Military Review

Shocking data on the global banking business

The Financial Stability Board (FSB), created in April 2009 of the year at the height of the global financial crisis at the G20 summit in London, published a report at the end of 2012 on global banking shadow operations of banks and other financial organizations (1) .

The report assessed the extent of shadow operations in 2011. Their total volume amounted to 67 trillions of dollars, which is not much less than the value of world gross domestic product in the same year. The figure is shocking, it radically changes our understanding of the structure and structure of the entire global economy ...

The scale of the shadow operations of banks grow every year. The earliest estimate refers to the 2002 year: 26 trillion. dollars On the eve of the global financial crisis (2007), shadow operations already amounted to 62 trillion. dollars. According to many experts, it is precisely the increasing departure of banks into the “shadow” that increases the instability of the global financial system, becoming the “breeding ground” for a repetition of the global financial crises. True, the authors of the report are trying to give some optimism to their assessments and conclusions, arguing that the share of shadow operations in the total turnover of financial organizations since 2007 has not increased. But even in 2011, it was, according to FSB estimates, 25% of the total turnover of all banking and financial organizations in the world. The share of the shadow sector of banks and financial companies in terms of assets is about the same. But even a quarter of the global financial and banking business in the “shadow” is prohibitively high.

The report notes that the leaders in the scale of shadow operations are US financial organizations - 23 trillion. dollars In second place - the organization of European countries in the euro area (22 trillion. dollars). In third place are financial institutions in the UK (9 trillion. Dollars). Thus, the financial organizations of the rest of the world (Japan, Canada, Australia, more than a dozen European countries, China, India, Russia, Brazil, all developing countries) account for 13 trillion. dollars or less 1 / 5.

As for Russia, the share of shadow banking is estimated by experts at the level of world average values: 25-30% of the turnover and assets of the white banking. Assets of the Russian banking system, according to the Bank of Russia, constitute 47 trillion. rubles (1,5 trillion. dollars), therefore, in the shadow banking is assets on 12-14 trillion. rubles (380-440 billion dollars) (2)

The USA and the UK are the main areas of shadow banking

The figures contained in the FSB report are very remarkable against the background of the constant statements by statesmen and politicians in the West that the bulk of the global shadow economy is outside the “golden billion” habitat zone. From this report it follows that, apparently, at least 90 percent of the total shadow financial and banking business in the world is accounted for by organizations registered in the “golden billion” zone. Therefore, the black lists of the FATF (an organization operating within the OECD and dealing with the fight against the shadow economy and the laundering of dirty money) should first of all include countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom.

The highest relative level of shadow financial and banking operations is recorded in some financial centers and countries with signs of offshore zones. Shadow turnover of financial and banking organizations in relation to GDP in Hong Kong amounted to 520%, and in the Netherlands - 490%. It should be noted that in the whole world all the shadow operations of financial and banking organizations in 2011 amounted to 86% of world GDP (according to the FSB report; according to our estimates, 96%). Against the background of the global average, two countries clearly stand out: the United Kingdom - 370% and the United States - 150%. Shadow operations provide banks and financial organizations with the bulk of their profits. In the United States, for example, in the first half of the twentieth century, the share of the financial sector in the total volume of profits of companies in all sectors of the economy was at the level of 10%, in the 70-s. last century - 20%, and now - more than 50%.

In continental Europe, the development level of shadow banking is more modest (with the exception of the Netherlands).

The authors of the report refer to those that fall out of sight of the regulatory and supervisory (supervisory) bodies. Why are the largest volumes of shadow operations recorded in the United States? Therefore, the authors of the report believe that during the times of President Bill Clinton, there was a liberalization of financial regulation of banks and other organizations. First of all, the Glass-Stigal Act, which prohibited lending and depository organizations (commercial banks) from conducting high-risk investment operations at the expense of depositors, was repealed. According to this law, which was adopted in 1930-s in the conditions of the crisis that then broke out in America, highly risky speculative operations with securities were transferred to the so-called investment banks (investment brokers). Financial regulators were not responsible for the speculative operations of such banks, all the risks borne by investors. The abolition of the Glass-Stigal law and some other easing of financial regulation under B. Clinton led to the fact that depositors' funds from banks began to go to stock markets. At the same time, banking supervision ceased to “see” the full range of banking operations, most of the operations became non-transparent for such supervision. All this hastened the onset of the financial crisis, first in America and then beyond its borders.

Shadow Banking USA based on Fed data

Estimates of the FSB report relating to the United States can be supplemented with the latest figures from the statistics of the US Federal Reserve. According to the Fed, at the end of the third quarter of 2012, the total assets of US private depository institutions (in other words, commercial banks) amounted to 14,76 trillion. dollars, i.e. were almost equal to the country's annual GDP. At the same time, depository institution loans (loans) amounted to 2,18 trillion. dollars, and credit market instruments (credit market instruments) of such deposit institutions - 11,29 trillion. $ (3) Credit market instruments are various valuable debt securities traded both on the stock exchange and beyond. US monetary authorities track only a small portion of active operations of US banks related to traditional lending. The US Securities Commission more or less monitors securities transactions on the stock exchange, and the fact that outside of it is covered with a big fog, or rather, a shadow.

It can be noted that a significant part of the operations of US banks with securities are not reflected at all in their balances. There are two possible options.

