In the Infantry Battle Manual of 1942, which incorporated the difficult and diverse experience of the Red Army in the Great Patriotic War, much attention was paid to the actions of snipers. The charter stated: “A sniper - a well-aimed shooter - has as its main task the destruction of snipers, officers, observers, gun and machine-gun crews (especially flanking and dagger machine guns), the crews stopped tanks, low-flying enemy aircraft and generally all important, appearing for a short time and rapidly disappearing targets ... The sniper should also be able to show the infantry, artillery, mortars and anti-tank rifles with important tracer bullets and other means that are not vulnerable to the bullet: tanks, bunkers ( Bunker), guns. ”
It must be said, the Soviet snipers really became a curse for the Hitlerites and an extremely valuable "weapon" for their troops. The names of snipers M. Budenkova, N. Galushkina, P. Goncharova, F. Dyachenko, V. Zaitsev, N. Ilyin, V. Medvedev, F. Okhlopkov, M. Passar, I. Sidorenko, G. Simanchuk, F. Smolyachkov, L. Pavlyuchenko, M. Polivanova, Z. Popova and others became widely known. Ilyin, for example, counted 496 soldiers and officers of the enemy (one of the best indicators in the Great Patriotic War), Sidorenko - around 500, Budenkova - 437, Okhlopkova - 429, Goncharova - 380, Medvedev - 342, Pavlyuchenko - 309, Passara - 237. The active involvement of snipers by Soviet units and the growth of their skills was also recognized by the enemy. A number of German authors after the war noted the "cunning" and good training of Soviet snipers.
But the “hunter in uniform”, “the master of one shot,” as the snipers are also called, besides special training is required and weaponcorresponding to the problems to be solved.
The main armament of the Soviet snipers during the Great Patriotic War was the shop sniper rifle, made on the basis of the famous “trilinea”, or rather, its modification of the 1891-1930 model. During this period, sniper rifles were almost universally created on the basis of regular military. Rifles were either selected from among the most accurate gross ones, or were produced specifically with more accurately made barrels and better debugging, adapted for mounting optical sights, made with military requirements. This generation also included the 7,62-mm sniper rifle, which entered service with the Red Army in 1931. It should be noted that by that time foreign experience of sniping had been thoroughly studied, various models of optical sights were tested, forms and methods of organizing “sniper business” in the Red Army were developed.
The rifle completely repeated the “three-line” scheme: a rotary longitudinally sliding bolt with two lugs on a combat larva, a drummer cocked when the bolt was unlocked, a simple trigger mechanism providing “no warning”, no manual fuses (except for the possibility to pull back the trigger drummer and fix by turning), single row middle magazine on 5 cartridges with cut-off reflector, solid box with straight butt neck. The sniper mount was distinguished from a conventional 1891-1930 model rifle, a rifle mount, a barrel and a receiver quality, and mechanisms debugging. The shutter handle was bent downwards so that when reloading it does not cling to the optical sight. Unlike a linear sniper rifle, it was shot without a bayonet and did not have it - hand-to-hand combat was considered an extreme case for a sniper. Therefore, the front sight - in case of using an open sight - was slightly higher than that of conventional rifles.
The development of an optical sight for a sniper rifle began in 1925 year. Several models were created, but the main rifle for the 1891-1930 model was the “rifle sight of the 1931 model of the year” (also known as PE) with magnification 3,87x and 5-30 'field of view. It was based on the German “Bush” sight, produced by PE Plant No. 69 (Krasnogorsk), and then “Progress” (Leningrad). To mount the sight on the left side of the receiver, the base was mounted, on which a dovetail mount was mounted and fixed to the sight bracket. The telescopic sight made it problematic to equip a magazine from a clip, so you had to equip it for one cartridge - again, not so significant for a sniper who does not need a high rate of fire. The production of a sniper rifle sample 1891-1930's and mounts for sights with 1932, led the Tula arms factory.
The Russian "trilinek" was a reliable and unpretentious military weapon, but as a basis for a sniper rifle, it required a number of improvements. The rifle had a rather tight descent. Although the sniper rifle trigger mechanism and debugged for less effort (2-2,4 kgf), it was not as convenient as a descent with a warning. The stock with the straight neck of the butt was not as comfortable as the stock with the pistol protrusion (as, for example, in the German Mauser G.98). Often, snipers with the accumulation of experience themselves debugged their rifles in order to improve the accuracy of the battle. Apparently, a deeper modernization of the base rifle would give the best basis for the sniper (especially since the relevant proposals and experiments were made), but they were abandoned in the USSR, because an automatic rifle was expected to be adopted soon, the work on which was launched from the end of the 20- s. On the eve of the war, it was expected that the self-loading rifle of the SVT, FV Tokarev, would be the main infantry weaponry. Accordingly, the SVT rifle of the 1940 model of the year (SVT-40) received its sniper version.
