VM-1 Norton Sound shipyard
It is believed that these works were started in December 1944, with research on the project "Bumblebee", which was connected to the Laboratory of Applied Physics, John Hopkins University. The first rocket, which was part of the ship's air defense system, was the "Terrier" (RIM-2), the development of which was launched in 1949 by the firm "Konver". Her first tests were conducted at the beginning of the 1950's. on the experimental ship “Norton Sound” converted from the former plavbazy hydroaviation, which became the testing ground for the next several decades for testing all American shipboard missiles. Two-stage solid-fuel rocket "Terrier" was capable of hitting targets at ranges up to 27 km and altitudes from 1,5 to 18 km.
First is weapon received earlier built cruisers, since the bulky anti-aircraft missile systems (SAM) of the first generation did not fit into the smaller class ships.
In addition, the ammunition was 144 rocket. In 1952, the retrofitting of two heavy cruisers, the Boston and Canberra, began under the Terriers, from which the feed towers and anti-aircraft guns were dismantled for this purpose. Equipped with a new system, they were commissioned in 1955-1956.
Following the heavy cruisers, the rebuilding and equipment of the Terriers, which after the war were put in reserve, began with several light cruisers of the Cleveland type, which were put into operation with the new air defense systems at the end of the 1950s.
Heavy cruiser "Boston" type "Baltimore
In the early 1960s, the American fleet a modification of the Terrier-2 rocket began to arrive with a range of up to 40 km and a range of working heights from 1 to 26 km. With these missiles in the 1960s. most of the major American ships were equipped, including several aircraft carriers, frigates, and the Long Beach nuclear-powered cruiser.
Anti-aircraft missile system RIM-24 Tartar
In turn, to equip ships of smaller displacement, such as destroyers and frigates, the Pomona firm created a single-stage Tartarus missile (RIM-24), which had twice the size, but also the corresponding tactical and technical characteristics - range to 27 km and reach altitude up to 13 km. These missiles also armed the heavy cruisers "Chicago", "Albany" and "Columbus", from which almost the entire artillery was dismantled, replacing it with two batteries of the air defense system "Tartar" and "Talos".
The two-stage “Talos” rocket (RIM-8) was the first long-range naval missile defense system capable of hitting targets at a distance of more than 100 km. Its tests began in 1951, and in the final form it was put into service in 1959.
Over the next several years, the Talos, Terrier and Tartar missiles, which were included in the so-called T-series, set the tone for the concepts of shipboard air defense systems. Of course, they were not the ideal weapon, so many problems arose with them that they were often called "terrible T". However, according to US experts, air defense complexes with these missiles, together with deck aircraft, provided sufficiently effective protection of ships against bombers flying relatively small groups at medium and high altitudes.
However, as the increasingly widespread introduction of anti-ship missiles, highly maneuverable aircraft, electronic warfare equipment, it was necessary to significantly improve the air defense missile system in the direction of increasing the maneuverability of missiles, improving noise immunity, reducing the lower bound of the affected area, reducing the response time and more fully automating the target interception process. . One of the first works in this direction was the creation of a rocket "Standard", which was supposed to replace the previously developed "Terrier" and "Tartarus".
Work on the "Standard" began in October 1963. The technical reserve for their implementation was laid in previous years, with the implementation of the projects "Advanced Tartar" and "Homing Terrier 3". The accumulated experience testified that work on shipboard air defense systems should focus on reducing the number of new elements introduced into the control systems of the air defense missile system, on the use of available launchers, shipboard storage and loading systems.
During 1963 - 1964 General Dynamics has made preliminary estimates and December 30 1964 has signed a contract to create a new rocket. The first option - RIM-66A, proposed by the developer, in appearance and mass-dimensional characteristics resembled a rocket "Tartarus". The length of the new missile defense system was equal to 4,3 m, weight - 485 kg (by the time the development was completed, the weight had grown to 617 kg, while the length due to the dense layout increased slightly).