The first option: banks include some off-balance sheet operations as off-balance sheet operations; neither regulators, nor clients, nor partners of such banks know about them. The liberalization of the time of B. Clinton created the opportunity for the wide use of such accounting tricks as banks and companies from other sectors of the economy. Shortly after the green light was given to the use of such tricks, the collapse of the energy concern Enron, which conducted double and even triple bookkeeping, occurred.

The second option: banks create special "pocket" companies that are designed exclusively for speculation with the papers; corresponding operations are reflected in the balance sheets of such “pocket” companies.

According to the Fed, at the end of the third quarter of 2012, the total amount of the so-called credit market instruments amounted to 38,83 trillion. dollars. Thus, outside the banks, which can be conventionally attributed to the white economy, there are thousands and thousands of companies and funds, which in total shifts in the amount of 27,54 trillion in securities. In relation to the estimate of US GDP in 2012, this represents approximately 175% (4). In the first approximation, this figure can be used to estimate the scale of shadow banking in America, and the FSB estimate for the shadow banking of the USA (150% of GDP) should be regarded as extremely conservative.

Shadow banking mechanics

Thus, the participants in the shadow business are quite legal financial and banking organizations whose operations fall out of sight of the supervisory authorities. Among such legal entities, hedge funds, mutual funds, and certain types of investment funds stand out, which are almost 100% out of sight of regulators. Companies of various industries that actively trade on the stock market also fall here (trade and production activities for them play the role of camouflage and / or play a subordinate role). Formally, various types of funds and companies do not belong to the banking system, but in fact are a continuation of this system, tools of large international banks.

The shadow banking system (shadow banking) is essentially the same investment banking activity carried out within the framework of existing legislation, but through intermediary companies (funds, trusts created for the special goals of the company). These intermediaries, as a rule, do not have the right to attract deposits from the public and do not have banking licenses. Otherwise, their activity is not much different from the activities of the investment division of the bank. The use of such "dark horses" significantly increases the flexibility of providing financial services due to the fact that they are practically beyond the control of regulators.

Shadow banking, analyzed in the FSB report, differs from the classic shadow banking operations. The latter include “laundering” of “dirty” money, transferring non-cash money into cash to serve various types of shadow economy, financing terrorism, corruption, taking profits offshore, etc. According to the CIA, the volume of such "classic" operations of banks is 3-4 trillion. dollars on a global scale. (By the way, in Russia the annual turnovers of such a classic shadow business of banks are estimated to be in the order of 100 billion dollars). A feature of classic shadow banking operations is that in the event of disclosure of frauds, bankers are legally responsible for them, often criminal. Shadow banking, described in the FSB report, belongs to the category of legal transactions.

The Financial Stability Board believes that a common type of legal shadow transactions is the repurchase of assets in the form of securities (repo transactions). Thus, during the global credit crisis, one of the largest Wall Street banks, Lehman Brothers, temporarily removed billions of dollars of “problem” assets from the balance sheet through repo transactions. Similarly, the bank tried to convince investors of its stability and reliability.

There are operations that allow to remove “problem” assets from the balance not for a while, but forever. Among the latter, operations of the so-called securitization have received a particularly large scale. Their essence is that the bank reissues its credit requirements (credit assets) into securities, which are sold in the financial market through a special intermediary company. Such a company, of course, is created by the bank itself and is controlled by it. The bank sells the credit requirements of a special company in bulk, mixing loans of different quality. A special company “packs up” this mixture of incomprehensible quality (most often the quality is below any standard) for “sachets” of securities and resells the mixture at retail to all sorts of trusting investors in the financial market. Figuratively speaking, the sale of "the cat in the bag." This is exactly how “landmines” were laid for the American economy in the past decade: mortgage loans of banks were transformed into mortgage securities, which were snapped up like hotcakes on the stock market. It ended all the crisis 2008-2009. This is a brief description of securitization, which is written about in economics textbooks as the “highest achievement” of modern “financial engineering”. Algorithms of operations are explained in detail, but their fraudulent essence is not disclosed. In 99% of cases, securitization of bank assets ends with a commonplace public deception, or even a large-scale crisis. And banks formally do nothing to do with it, they come out of the water dry.

Shadow Banking, FSB and Bank of International Settlements

After the financial crisis, 2008-2009. Many countries have tightened rules for working in the stock market for various types of financial organizations. This was enough to prevent an increase in the share of shadow operations in the total turnover of financial and banking organizations, but not enough to restrain the growth of absolute volumes of shadow operations. As practice shows, the more stringent the requirements for information disclosure and the fulfillment of various requirements of regulators, the more money flows into the shadow banking sector. Therefore, the monetary authorities have to maneuver between Scylla and Charybdis: on the one hand, not to bring the process of banking sector regulation to the point of absurdity, in order to prevent complete withdrawal of funds into the “shadow”, and on the other - to control systemic risks, the source of which is mainly in the shadow financial system.

It is assumed that the issues of shadow banking will be discussed by the leaders of G20 at the summit in St. Petersburg in 2013. The Financial Stability Board (FSB) intends at this summit to come up with relevant proposals to combat shadow banking.

In conclusion, briefly about the FSB. The officially declared goal of this organization is to coordinate at the international level the actions of national financial authorities and international organizations to develop and put into practice measures to strengthen financial stability. The measures include monitoring, regulation and supervision by the financial authorities of banks and other organizations operating in the financial markets (stock, currency, credit, money, insurance). Currently, FSB is headed by Mark Carney, Governor of the Central Bank of Canada (Bank of Canada).

