On January 26, a general meeting (military science conference) of the Academy of Military Sciences was held at the Cultural Center of the Russian Army. Like a year ago, Dmitry Rogozin took part in the work of this forum (“We are waiting for help from military science and the defense industry). In his speech, he actually summed up the work of the military-industrial complex of Russia in 2012, which, according to the vice-premier of the Russian government, became difficult for the national defense industry, but nevertheless a breakthrough.
A year ago, at a meeting of the Academy of Military Sciences, much was said about plans to strengthen ties between industry and the Armed Forces. It cannot be said that today a radical change has come in this area, but if we use the terminology of military storiesthen we have already won the “Moscow Battle”.
Objectives of the day
Last year, the main efforts of the defense industry were aimed at solving the tasks set by the new government and the Military Industrial Commission (MIC).
The first. It was possible to establish a constructive and professional dialogue between the Armed Forces and the military-industrial complex. Emotions of public opinion on statements of certain major military leaders, who allowed themselves to reproach Russian equipment, stopped, while it was successfully exported. Now, with the help of the new leadership of the Ministry of Defense and the General Staff, this problem has been overcome and the dialogue has been restored.
The second challenge is the revival of science and the stimulation of the implementation of basic research programs for the defense industry. Analysis of the state defense order shows that basically we spoon out the last drops of Soviet scientific and technological progress. And it is necessary to lay a new foundation for a modern scientific school capable of creating a superior adversary. weapon. It is necessary to act according to the line determined by the President of Russia, to develop an advanced scientific and technical strategy aimed at over-horizon planning for the development of weapons and military equipment (IWT).
The third no less difficult task is overcoming the technical and technological backwardness of industry. It should be solved in parallel with the implementation of the state defense order. On the one hand, they demand the quality and volume of supply of modern equipment from the military-industrial complex, on the other hand, all of this is done on machines that had been exported back from the Krupp plants in 45. It is necessary to raise the level of these two processes synchronously. And here we are faced, figuratively speaking, with “blockade syndrome”. When, after twenty years of under-financing, large orders and considerable funds suddenly went to industry, it turned out that enterprises had picked up money not at all for the purchase of equipment and training, but for healing the accumulated sores.
Another topic that should be addressed immediately is the absence of any authority in such professions as the general and chief designer, technologist and engineer. Raising the prestige of engineering and technical universities - a strategic super-task. If we have only humanitarian professions in honor, we will not be able to create carriers of ideas. Neither technology nor machine tools will be needed, since there will be no one to use them. Closely related to this is the problem of youth and its involvement in the DIC, creating a whole system of material and moral incentives.
In manual mode
The result of last year for placing the state defense order is not bad. For the main customer, the Armed Forces and the Ministry of Defense, the placement of the assignment was 99 percent, for law enforcement agencies and special services, 99,9 percent, for Rosatom, 100 percent.
The purpose of the manual mode, in which the military industrial complex, the government, and the Ministry of Defense worked last year, was to switch to automatic mode, normal routine work, to create smooth motor skills, when everything is done according to the mind, according to the plan, and without agiotage.
One of the main tasks was to consolidate the assets of the defense industry, in the register of which there are 1250 enterprises.
Many of them work dispersedly, do not interact with each other. There is no uniform technical policy. Some enterprises have a poster base, needed by others, but due to disunity they do not cooperate. Sometimes two adjacent plants produce one lineup. Therefore, the agenda includes the creation of integrated structures and the unification of design potential. If anything has to compete, then it’s above all thoughts and design ideas.
In the past year, the formation of a management systems corporation into a single fist was completed. This included leading institutes and enterprises engaged in automated control systems of both the Armed Forces, their genera and species, and industry itself.
Measures were proposed to create a centralized industrial and intellectual center for breakthrough technologies for hypersound. We are now taking measures to build up new capabilities for these purposes on the basis of Tactical Missile Corporation Corporation.
The work is underway to create an additional, narrower industrial cooperation in aerospace defense systems. We are talking about a closer dialogue between the corporations "RTI Systems" and "Comet" to create information tools for East Kazakhstan.
According to Roskosmos, quite stringent measures were taken to establish quality control systems and technologies. A massive update of the industrial base of the industry has led to a sixfold decrease in the accident rate. Until the end of March this year, the government will have to decide on the structure of the space industry holding holdings for guidance, control and engine-building systems.