Like all further versions of the "standards", it was a rocket having a modular design and made according to the normal aerodynamic configuration, with four wings of small elongation and folding aerodynamic control surfaces. The design of the rocket consisted of five main sections - the head instrument, combat equipment, instrumentation, motor and tail.
The equipment of the head compartment in front was closed with a radio-transparent plastic fairing of ogival shape. In the compartment, a semi-active radar homing head, a signal processing unit, a radio fuse and an onboard analog computer were installed.
A combat unit housed in the combat equipment compartment, the initiation of which was carried out by a radar fuse, and in some subsequent modifications a contact fuse of a percussion action was used for this purpose. For the safe operation of the missile, its combat unit was integrated with a safety-actuating mechanism that had four degrees of protection.
In the instrumental compartment were located autopilot unit, voltage converter and electric battery.
The first version of the "Standard" was completed the same as the "Tartar", the engine and the combat unit of the Mk.51. At the same time, unlike its predecessor, RIM-66A had:
- radio electronic equipment made on micromodules;
- electric actuators for control surfaces, instead of hydraulic ones;
- single-use silver-zinc battery.
As a result of these innovations, the electronic equipment of the rocket has become more compact, occupying approximately twice the amount of equipment of T-series missiles. It also allowed for greater reliability and efficiency of the missile due to the absence of leaks and reduced energy consumption.
The RIM-66A propulsion system used a dual-mode engine Mk.27 mod. About the company "Aero-jet". The starting and marching charges of this engine were arranged concentrically. To the shell of the combustion chamber adjoined marching charge, made in the form of a cylindrical tube, and inside it was located the starting charge.
The missile was equipped with a core warhead mass 62 kg, of which the explosive was 30 kg. Destruction of the target was provided by a shock wave and a ring of 400 interconnected metal rods with a radius of damage up to 15 m.
In the tail section the engine nozzle and the aerodynamic control actuators were placed.
It should be noted that when creating the Standard rockets, the developers managed to achieve a significant reduction in the required amount of their maintenance and an increase in the time between inspections on ships. This made it possible to exclude from the composition of the air defense complex numerous types of test equipment and measuring equipment, which was used to maintain T-series missiles in combat readiness. The assembly and testing of fully assembled "standards" were carried out in the arsenals of the Navy, which received individual components of the rocket from the manufacturers. After assembly, the missiles were stored or transferred to the ship. In the event of a malfunction or failure, the missiles returned for inspection or repair.
The pilot production of RIM-66A missiles was launched in 1965, and in the same year they began to be tested as part of shipboard air defense systems. Success to the creators of the "Standard" came in the winter
1966, when the first launch of the missile from the deck of the destroyer was performed on a jet aircraft target QF-9F. In general, as noted by the developers, about 70% of ground and flight tests of missiles turned out to be successful, which made it possible to dispense with any significant improvements in the design of the missile. Nevertheless, the first three modifications of the rocket (RIM-66A mod.1, mod.2 and mod.Z) existed only at the development stage, and in 1967, the standard-1 MR rocket (RIM-66B .4), distinguished by improved characteristics of interception of air targets in difficult conditions of electronic countermeasures, reduced minimum range of target destruction.
As the first results of the “Standards” operation showed, their preparation for the launch took less than 2 s, since they did not need long-term heating of the equipment, typical of T-series missiles.
The range of the first of the Standard-1 MR variants was 32 km, and to increase it to 60 km, it was proposed to use the Hercules X. 12 accelerator (Standard-1 ER variant), which docked to the RIM-66B rocket directly on the ship.
However, already in 1969, the production of “Standard-1 MR” was discontinued, and before 1974, the RIM-66B mod.5 was launched. The main difference between the RIM-66B mod.5 was the use of the high-explosive fragmentation warhead of the Mk.90 and the dual-mode engine of the Mk.27, which ensured a long range and height of target destruction. At the same time, another version of the Standard-IER, the RIM-67A, was developed to achieve an even greater range, which in terms of its appearance and overall dimensions was similar to the Terrier rocket. She used the Atlantik Research dual-mode propulsion engine and the Mk.12 accelerator, and was also equipped with a faster autopilot and a new homing head (GOS). Production of this version of "Standard-1ER" continued until 1973.