The FSB Secretariat is located in Basel in the building of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). De facto, the FSB is a division of the BIS, an organization that coordinates the activities of central banks in different countries. Within the framework of the BIS, there is a banking supervision committee that develops recommendations for central banks and other financial regulators to prevent massive bank failures and banking crises. These recommendations are contained in voluminous documents, which are called Basel 1, Basel 2, Basel 3. The recommendations of the Bank for International Settlements for Banking Supervision have in fact preserved and continue to preserve the thieves' usury system that has developed in the world, which generates crises (for example, the global financial crisis 2008-2009). This is not surprising: after all, the BIS is an organization created by the most powerful global usurers, but this is a topic for another discussion. We can only briefly say that the BIS, along with the Federal Reserve, is the key organization of the global financial system.

There is a suspicion that the FSB will also not be able to fulfill the mission entrusted to this organization. At least, the functioning of the FSB for three and a half years since its establishment and in the slightest degree did not slow down the growth of shadow banking in the world.

(1) FSB Publishes Shadow Banking. FSB Press release. 18 November 2012.
(2) Alexandra Lozovaya, Director, Analytical Department, IK Vector Securitiz //, 20 November 2012.
(3) United States. Third Quarter 2012. Federal Reserve Statistical Release. - Wash., December 7, 2012, pp.75.
(4) Ibid., Pp.76-77.

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  1. fenix57
    fenix57 2 February 2013 07: 30
    Yes, a joke with these USA and Great Britain. But: “The assets of the Russian banking system, according to the Bank of Russia, amount to 47 trillion rubles ($ 1,5 trillion), therefore, there are 12-14 trillion rubles ($ 380-440 billion) of assets in shadow banking. .. "- is closer to us. And to bring this amount out of the shadows, it will be enough for social programs, and for defense, and for much, much more. But as always: he who has abilities, has no desire; who has a desire, has no opportunity ...
    1. Horde
      Horde 2 February 2013 08: 46
      It is absolutely no secret that almost all of our organizations work in such a way when the organization - the company for the "tax" company highlights some numbers, say about the salary (white salary), and employees in envelopes receive completely different amounts. And this order has been formed for a long time, and everyone is satisfied, and the state, and organizations, and workers in organizations. The fact that it is illegal for everyone to give a damn. To move to another level of inter-organizational calculations, then the notorious ROLLS come up. The bank issues a loan, but return 10-15% back otherwise you will not receive a loan, and maybe more. For whom is this a sensation? Everyone knows about it! This is our state!
      1. bask
        bask 2 February 2013 09: 03
        Quote: Horde
        If the level of interorganizational calculations is reached, then the notorious Kickbacks pop up. The bank grants a loan, but return 10-15% otherwise you will not get a loan, or maybe more. For someone, is this a sensation? Everyone knows about it! This is our state!

        Greetings to the Horde. Yes, there’s no sensation for anyone. WHAT WE HAVE IN THE RUSSIAN COUNTRY-OLIGARCH SYSTEM .. Until this happens in our country. The rich will get richer and the poor will become even poorer .... And the Russian able-bodied population will continue to die out.
        1. Horde
          Horde 2 February 2013 09: 17
          Basque good morning! Such a system of financial permissiveness has developed literally after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It’s just that there are no more conscientious people in the world, who will say, “You cannot do this, it’s immoral, immoral, don’t do the same, you’re a cultured person.” Instead, everyone around is rubbing their hands grin- "this is how the matter begins, so I will have again, how much to take?" And everything around is sewn-covered.
          1. Ross
            Ross 2 February 2013 15: 48
            The main liberal critics are turning to our thieves 'system, not noticing the elephant in the eyes of their own Western thieves' liberal bankocracy.
      2. Hleb
        Hleb 2 February 2013 09: 25
        for example, everything was white, but we got a reorganization in order. We periodically move from department to department, from department to management, and vice versa. With all the attendant inconveniences, sometimes we had to leave one day and get settled right there.
        That it’s illegal to give a damn

        I do not care by the way
        1. Horde
          Horde 2 February 2013 09: 32
          Quote: Gleb
          I do not care by the way

          well, if something depends on you ...
          1. Hleb
            Hleb 2 February 2013 09: 38
            it all depends on us, but only when we are together. when such questions arise, everyone has their own world. if you hadn’t touched me. it has already grown into our mentality. We have one at a time. as if expose fools- Why don't you go to court? -Although any lawyer says that you will be fired after that, and what the hell do you prove, one by one
            1. Horde
              Horde 2 February 2013 09: 55
              Quote: Gleb
              it all depends on us, but only when we are together

              these are again words, TOGETHER is a huge SYSTEM against, which we oppose individually. For example, there were such organizations as TRADE UNIONS, but as bodies for the struggle for the interests of LABOR workers, they did not justify themselves because they completely compromised themselves by cooperation with the authorities. Now it’s even hard to express you can shout your protest, but alone and at home, otherwise you will come into conflict with THEIR law. And in order to express a civil protest on the street, it’s only for authorized-registered organizations both at the NECESSARY TIME and IN THE NECESSARY PLACE. But even if the people take to the streets, then the leaders are again suspicious people Navalny - where did he come from, Udaltsov - I told him I don’t believe, not to mention such a whip as Nemtsov or the Sobchachka’s bridging.
              1. Hleb
                Hleb 2 February 2013 10: 02
                what does bulk and trade unions have to do with it. they dismiss or somehow infringe on a colleague, the rest are silent. the neighbor is beaten, robbed, silent. The bus driver rushes like Schumacher is silent. insert it into your everyday problems?). if each by themselves they will manage in heaps. in the housing and communal services to rob illiterate and blind old women, in hospitals to sell medicines that should be free, to collect money in computers at school and it doesn’t matter what the child is in first grade went
                1. Horde
                  Horde 2 February 2013 10: 07
                  Quote: Gleb
                  if each by itself then they will manage in heaps

