes to the German "friendship." They themselves moved to Izborsk, and its inhabitants were not eager to protect the discoveries. As a result, the then "Vlasovites" were simply tied up and given to Yaroslav Pereyaslavsky.
But this one was just a trial balloon. The attack of the Russian traitors was only a test of strength. It did not work out so terrible. The German army was already preparing for the invasion. However, Yaroslav managed to collect Pereyaslavl and Vladimir regiments, and delivered a preemptive strike. He broke into Estonia and mixed all the plans of the enemy. The Crusaders hurriedly moved an army towards him. In 1234, the Novgorod-Vladimir army crushed the army of the Order of the Sword into battle on the Omovzhe River (Emaygi River). Interestingly, in this battle, part of the German army, pursued by Russian soldiers, fell through the ice of the river Emaygi and drowned. Russian warriors besieged Yuriev and Odenpe. The Order requested peace, agreeing with all the conditions dictated by Yaroslav and Novgorod. The eastern and southern parts of the Dorpat bishopric were ceded to Pskov. The Crusaders suffered a serious defeat on their territory and temporarily calmed down. In 1237, the Order of the Swordsmen became part of the more powerful Teutonic Order. The West has prepared a new offensive against Russia.
In Southern Russia, Mstislav the Barefoot ("the hero" of the battle on the Kalka River) played a trickster. Once again he defeated the Hungarian prince Andrew, who wanted to capture Galich. But he did not want to manage the principality, he was content with the "knightly" glory. He decided to keep several cities “to feed”, and to give Galich Daniel Romanovich to his son-in-law (another participant in the battle on Kalka), who actually had legal rights to these lands. But the local boyars became alarmed. The boyars remembered the tough hand of his father, Roman Mstislavich, whom the Galician-Volyn chronicler titled “the autocrat of all Russia,” and feared that his son would rule the same way. They began to prove to Mstislav that Daniel was an ungrateful man, he would not appreciate the gift, would challenge him. The second son-in-law is different - Hungarian prince Andrei. Mstislav, apparently, did not have much difference to whom to give Galich. He did not think about the consequences of his step (which was typical for him, if we recall the tragedy on Kalka). Just ask for Prince Andrew - please. Galich gave to Andrew. And this after 10 fought for it for years, shed rivers of blood, beat and expelled the Hungarians from the Galician land. I gave the principality just like that. Naturally, the Catholic clergy, royal officials, the Hungarian governor, Benedict Bor, immediately returned to Galich. He had already "distinguished himself" in Galicia, forcibly consuming girls and nuns, he was called "the antichrist." It is clear that Daniel Romanovich was offended by breaking relations with his father-in-law. The Russians clashed with the Russians again. Mstislav has already boasted that he will take Volyn from the "ungrateful" son-in-law. True, then he cooled down, repented, promised to beat the Hungarians again. But he did not have time, fell ill and died.
Daniel of Galicia was the most capable prince in the south at that time. But he got a heavy legacy. At this time he had to fight for Lutsk. The owner of the Lutsk principality Mstislav Nema on his deathbed bequeathed his inheritance to Daniel. But it caused a new quarrel. On the inheritance of Nemoy claimed several small princes, who seized the weapon. However, they could not resist Daniel and found strong advocates. Vladimir Kievsky (he belonged to the Smolensk princely family) and Mikhail of Chernigov (a Olgovich family) stood up for them. Both were worried that Daniel would immediately receive the Volyn and Lutsk principalities, become a serious contender and be able to claim power over South Russia. Kiev and Chernigov called against Polovtsy Khan Kotyan. Fighting boiled on the right bank of the Dnieper, on the Bug and the Dniester. Daniel was really an extraordinary ruler. He managed to keep Volyn and Lutsk, to smash the Hungarians and return the “patrimony” - the Galician principality. At the same time he showed generosity - he let the captive prince Andrei go and forgave the boyars-traitors. True, it was a mistake. Andrew immediately resumed the war, and the boyars habitually changed. Daniil Galitsky won open battles, but the boyars repeatedly defeated the beaten cities to the Hungarians. Galician principality passed from hand to hand.
Daniel showed and his characteristic "teacher" Mstislav Udalom, a certain "knightly" frivolity. Daniel began to actively intervene in Western European politics (later Rome would catch him in this, offering him the royal crown). He intervened in Polish civil strife, became friends with the Duke Konrad of Mazovia and his friends the German crusaders. He supported Conrad in the struggle for the throne, led the Russian squads to fight for foreign interests abroad. He even wanted to get into the German strife, to stand on the side of the big feudal lords against Emperor Frederick II. Approximate barely dissuaded him from this adventure.
