The workhouse in Moscow was established in 1837 for the purpose of occupying the poor with work and for earning money to people voluntarily applying to it for help. Until 1893, the Workhouse was run by a special Moscow Committee for reviewing almsgiving and was a relatively small institution whose organization did not closely correspond to its name and purpose: volunteers did not practice the Committee, and in the Workhouse it was usually observed only around 300 asking for alms; the works were not properly organized, and the earnings of those who were valued expressed only a fraction of a penny per day; besides, the majority of those praised were persons incapable of labor.
At the end of 1893 of the year, with the transfer of the case and the care of beggars in Moscow to the City Public Administration, the Workhouse was also transferred to him.
In the hands of the Municipal Office, the nature of the institution has completely changed: since 1897, various workshops have been arranged for the suspected, and work outside the House has been organized; the reception of volunteers capable of labor was widely used, and at the same time the number of people being taken to the police increased; the number of people glorified in the House increased in 1901 to an average of 1.499 people for each day of the year, and on some days it reached 2.247 people; The premises of the institution were greatly expanded through the acquisition of a special estate in Sokolniki for it and the adaptation of four large stone buildings that contain bedrooms for the suspected 1.650, workshops, a meeting room, servants' apartments, etc. Most recently, the City Office decided to divide the Workhouse to two institutions: the House of Diligence for persons voluntarily seeking labor assistance, and the Workhouse for persons brought to the police for asking for alms. At present, the admission of beggars to the Workhouse is managed by a special Urban Presence for the analysis and charity of beggars.
Until the Presence is dealt with by the Presence, these persons are contained in the so-called Prefab House Branch; they receive food and premises from the Workhouse, but clothing is issued only if their own is completely worthless; they are not sent to paid work, and sometimes they are given free work in the yard and house. In the analysis of their cases by the Presence, part of them is discharged, part is sent home on stage or with pass certificates, part is sent to the magistrates and part is left for a certain time in the Workhouse. Prior to this year, volunteers were also taken by the City Presence, but since 1902, their reception has been entrusted to the proactive administration under the control of the City Government and is done daily; a certain period of stay in the institution for volunteers is established only in rare cases, most of them are accepted without a term.
Works organized for those who are appreciated are divided into external work, work in the workshops of the House and work for the needs of the House.
The first category includes work in urban landfills, ordinary black work on the requirements of urban institutions and private customers and work on the construction and repair of urban buildings. In the latter, besides those who are appreciated, the artel of civilian workers, hired by the Workhouse for the summer construction period, also participates. For all external work, the priest is sent, accompanied by one or several guards, depending on the size of the party. For each glorified Workhouse takes at least 75 cop. a day with private tenants and always 75 cop. from urban institutions. As the most advantageous and providing greater freedom to those who are acclaimed, these works are entrusted primarily to volunteers, and only because of the lack of the latter, they are also sent to them under the sentences of the Presence.
Workshops in the Workhouse of two kinds: 1) craft: forging and plumbing, carpentry, shoemaking, bookbinding, wallpaper and 2) workshops of general production that do not require special training, such as: gluing tea boxes, envelopes, packages, stripe hooks, buttons, weaving linen baskets. In the first, those gleaned from artisan specialists get a job, in the second, persons who do not know crafts, are not very capable of work, and also laborers, when there is no demand for them for external work. In addition, there is a training workshop on weaving travel baskets and furniture, in which teenage boys work under the guidance of a master.
In many cases, workshops use the artel labor organization, in which individual orders or parts of orders are given for execution to voluntarily formed groups of those who are appreciated. The payment for work in the workshops is exceptionally piecework; The average daily wage is usually somewhat more than 45 cop., for individual workshops it varies from 6 cop. (button) to 72 cop. (in forge metalwork).
The works for the needs of the House include: washing the floors in the House, washing the linen for the suspected, working in the office, etc. In these works, the women under consideration, as well as men of intelligent professions, find themselves engaged.
A part of the earnings of those who are valued is deducted in their favor and is given to them when they leave the House, the rest goes to reimbursement of city expenses for their maintenance and for charitable purposes. The share of prized varies from 4,8 to 33,4 cop. per day: in external jobs, it is equal to 20-30 cop., in workshops, on average, about 18 cop. (from 4 at the button workshop to 33 in the carpentry workshop); for work on the House in favor of those who are valued from the means of the House are released from 4 to 23 cop. in the working day.
The structure of the Workhouse includes: a department for the weak, a department for the sick, an orphanage and a department for adolescents.
a) A department for the weak was established as early as the work center’s jurisdiction for asking for alms. The contingent of those who are honored in the department is composed of the impoverished beggars entered into the Workhouse by the sentences of the Presence. The office is currently rated for 250 people.
b) An office for the weak and chronically ill is opened in 1900. The department has medical care and support: 1) unable to work, imprisoned in the Workhouse for begging under the sentences of the Presence, if they need hospital care; 2) chronically ill, without shelter, sent by the police to the Workhouse. The office is designed for 120 people.
c) The Children's Department of the Workhouse is filled with children by beggars and homeless, brought here by the police, as well as children who are admitted to the Workhouse together with their fathers and mothers. Charity is temporary, there is no certain number of places. Currently, up to 40 people live in this shelter at the same time; some of them attend urban school, while others, who are not among the students due to their minority or late admission to the House, are taught to read by a warden in the Workhouse.
d) An adolescent unit was made in 1897 from boys who volunteered to the Workhouse. Adolescents, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years, are kept separately from adults under the supervision of a special guard and are trained in weaving baskets and furniture. There is no fixed number of places. Currently, up to 30 people are acclaimed here simultaneously.
The workhouse is located in Bolshoy Kharitonievsky Pereulok, and its branch, organized by the City Administration, is located in Sokolniki, on Yermakovskaya Street.
The purpose of this album is to visually acquaint the public with the exterior views of the premises occupied by the Workhouse, with the interior furnishings of these premises, with the types of contemplated and with some moments of the inner life of the institution.