                  What do you suggest?
                  1. Hleb
                    Hleb 2 February 2013 10: 16
                    I can only suggest that it’s everyone’s personal choice and conscience. But the concepts of justice, honesty, decency are forgotten. It’s like just supporting, helping someone who is humiliated, undeservedly punished. But here the question arises for everyone- but will it cost me more? will it not come out sideways? at the same time we are all indignant at injustice. always will be
                    1. S_mirnov
                      S_mirnov 2 February 2013 10: 42
                      Recently (since perestroika), the integral system of values ​​of the Soviet people has been actively destroyed. Including the prerogative of the interests of the majority is replaced by the prerogative of the interests of the individual. Personal enrichment, personal career, etc. And when such values ​​are planted by the government from above (kindergarten, school, army, church) it is impossible to resist them alone!
                      For those who understand this and are trying to organize themselves, the Kremlin created an opposition project (first the Communist Party and the Liberal Democratic Party, then Navalny, Sobchak, etc.), this is my opinion.
                    2. Horde
                      Horde 2 February 2013 10: 47
                      I see the changes like this CHANGES HAPPEN ONLY WITH A CHANGE LICHNOST. Therefore, until the PERGE dies, this system will continue to remain "stable".
      3. Papakiko
        Papakiko 2 February 2013 09: 30
        All NISHTYAK.
        Just I did not understand, is this the site of RBC or TopVar? belay
        The article, of course, for the material may be +, but only on RBC, and here a little different interests.
        Maza Faka damn!

        October 12, 1492 is the official date of the discovery of America and there is nothing in the article to rediscover or reinvent the fox.
        (Financial Stability Board - FSB) FATF-GAFI.ORG - Financial Action Task Force, Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)--Personally, I, with the largest KALakolni, have a large pile of all these sets of letters of the English alphabet and what is hidden behind them. hi
  2. Frigate
    Frigate 2 February 2013 08: 17
    So they told you the whole truth
  3. Horde
    Horde 2 February 2013 08: 56
    or just found a clear example of a "shadow" economy. A very interesting object in the city of St. Petersburg,
    just TORICHELEVA VOID, is there enough money for all countries to build this structure?
    1. Horde
      Horde 2 February 2013 09: 27
      minus nuka light up!
    2. Averias
      Averias 2 February 2013 10: 24
      In addition to your comment. Entertainment complex "Ferrari" in the UAE.
      The price of the issue, nothing at all - $ 43bn.

      1. S_mirnov
        S_mirnov 2 February 2013 10: 44
        There is a choice:
        Gazprom is a national treasure, ”broadcast the telecast and the happy Zenit footballers, whose millionaire contracts are commented with emotion by television journalists and girls from socialites.

        It was also announced with great fanfare that 2012 billion rubles (a little over $ 37 billion) would be spent on gasification of the Russian regions in 1,2, and it was added that in the previous 5 years gas had been supplied to 2554 settlements for the first time. It would seem that you can already applaud Miller and Co. Only blessed gas will not come to 20 Russian villages (000 of them Siberian), which are already wiped off the face of the Earth.

        Of course, there is no direct fault of Gazprom, because its main task is to provide the comfort of the burghers of Europe, and not to support and develop the agriculture of Siberia, well, along the way, to buy some expensive toys for delight, including FC Zenit.

        If the budget of “Zenith” for 2011 was planned at 165 million dollars, then in 2012 it was already laid 280 million dollars.

        The revenues of Zenit in 2011 amounted to: 14 million. dollars - paraphernalia, 18 - tickets, 18 - advertising, 20 - European competitions, 5 - broadcasts. A total of 75 million dollars, everything else is covered by the "national" concern "Gazprom".

        It is interesting that if we divide the payroll fund of FC Zenit (3,420 billion rubles in 2011) into 250 employees, we get 13,7 million rubles per year per person.

        But these are trifles, the construction of a new stadium is planned in St. Petersburg, the cost of which is estimated at 33-42 billion rubles, of which 50% are planned to be taken from the city’s budget and “given” to Gazprom.

        The reader will ask, why all these numbers? My native village of Katkovo in the Topkinsky district of the Kemerovo region is not yet among the 11 Siberian villages destroyed by a gang of remodelers, but on the way to death.

        Out of 120 peasant households, with families and children, a dozen remained, where life is still warm, and several summer residents. A club and a shop are abandoned, farms are destroyed. There is no work, only a subsidiary farm. Nearby - a dozen villages in the same condition, the remaining residents go to work in Kemerovo for 50-70 km.

        In order to build a modern farm for 100-150 cows, 14-16 million rubles would be needed, another 5 million. rubles for putting in order the elementary village infrastructure. And this would already be life - not “Rublev”, but the honest working life of dozens of families of Siberian peasants.