On my initiative, the Kalashnikov concern is being created on the basis of the Izhmash group, Izhmekh, the design organizations of the rifle industry and, in the future, other enterprises. This is done in order to develop truly modern small arms and use our great national brand associated with the name of the great Kalashnikov. To defend the copyright for the manufacture of our automatic weapons, which are made today without any licensing rules, we face tough lawsuits and judicial struggle. The concern being created will include not only shooting companies, but also the production of modern ammunition.
The head developer of the ideology of small business will be TsNIITOCHMASH, on the basis of which the laboratory of the military-industrial complex has already been organized to develop the modern look of servicemen and equip them with combat gear. The point of this experiment is that the developers and manufacturers of the object, customers and exploiters are united in one workshop. In the general audience are engineers, designers, technologists and the best snipers of all power structures who know well how it should be: ergonomic, comfortable, fast. During 2013, this laboratory will offer the Armed Forces new types of small arms that are not inferior to the Western one, but are ahead of them in some positions.
For United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC), during 2012, we worked to consolidate assets. USC bought a controlling stake in Severnaya Verf Shipbuilding Plant OJSC, which was in private hands. The corporation also included OJSC Baltiysky Zavod and Vyborg Shipyard.
Last year, the deeply modernized military transport Il-476 was first put on the wing. The President of Russia was present during the first flight of this aircraft in Ulyanovsk, the creation of which used new technologies, digital systems, and a light wing based on composite materials. This is a major breakthrough, and we already have an order for the production of models for transport aviation, refueling and other modifications. In fact, we are talking about the revival of the Ulyanovsk Aviation Enterprise.
The restoration of other promising projects, including the front-line aviation complex, is noted. He recently made a long-haul flight, breaking more than 7000 kilometers. This aircraft opens up new horizons for the development of fighter aircraft. We are moving to the beginning of planning for a promising long-range aviation complex based on other engineering and technical solutions that will allow us to revive parity in this area.
A year ago, in this audience, we talked about Belarus. There are representatives of our fraternal republic. The result of the joint work of the Military Industrial Commission with Belarusian colleagues was the amendment of 24 in December of 2012 to the Government of the Russian Federation decree of 30 in March of 2012. According to the document, new conditions are determined when placing orders for state needs of Russia, including within the framework of the state defense order. For goods, materials and components, the country of origin of which is the Republic of Belarus, the regime established for Russian-made goods is applied. Now we are building equal military-technical industrial ties with our Belarusian colleagues. I note that before 2012, Belarus was considered as a foreign state.
The state gave small funds to enterprises on mobilization tasks for maintaining old workshops that are unable to accommodate modern equipment. The government was mistaken that a new technique could be produced. Today, after the revision of the MIC of the corresponding plan, the following texture is applied: mobilizations apply only to enterprises capable of manufacturing products within the framework of the requirements laid down in the long-term State Armaments Program. There will be opportunities to increase the productivity of technological equipment that has already been purchased by existing enterprises. All other unused facilities should be mercilessly repurposed or modern equipment should be purchased for them in order to produce products necessary for the Armed Forces.
Cadres decide everything
A separate question on personnel and housing. This is one of the strategic themes, because you can build factories, start equipment, but if the issue of personnel is not resolved, then the price is worthless.
Provided that volumes of purchases of weapons and military equipment are kept in accordance with GV-2020 by 2015, the defense sector projected a one-time increase in wages compared to 2011, and by 2018, by two times.
In order to improve the living standards of defense workers, as well as the motivation of promising young and experienced skilled personnel of organizations executing state defense orders, new principles for awarding scholarships to industry workers were approved by decree of the President of the Russian Federation on October 14 2012. As part of its implementation, starting from 2013, the transition will be made to a lump-sum payment of housing scholarships, which will increase the amount of annual payments to 500 thousand rubles - for outstanding achievements and to 350 thousand rubles - for a significant contribution. The number of scholars will also increase due to the annual competition of applicants.
Housing is one of the important incentives for attracting personnel to the DIC. To solve the housing problems of workers in the industry, it is proposed to use mechanical incentives for the construction of rental stock housing and mortgage lending. Based on the experience of implementing such projects, the need for rental housing is planned to be adjusted. On the initiative of the military industrial complex 30 in December 2012, a federal law was adopted, according to which for the development of the construction of housing cooperatives, an additional list of categories of citizens - members of such cooperatives was approved, which included defense industry workers.