And if in the 1939 year, the Tula plant produced 35 376 sniper rifles of the 1891-1930 model, then in the 1940-m - only 7970, the production was transferred to a self-loading rifle.
Sniper SVT went into production, played a role during the war (many snipers became known using this particular rifle), but in terms of shooting accuracy, it was noticeably inferior to the shop. In addition, it was harder and more expensive to manufacture, which in the conditions of war meant a lot.
At the beginning of 1942, at Izhevsk Plant No. 74 (Izhevsk Machine Building Plant), and since 1943 of the year, and at Tula Plant No. 536, production of a sniper rifle of the 1891-1930 model was resumed. And since October, 1942-s was removed from production sniper SVT (although conventional SVT continued to produce). At the beginning of the war rifle was upgraded, but not to increase shooting accuracy, but to simplify production: the receiver was made without upper edges, the trigger button was reduced, the brass parts of the device were replaced with steel, the finish of steel parts was simplified, the bed was not polished or varnished . Affected by the fighting qualities of a rifle and the transition to the manufacture of boxes of birch blanks, more fragile than the old nut, and gave a leash under the action of moisture, and the variation in the characteristics of the wartime release cartridges.
In 1943, Izhevsk Plant No. 74 released 159 600 shop rifles, Tula Plant No. 536 - 59 112, in 1944-m - 127 020 and 24 362, respectively. From the total output of rifles and carbines, this amounts to: 1943% for 5,7 a year, 1944% for 7,3. Figures indicating great attention paid to sniping in the armed forces.
TACTICAL-TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SNIPPING SCREW OF THE SAMPLE 1891-1930 OF YEARS
7,62 caliber mm
Cartridge 7,62x54R (rev.1908 g.)
Mass of weapons 4,7 kg (with PE sight)
Weapon length 1232 mm
Barrel length 729 mm
Initial bullet speed 865 m / s
Sighting range with a telescopic sight to 1300 m
5 Magazine Capacity
The magazine rifle was “inherited” from the sniper SVT and the “optical rifle sight of the 1940 model of the year” (PU) developed with it, with the 3,5-multiple magnification and 4-30 field of view. The decision to install the launcher on the 1891-1930 model rifle was made in the spring of the 1942, the corresponding bracket was soon developed. PU became the main sniper optical sight during the war. Its production was carried out by plants No. 357 (Progress plant, evacuated from Leningrad to Omsk), No. 296 in Berdsk, No. 237 in Kazan, No. 297 in Yoshkar-Ola, No. 393 in Krasnogorsk (the sight during the war years was made in blockade Leningrad) .
The PU sight allowed shooting at a distance from 100 to 1300 m at the most effective range up to 600 m. Using the PU on a 1891-1930 rifle of the model proved itself to be true, although there were complaints about the need for the shooter to pull the neck forward when shooting - the sight in terms of its dimensions and the distance to the exit pupil was calculated for another mount, so that for individual shooters the eyepiece turned out to be too far from the eye. Sniper V.N. Pchelintsev recalled: “We had no complaints about the combat sniper rifle of the 1891-1930 model. The main remarks concerned optics. Based on the combat experience, we expressed the wish that the sight be somewhat modernized and some necessary equipment on the front be made for it ... We proposed the development of a special aiming net and a more convenient location of the aiming handwheels. Of the devices, we were interested in two elements: a sun visor on the lens and a corrugated rubber tube on the eyepiece of the sight. ” In addition, experienced snipers offered to develop and put into production in small batches a sniper cartridge, which would ensure better accuracy. However, this element, as well as the mentioned adaptations to the sight, will appear only after the war in a fundamentally new sniper weapon complex. In the meantime, snipers tried to select for the shooting and firing cartridges of one gross party.
The 1891-1930 sniper rifle continued to serve for two decades and after the war. The Trekhlineyka also served as the basis for the sports X-NUMX-mm AV and AVL rifles, used not only by athletes, but also for training snipers.