        We will divide 20 billion rubles of the Gazprom stadium into 20 million rubles and get 1000 Siberian villages that could revive, but die as my fellow countryman, Viktor Bormotov, a simple peasant, a former shepherd, died yesterday.

        Not a drunken drunkard, as the villagers paint today, not a hero, he just lived and worked. He knew how to care for cattle, maintain a village house, help neighbors cut firewood, and make a grave for a fellow villager.

        A few years ago he was left alone, then broke his arm, could not cure - there was no money for the operation. It was difficult to manage the farm, he was even cut off the light in the house for debts, he lived with a kerosene lamp, but with a water supply remaining from the Soviet regime.

        On the scales of history: the Gazprom stadium, 1000 dying Siberian villages, and one life of a peasant.

        V. KHRYASCHEVSKY, Kemerovo region
        1. Horde
          Horde 2 February 2013 11: 09
          Alexander is the policy of this state. OLD ALIEN DESTROY, and build NEW OWN. They simply do not want to carry out reconstruction and modernization, because people will always say that it was built under STALIN, and there will be nothing to destroy and then there will be nothing to talk about.
          - Why is it SKOLKOVO if there is Zelenograd?
          - Why do you need this expensive construction on the Russian island in the Far East?
          There are many such questions ...
          1. S_mirnov
            S_mirnov 2 February 2013 12: 15
            I completely agree with you, the modern government is trying to distance itself from the USSR as much as possible, only the result is very ugly.
          2. Andrey58
            Andrey58 2 February 2013 12: 45
            Quote: Horde
            - Why is it SKOLKOVO if there is Zelenograd?

            Why Mercedes, if there is a Lada. There are not many scientific centers.

            Quote: Horde
            - Why do you need this expensive construction on the Russian island in the Far East?

            Because 50 thousand students of FEFU have nowhere to place.
            1. Horde
              Horde 2 February 2013 13: 15
              Quote: Andrey58
              Why Mercedes, if there is a Lada. There are not many scientific centers.

              it’s stupid to compare, compare WET WITH WARM, HUGE scientific potential and advanced personnel and technologies at the time of the collapse of the Union are collected in Zelenograd. I remind you that this was the SECOND WORLD CENTER for the production of microcircuits, stood in line with the silicon valley in America. Zelenograd SCIENCE is absolutely self-sufficient, it was necessary, it was only supported by money, they themselves did everything and the equipment and everything else, but the Gaidars, Chubais and their followers intentionally rotted RUSSIAN SCIENCE AND THE BEST PRODUCTION.

              Because 50 thousand students of FEFU have nowhere to place.

              in the Far East, that there is no place where students can build dormitories?
              1. Andrey58
                Andrey58 2 February 2013 13: 39
                Quote: Horde
                HUGE scientific potential and advanced personnel and technology at the time of the collapse of the Union were assembled in Zelenograd. It was the SECOND WORLD CENTER for the production of microcircuits, it was in line with the silicon valley in America.

                And what, this potential has been sitting there since 91 and waiting for funding? There is a Mikron plant, which now makes very decent microcircuits. And thank God, let him do it. But Zelenograd, unfortunately, is no longer a modern scientific center. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, technologies have gone far ahead, so in this case it is easier to build a new one than to modernize the old one.
                Unfortunately, Zelenograd was not near the Silicon Valley.

                Quote: Horde
                Zelenograd SCIENCE is absolutely self-sufficient, it was necessary, it was only supported by money, they themselves did everything and the equipment and everything else, but the Gaidars, Chubais and their followers intentionally rotted RUSSIAN SCIENCE AND THE BEST PRODUCTION.

                When was Gaidar and when did they begin to build Skolkovo?

                Quote: Horde
                in the Far East, that there is no place where students can build dormitories?

                I don’t understand what you don’t like: the place of construction, what was built or what? The university consists not only of hostels.
                1. Horde
                  Horde 2 February 2013 14: 12
                  Unfortunately, Zelenograd was not near the Silicon Valley.

                  Zelenograd is one of the most important Russian science cities, a center of electronic industry, microelectronics and nanotechnology. Here are the Moscow State Institute of Electronic Technology (MIET), SSC NPK "Technological Center" MIET, the Institute for Design Problems in Microelectronics RAS, Research Institute of Physical Problems named after F.V. Lukina, Scientific Research Institute of Molecular Electronics (within the structure of NIIME and Mikron), Scientific Research Institute of Precision Engineering, State Unitary Enterprise SPC Spurt, Federal State Unitary Enterprise NPO Optoelectronic Complexes and Systems (NPT OPEX).

                  Also near the city in the village of Mendeleevo is the All-Russian Research Institute of Physical, Technical and Radio Engineering Measurements (VNIIFTRI) - the main metrological center of the State Service for Time, Frequency and Determination of the Earth's Rotation Parameters, and in the village of Andreevka - the Central Laboratory Animal Laboratory Nursery.

                  The main industrial enterprises:

                  "Angstrom" - production of integrated circuits;
                  “Zelenograd Plant of Music Technologies” - production (recording) of CDs;
                  “Component” - assembly production of electronics;
                  “Logic” - production of gases for the electronics industry;
                  Mikron - production of integrated circuits;
                  “Nanotechnology - MDT” - development and production of scanning probe microscopes and probe nanolaboratory;
                  ORGA Zelenograd - production of plastic cards;
                  "Proton" (experimental plant at MIET) - assembly production of electronics;
                  "Stella" - the production of light bulbs;
                  "Elax" - assembly production of electronics;
                  "Elion" - assembly production of electronics;
                  Elma (a branch of MELZ OJSC) - production of photoelectronic sensors;
                  "Elpa" - production of piezoceramic materials and products.