A compromise solution to the housing problem can be the creation of conditions for the possible purchase of housing by a certain category of workers in the defense industry, especially young people. To this end, the Federal Housing Development Foundation is empowered to conduct so-called Dutch auctions (whoever works to lower the price of housing wins). A list of categories of citizens who have the right to purchase such housing has been introduced, which includes defense industry specialists and scientists. A project has already been implemented to conduct similar auctions in the Rostov Region and Primorsky Krai. According to their results, it is planned to build about 50 thousand square meters of housing.
Stimulated and a different approach. Many enterprises occupy vast territories in the centers of cities. So much land is not needed by many. The released areas will be retrained into habitable housing. We already have the first experience. In the city of Korolev, on the territory of the Tactical Missile Armament Corporation, housing construction begins for the workers of this enterprise, which will cost 2,5 less than one square meter in the city than is realized in the city.
I cite such an example and figures because I want to let you know - for us this question is extremely important. Today, the moral and material incentive must work fully to saturate defense enterprises and military science with truly qualified specialists.
It is extremely important to create a council of rectors of technical universities in the framework of the military-industrial complex in order to work out the entire system. It is necessary to attract the most intelligent adolescents to these educational institutions in order to receive higher education, which will enable them to already come to the enterprises of the defense industry. If there is no new generation in military enterprises, we will not implement the current HPV-2020, or the promising HPV-2025. It is said that the average age of an OPK worker is 48 years, this is half-truth - this age is composed mainly of sixty-year-olds and youngsters who are only at the beginning of their career.
But we will change this situation, we will do it as it was before. The defense industry will become the calling card, the pride of Russia. Because today the weapons program allows the state to overcome its dependence on the oil and gas needle. This can be achieved through the transfer of the defense industry to new industrial rails, and with the establishment of smart work on technology transfer this will lead to their overflow to the civilian industry.
The past year was difficult not only because big innovative tasks were solved. There were big problems in the relationship of industry with the leadership of the Ministry of Defense. In addition to the disputes that must always be present about the price, quality and volume of production, they were surprised by things that are difficult to understand by military science and “defense”.
For many years, there was a work on the creation of a unified system of command and control of the tactical level (ESU TZ). This is the most important link in leadership, especially in the transition to the so-called concept of network-centric wars. However, taking into account the results of the activities of the military-industrial complex, it was possible to stop and close all projects in October of 2012. It was proposed to completely forget about the money that was spent on the creation of the ESU TK, and start a new program. Instead of bringing the almost ready system to completion, there appeared those who wanted to master additional funds. This strange example suggests that we did not have a systematic approach in matters of state military orders and everything is based on incomprehensible desires, often divorced from real life.
The second case. We are satisfied in the government with the fact that now the Ministry of Defense and the General Staff have a different attitude to military science and military education. But in the fall there was a struggle to preserve a number of academies. I refused to sign a document that was connected with the liquidation of the VKO Academy of Arts. G. K. Zhukova and its merger with the Academy. A. F. Mozhaisky. Now everyone acknowledged that it was right. A systematic approach is needed - without the military science, the Ministry of Defense will not cope.
Technology transfer is necessary, but it must be borne in mind that the export policy in the West is extremely tough. Nobody will sell us high-tech products. Moreover, if we buy foreign equipment without the right to get into it, we will kill our Russian manufacturer and sit on a foreign needle.
It was often difficult to understand the absurdity of technical requirements when purchasing abroad in terms of the use of this technique. For example, the famous story with the armored vehicle "Lynx" (Iveco). Representatives of the Italian concern expressed surprise as to why Russians buy finished cars, and then fasten the bumper at the repair plant in Voronezh and give it a different name. The car is not bad, but its purpose is different. It is with enhanced armor protection and is able to overcome the mined areas of the terrain. But to fight on this machine is impossible, including because of the size.
If we talk about the acquisition of technologies for which we have some lag, then we should purchase individual units or do the same thing as our partners who buy Russian weapons and military equipment do.
For example, our Indian partner is now moving to the so-called offset agreements. We, selling finished products, undertake obligations to develop localization, that is, the development of this technology from them and their acquisition of these technologies. So the whole world works in the framework of military-technical cooperation.
For some reason, we were very strange customers who were happy to buy everything ready and be proud of it. At the same time, we can produce a lot ourselves.