Massacres continued on the eastern frontiers of the lands of Daniel. Vladimir Kievsky and Mikhail Chernigov have quarreled. Chernigov was stronger, so Vladimir asked for help from Daniel, promising additional cities. The Galician ruler eagerly responded, even in a knightly manner refused the award and moved the squadron to devastate Chernihiv lands. However, here the Allies firmly ran. Mikhail of Chernigov and his cousin Izyaslav Seversky and the Polovtsy Kotyan allied with them to smithereens defeated the regiments of Vladimir and Daniel under Torsky. Daniel was forced to flee, Kiev capitulated. Prince Vladimir and his wife were thrown into prison, and from the city they took a huge ransom. Izyaslav Seversky became the Grand Prince of Kiev (Kiev was no longer considered the main trophy, his fame had faded). Mikhail of Chernigov led the troops to Galich. Local boyars habitually changed, intending to give up the city without a fight. Daniel, learning of the plot, fled to the Hungarians. I had to ask for help from those whom I had barely knocked out of the Galician land. He recognized himself as a vassal of the Hungarian king Bela IV. However, I was completely humiliated. The Hungarians decided that permanent strife in the east was more profitable for them than one strong ruler. King Bela supported Chernihiv Prince. The same position was taken by “friend” of Daniel Konrad Mazowiecki. Another "friends" - the Teutonic knights, seeing that Daniel had to be tight, moved to occupy the Volyn cities. Daniel, who returned to Volyn, had to restrain their onslaught.
Chernigov prince also triumphant not for long. The captured Prince of Kiev, Vladimir, collected a large ransom for himself and received his freedom. He called for help Smolensk regiments and drove Izyaslav from Kiev. Daniel, having failed with the Western rulers, asked for help from Vladimir Sovereign Yuri II and Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. After the negotiations, they agreed that they would help him return Galich, but Kiev would depart to Yaroslav. The prospect was tempting. Yuriy rules in Vladimir, his brother Yaroslav will be imprisoned in Kiev, they have already subordinated Veliky Novgorod, and his ally, Daniel, will rule the southwestern edge. In 1236, Yaroslav Vsevolodovich led the Vladimir rati to the south. Chernigov capitulated. Mikhail of Chernigov withdrew his forces to Galich. Vladimir Kievsky was forced to submit to the will of the more powerful masters, and went to his native Smolensk. Yaroslav took Kiev. They thought that Mikhail would want to return the Chernihiv inheritance and voluntarily give up Galich. But he did not want to give up the rich Carpathian region. A stubborn struggle ensued. Yaroslav laid siege to Kamenetz fortress and, after a cruel assault, took her. It was seized by the wife of Michael and part of his treasury. The Chernigov prince did not surrender, Izyaslav Seversky, the Polovtsi detachments pulled up to him. Instead of uniting in front of an external threat, a fierce war was raging in Russia.
Thus, before the arrival of the troops of Baty, Russia was in a very weakened state. Russian forces and resources for the most part went to the princely feuds. Western civilization led an active offensive, drawing the wreckage of a single ancient Russian state into its orbit. Gradually, the “fifth column”, “German” (“Hungarian”, “Polish”) party was created from the boyars and merchants, ready to betray the interests of the entire Russian people for the sake of personal and (or) corporate interests. Separate influence of the West and individual princes, ready to become "kings". Rome acted by the hands of Sweden, the German knights of the crusaders, Poland and Hungary. Without creating a single, powerful state, Russia was doomed to defeat. The subordination of Russia to Rome, in the state in which it was at the beginning of the 13 century, was a matter of time. Rome and Western civilization had a great experience in assimilating and bristling the Slavs of Europe. So, the whole Slavic civilization in Central Europe has already been destroyed, the Polish Slavs are okatolichnye (they are already a whole millennium enemies of the Eastern Slavs, a tool in the hands of the masters of the Western world).
To be continued ...
Russian land before the Batu invasion. The problem of the "Mongol" invasion of Russia
- Alexander Samsonov
- Articles from this series:
- Russian land before the Batu invasion. The problem of the "Mongol" invasion of Russia
Russian land before the Batu invasion. The problem of the "Mongol" invasion of Russia. Part of 2
The problem of the "Mongol" invasion of Russia. Part of 3
The problem of the "Mongol" invasion of Russia. Part of 4