                  And today in Russia, in the same Zelenograd, there are companies developing and producing world-class equipment, including for microelectronics. For example, the company NT-MDT. So the main thing is to want. But the current leaders of the country should want. For specialists, the matter will not.

                  It must be remembered that for all the problems that our country experienced, only in the Soviet Union was there the only self-sufficient microelectronics in the world. In which everything was its own and which itself produced the entire range of electronic products from radio tubes to VLSI. And she had her own materials science, her own engineering - everything was her own. Other developed countries - the USA, Japan, European countries - whatever the competition between their firms, developed in conditions of wide international cooperation.
                  You poorly know the history of the development of SOVIET MICROELECTRONICS.

                  When was Gaidar and when did they begin to build Skolkovo?

                  you’ll talk in this way, juggle, you’ll get minuses.

                  I don’t understand what you don’t like: the place of construction, what was built or what? The university consists not only of hostels.

                  I do not like the fact that the rulers make meaningless gestures.
                  The university could be upset on the continent for much less money and it was not worth ruining the ecology of Russky Island, only because Putin had the idea to put dust in the eyes of his presidential friends and hold an international gathering there.
        2. Andrey58
          Andrey58 2 February 2013 12: 37
          Quote: S_mirnov
          Only blessed gas will not come to 20 Russian villages (000 of them Siberian), which are already wiped off the face of the Earth.

          Those villages did not cease to exist because of the lack of gas. In the 30-50s. launched the processes of destruction of the village, in the 60s - it was "scientifically" justified. Now we are reaping the benefits. What has Gazprom to do with it? And nothing to do with. Even Gorbachev has nothing to do with it. Everything was done much earlier than him.
          1. washi
            washi 2 February 2013 13: 20
            Villages began to be destroyed at Khrushchev. Then they began to destroy engineers. As a result, the worker received more than the engineer, who carried all responsibility
    3. Papakiko
      Papakiko 2 February 2013 12: 04
      Absolutely to your mind, you can see here:

      Like, like "them" and, as "we have".
      1. Horde
        Horde 2 February 2013 12: 17
        Quote: Papakiko
        Like, like "them" and like "us".

        to this we can say, only one thing "they" care about their people, "like ours" are concerned only, just how to grab a little deeper. The author writes that America is the leader of the "shadow" deals, but I think Putin's Russia is vryatli, ahead of the rest of the planet.
        1. S_mirnov
          S_mirnov 2 February 2013 15: 29
          I repeat my koment, in my opinion also fits here:
          "I thought about the topic, decided to develop it a little.
          I believe that the real threat to the modern pro-American regime in the Kremlin is posed by generations of free people brought up in the Soviet Union. For while in the country there are many people brought up on Soviet values, there is a threat of a socialist revolution.
          After the Soviet people die out, they will be replaced by a freshly educated (in the pro-American spirit) generation. In order to break the spiritual connection of generations, the SELF-RENEWABLE institutes of the Soviet state are destroyed: the Soviet education system, the army and the military education system, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the army are structurally overstuffed so as to disrupt generations. Starting from the kindergarten, and then the shock, the institute and the army, Church education is actively being introduced, which, by virtue of its capabilities, replaces the gap in the place of the destroyed Soviet worldview.

          The task of the authorities is to hold out until the complete extinction of the Soviet people, hence the calls for stability! "
          1. Cpa
            Cpa 3 February 2013 02: 22
            I don’t agree, I know a lot of guys who were children during the nineties, so they saw how adults lived and how they live. Yes, many of them look at the Soviet with irony, but they have more patriotism than some made in the USSR. Even thieves children can grow up worthy people. The American now sing everywhere, but not all young people believe them.
            You explained to your descendant how the world works! It will soon come to everyone that a freebie is not a national idea, everyone can’t be oligarchs, but everyone can live with dignity. And the values ​​will be no worse than Soviet ones. Children’s future should not be put on them cross.
  4. CCA
    CCA 2 February 2013 09: 12
    during the time of President Bill Clinton, the financial regulation of the operations of banks and other organizations was liberalized.
    The farther into the forest, the concept of liberalization, whatever it may be, begins to be associated with the concept of permissiveness, anarchy, collapse ... And the essence of the article, which is correctly noticed, is mega-fraud in the global banking sector
    From this report it follows that, apparently, at least 90 percent of the total shadow financial and banking business in the world is accounted for by organizations registered in the “golden billion” zone.
    And here is the answer ... who does this and who encourages it ...
  5. bubla5
    bubla5 2 February 2013 09: 48
    If they want everything to light up, but for now it’s profitable to live like this for everyone, up and down
    1. Horde
      Horde 2 February 2013 10: 05
      Quote: bubla5
      If they want everything to light up, but for now it’s profitable to live like this for everyone, up and down