We are talking about the BMP-4M, which was manufactured by Kurganmashzavod OJSC. The leadership of the Airborne Forces insisted on the arrival of the chairman of the military industrial complex in Tula to get acquainted with this vehicle. The paratroopers claimed that we needed such a machine with an 100-millimeter cannon, suitable for landing and overcoming mountain obstacles. But for some reason, the former leadership of the General Staff was opposed and advocated the purchase of foreign samples. But who will fight something? The military personnel who actually solve the indicated tasks in combat conditions speak of the need for such a BMP, and theorists from the war do not need it. After our talks with the new leadership of the Ministry of Defense, we came to an understanding of the purchase of an experimental batch of these machines for state tests. If they are successful, the equipment will be adopted. But why are elementary questions solved with such difficulty, with such anguish? Maybe someone has already changed the tactics of the use of airborne forces, which are now turning into internal troops, and they do not need airborne samples of military equipment.
The sniper complex, capable of giving a head start and winning the world championship, is not accepted for service without explanation. But the technical characteristics of the competition for the purchase of weapons are adapted to foreign samples up to the length of the barrel. Why?
This is frank lobbying, which in any other country would end with a judicial investigation. Today, after the Federal Service for Defense Order has been withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense, objective monitoring is mainly noted. But the problem remained, and this is a difficult lesson that the new leadership of the defense department must pass now.
Of course, we checked the Mistral. It is strange that ships that do not operate at a temperature of less than seven degrees are purchased for expedition landing in expeditionary operations. I do not know, probably, someone decided that there will be some of our actions in Africa.
Nonprofessional state defense order
We are extremely interested in the restoration of military science. Our technicians, engineers and designers can do everything that the Armed Forces require. But these requirements should be rational and you should not change them several times a year.
The state defense order was reviewed six times. A new commander-in-chief comes, and he wants a locator not on the left, but on the right. For a similar reason, in the Kaliningrad region in the shipbuilding enterprise "Yantar" are rugged ships. Something comes up with the next chief, and after that the price of manufactured products rises. And in the end we get a very unsatisfactory result.
They set the technical assignment, provided its military-scientific support at the development stage, and then the industry should keep track of what will happen during the operation of this technology already in the Armed Forces themselves. Looking for professional purchases.
Just before the New Year, a law was signed on the creation of a fund for advanced research in the interests of defense and security; a Board of Trustees was formed, which the President ordered me to head. Now, together with the new leadership of the Ministry of Defense, we are developing a plan of work in this area. It is extremely important to implement the program of fundamental search research, which was approved a year and a half ago by the Scientific and Technical Council of the military-industrial complex and the RAS.
In this case, it is the industry that should undertake the implementation of basic research. She will have to defend in front of the state customer the developments in promising models of weapons and military equipment that can fully take into account scientific and technical progress. In order to systematize the work on military science, the All-Russian Research Institute for Inter-sectoral Information (VNIIMI) has been instructed to create a unified database on all R & D projects, including those conducted in previous years. During 2013, we will introduce the state electronic state defense order system, which will allow us not only to analyze the progress of all work on it, up to the fourth co-executor, but also to systematize all the R & D to arrange access to them.
But it turns out that we are sitting on the great intellectual wealth that was created by our scientists, not knowing that we have it and how to use it. Separate design bureaus and production enterprises actually conduct parallel work, without even knowing the phrase “common technical policy”. Hence the loss of quality, time and resources.
In order to combine issues of development of a promising military-technical policy, it is also important for us to develop issues related to the military-political sciences. Together with VNIIMI, we will create an institution for the improvement of national defense and security, which will undertake, in close contact with our military scientists, the development and research of modern forms of warfare. And accordingly, the prediction of the technology that is needed for this. It is extremely important here to proceed from the fact that we cannot create an absolutely universal weapon in the conditions of the development of science and scientific and technical progress.
Any weapon with its further specialization should find the right way where it will be used. In this regard, we cannot be satisfied with vague scenarios of forecasting future military operations. We need to know exactly what types of weapons and military equipment are necessary for fighting in various armed conflicts: with a stronger, equal in strength and weaker adversary. These are different things.
TanksIt is certainly advisable to save. But there are scenarios in which we may not even have time to apply them. For this, it is imperative for military science to obtain all the data from the point of view of a leading, over-horizon forecast.