      nn-yes, we are already accustomed to living according to CRIVDA, or rather we have been taught to this, "you will live like everyone else or you will not live at all."
  6. Averias
    Averias 2 February 2013 10: 06
    I've been asking myself a question for a long time, the answer to which was never received from the bank (abstruse nonsense does not count). Why, when I transfer money from a bank card to another card through the terminal, the operation occurs almost instantly. But, when I carry out the same operation through the cash register window, that is, I take out the cash, give it to the girl operator, call the card number and she makes the transfer, it takes time from 5 hours to a day. Why, what is the difference, because everything is the same, but instead of the terminal there is a young lady who enters data into the computer and presses the enter button, and that’s all, the transfer was done in theory. Nevermind.
    A logical question arises, what then happens to money for this period of time. Or are they delivered on camels?
    The second question is why the same story with instant payments (at least in my bank, and this is not a small and incomprehensible bank, this is a Bank). Why, if this is a paid service and it is called "instant", the delay is 30 min-1 hour, or even longer. And is it Fast? For others who provide similar services, the transfer is really instant. Hence the question - what happens to the money over this period of time. And if we take into account the fact that these payments take place throughout the country, then the amount accumulates - astronomical.
    The third question is that the fact that if I transfer money from one card to a card of one bank while in my city kills me, they don’t take interest. But if I do the same in another city (region) in my own bank, they will beat me a percentage. Get fucked up, as on a countrywide scale, the amount is rampant - gigantic. And with it from the air.
    And we are talking about shadow operations, but what I described is what?
    1. Hleb
      Hleb 2 February 2013 10: 22
      Operations in a bank and ATMs of one bank should not, in principle, provide for commissions. For example, I don’t lose. It took me three days to transfer from a card to a card of one bank. It surprised me too. But it’s provided and they don’t hide. Payment documents should go away , return confirmation. in principle, a couple of hours, but there are people too) someone swelled, fell ill, overslept)
      although in Europe and America it really is easier with that
      1. Averias
        Averias 2 February 2013 10: 39
        I am confused by the question, because ace payments are electronic. And such a time difference. And what prevents, for example, the bank, all of these funds (nationwide), accumulate on a certain account, scroll, at the same foreign exchange trading, good time all day. And then transfer to the client, and take the amount from the scroll to yourself? How many I did not try to achieve a clear answer - I did not. They start telling tales about software failures (what, every day or what is constantly when making payments - I won’t believe it), about the load on the channel - what the pancake of the channel? When you start talking, girl, you’re sorry for all kinds of nonsense, she replies - they say it’s not in her competence, leave a request and they will answer you. Yeah, basically, some type of calls, and starts (using NLP techniques to take out the brain). But he does not say the most important thing.
        1. Curculum
          Curculum 2 February 2013 12: 47
          Averias, dear, in order to answer your questions without using banking terms, let me draw an analogy between banking and transport services, for example - moving from point "A" to point "B", the success, quality and time of which depends on many factors :
          1. type of vehicle;
          2. its technical condition;
          3. condition and professionalism of the manager;
          4. congestion of the route;
          5. quality of infrastructure and interchanges;
          6. transport traffic;
          7. weather conditions;
          8. force majeure.
          All of the above items are interconnected and also have components depending on the previous and / or subsequent paragraph.
          If you ask a question, for example, to the driver of a shuttle bus, about the time of arrival at the designated point, he will tell you the time only presumably, but he will not lucidly describe the technical condition of the crank mechanism and traffic density at the moment in certain sections of route.
          Therefore, they answer you only at the philistine level, because they themselves are very small cogs of the global financial services sector, created on the basis of the need to service persons with the equivalent of goods.
          If you want to satisfy your curiosity in more detail on banking RCCs and telecommunication systems, I recommend visiting, where you will find answers to many questions.
          Also, from practice, I’ll inform you of the following: money credited to and held on ANY correspondent account for more than 8 seconds, can used fin. organization as a loan, it all depends on the amount and, most importantly, on the "policy" of a particular financial. institute.
          1. Averias
            Averias 2 February 2013 13: 05
            What does the bus and electronic payment system have to do with it? When you type a query in a search engine, you get the result at the speed with which your Internet works. The lower the speed, the longer, but not the same day. Or do you want to tell me that banks are in dial-up connection? Do not make me laugh.
            I repeat once again why when I send money through an ATM, this happens immediately. And if through the cashier - then a day? The difference is what, if a girl operator on her computer, does the same manipulations as I do at an ATM. Sends money from one account to another. This is just a set of numbers, and when you press the ENTER button, the operation occurs instantly (or rather should).
            Why then, if I send the same amount through a system similar to the "Instant" system, then the payment is made immediately. It and of course, I pay extra money for this service. So it comes out, if you want it quickly - pay extra. Is this not a wiring?
            What the fuck is force majeure with electronic payment. This is only when the system freezes or crashes. Do you want to convince me that this happens with banks every day?
            And what does the weather have to do with it, are they taking money on camels?
            I can describe this scheme (from my point of view) - WHY. But it takes too much time and is not worth it.
            1. Eugene
              Eugene 2 February 2013 14: 14
              Good day to all! Dear Averias. If you want to get an answer to this question from professionals, then really ask it on professional banking services forums. One site was indicated to you. And what kind of bank are you asking about? I think I guessed (this is Sberbank). Something I can, and I will prompt you on this issue.
              To begin with, it is possible that these calculations (through an ATM and through a cash register) use different technological processes (each bank may have its own way). And in general, as a rule, different departments in the bank are engaged in this (which entails different instruments and terms of operations). In addition, different channels are used (if we are talking about payments between two or more banks) of settlements. Namely, if the payment is on the territory of the Russian Federation: then the payment can go through the RCC, or maybe through "direct" correspondent accounts with two banks participating in the operation (one bank of the sender, another bank of the recipient).
              If you are interested in something else, ask, I will try to answer (I know more about lending). Just ask a specific question (please), otherwise you do not want to paint "whole novels" here (which is simply necessary to answer "widely posed" questions).
            2. Curculum
              Curculum 2 February 2013 14: 24
              Quote: Averias
              What does the bus and electronic payment system have to do with it?

              Both bus transportation and electronic payment are a service, not a production, this is basic. The speed of the service depends on your ability to pay for it: if you pay more, you will take a taxi faster (although it’s not a fact that you will reach).
              In the case of banking telecommunications, the system is the same: when using the point of settlement and cash services, a certain procedure for crediting and debiting funds from the box is performed. accounts, in the old and sound way (the presence of a computer is only for the convenience of registration); in the case of execution of a transaction of the "instantaneous" type, the procedure for correspondent accounts is not used, but this requires additional expensive equipment for the "direct transfer" system. For this, the bribe is removed. Something like that, in short.
              Quote: Averias
              And what does the weather have to do with it, are they taking money on camels?

              elementary: the light has disappeared - the server is "frozen". There are many reasons for stopping the current flow.
              Quote: Averias
              When you type a query in a search engine, you get the result at the speed with which your Internet works.

              Banking telecommunications and the services of Internet providers are two different things, although they have the same initial component. But the human factor in both cases - no one has canceled, especially - in the first case, there are too many temptations. I indicated this in a previous comment, the last paragraph.
  7. Curculum
    Curculum 2 February 2013 10: 12
    On the one hand, the topic is vital and crucial, on the other hand, the topic is too voluminous, and the article is “around and around” under the guise of various terms, there is no specifics at all, the topic of “shadow banking” (for example) does not contain a specific component.
    After reading such articles, I remember the phrase from "Chasing Two Hares": "Vin is so smart, sho already scary!"
    For example, the phrase "The highest relative level of shadow financial and banking operations is recorded in some financial centers and countries with signs of offshore zones"- nonsense, by analogy: if the doctor reports that" back pain is expressed by signs of frequent bowel movements, "then who is he after that?
  8. biglow
    biglow 2 February 2013 10: 28
    one conclusion, the modern banking system must be destroyed and a new one must be built on different principles
    1. Andrey58
      Andrey58 2 February 2013 12: 48
      The thing is that of other principles there is only barter exchange. Others have not yet been invented.
      1. Eugene
        Eugene 2 February 2013 14: 16
        But what about the banking system in Muslim countries (without loan interest)?
        1. Curculum
          Curculum 2 February 2013 15: 10
          Quote: Eugene
          But what about the banking system in Muslim countries (without loan interest)?

          + I’ll clarify slightly:
          In 1965, the fakihs of Al-Azhar University admitted that all banking operations related to the collection of interest as a sinful affair were recognized as a special fatwa. And the idea itself materialized in 1971 with the creation of the Nasr Public Bank, followed by the Islamic Development Bank in Jeddah in 1974, the establishment of the Islamic Bank of Dubai in 1975, and the Islamic Bank of Faisal for Egypt and Sudan in 1977.
          At the same time, no one there has canceled the term "project financing", and in the last decade - on the contrary, just the opposite. "The East is a delicate matter, Petruha" wink
        2. Andrey58
          Andrey58 2 February 2013 18: 50
          Quote: Eugene

          But what about the banking system in Muslim countries (without loan interest)?

          It exists exactly as long as the Arabs have money for its maintenance.
  9. fenix57
    fenix57 2 February 2013 12: 56
    Quote: Horde
    Why is this expensive construction on Russky Island in the Far East necessary?

    APEC summit in Vladivostok: "The total investment in the project amounted to 689,6 billion rubles. It has been mastered by 99,1%, according to the report of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation.

    By September 1, 2012, only 23 out of 67 objects were documented in operation. The audit showed that throughout the entire period of the program implementation, the construction of most objects was carried out in the absence of a complete package of initial permits. Without exception, all state customers did not have approved positive expert opinions on design documentation and construction cost estimates by the time the construction was completed. "See
    1. sams
      sams 2 February 2013 14: 15
      In 2010, Esquire magazine calculated how high a layer of black caviar, foie gras or shredded Louis Vuitton bags would be if the Adler-Krasnaya Polyana Olympic road (227 billion rubles for 48 kilometers) were built from these materials.
      Oysters 6,37 cm
      When calculating the thickness of the layer, the price of oysters used in Moscow restaurants (120 rubles apiece) was used.
      Black caviar 1,1 cm
      When calculating the thickness of the layer, the manufacturer’s wholesale price for a can of beluga caviar weighing 30 grams (1 rubles) was used.
      Foie gras 21,90 cm
      When calculating the layer thickness, the price set by the French Carrefour supermarket (69 euros per kilogram) was used.
      Truffles 6 cm
      When calculating the thickness of the layer, the average seasonal price per kilogram of black truffles was used (1 US dollars)
  10. DeerIvanovich
    DeerIvanovich 2 February 2013 21: 03
    crap is complete, a bunch of rogue hang noodles on their ears and live like Koschey, who languishes over gold ... but a bubble bursts, then it will be fun ... and everyone!