In total, General Dynamics Ltd developed six modifications of the RIM-66B, differing from each other in the design of a number of elements. Moreover, the first modifications (from 1 Block to 4 Block) differed from each other only by some electronic and anti-jamming devices. Ultimately, this work ended with the creation of a rocket “Standard-IMR” 6 block (RIM-66E), which included a single-pulse homing (instead of homing with a conical scan), a digital on-board computer (instead of an analog computing device), an adaptive remote fuse Mk .45 The 4 (TDD) unit and the double-initiation combat unit, which made it possible to increase the effectiveness of its operation when intercepting low-flying targets with a small radar signal. The mass production of this version of the rocket was launched in 1980 and lasted until 1985.
Standard Missile 1 MR RIM-66B
All these years, in parallel with the anti-aircraft variants of the Standard rocket, rockets with a different purpose have also been developed. So, as early as in 1966, the development of the RGM-66D anti-ship missile “Standard”, which was intended for hitting surface targets equipped with radar, began on the basis of the RIM-66B. Unlike the standard version “Standard”, its targeting was carried out using the method of passive radar and equipment for storing the coordinates of the target. This rocket was put into service in 1970.
The following year, the development of two more variants of this rocket was launched: the RGM-66E, capable of launching the Mk.112 launchers of the Asrok antisubmarine complex, and the RGM-66F, which also became known as the Standard Active, due to its equipment of an active radar GOS developed by the company "Reyteon". The design of “Standard Active” was identical to “Standard-IMR” and differed only in the new section of guidance, fairing and computers. At the same time, the length of the rocket increased by 25 cm, and the mass - by 45 kg. By the start of 1973, General Dynamics, Pomona, had built several samples of Standard Active. 7 April 1973, at Point Mugu, the first launch of the target ship, which ended in a direct hit. However, after the creation of the RCC "Harpoon", the work on Standard Active was ceased.
Anti-submarine missile system "Asroc"
More successful was the fate of the anti-radar variants of the Standard rocket, intended to destroy radio equipment, SAM radar stations and anti-aircraft artillery. The Standard-ARM rocket (AGM-78) was developed on the basis of the RIM-66A and used passive GOS, which is aimed at emitting radar at distances up to 80 km. For this rocket, several variants of broadband passive radar GOS with different operating frequency ranges have been created. In the main compartment, in addition to the GOS, the equipment was installed that allows you to memorize the coordinates of the target, so that the guidance of the missile could continue even after the radar was turned off. Also, radio-transparent radomes were specially designed to transmit signals from virtually all radar stations within the operating range of the GOS. The AGM-78 rocket was equipped with a powerful high-explosive fragmentation warhead with a mass of about 150 kg, which was exploded at an altitude of 15 - 20 m above the target, thanks to which its fragmentation radius reached 600 m. At the same time, in the intermediate compartment of the rocket adjacent to the warhead, a signal charge was established, which formed a smoke cloud after the explosion, which became a reference point for attacks by other planes.
Standard-ARM was put into service in 1968 and in the future its various versions (AGM-78A mod xNUMX-1, AGM-3B mod 78-1, AGM-3C mod 78-1 and AGM-3D mod 78-1 mod 2-105 and AGM-6D mod 4-1976-mod ModNNXX-3000 and AGM-XNUMXD mod XNUMX-XNUMX-XNUMX-XNUMX and AGM-XNUMXD mod XNUMX-XNUMXC mod XNUMX-XNUMX and AGM-XNUMXD mod XNUMX-XNUMX mod XNUMX-XNUMX and AGM-XNUMXD mod XNUMX-XNUMX mod XNUMX-XNUMX on the F-XNUMXDF, A-XNUMXA and F-XNUMXE aircraft. Before XNUMX, about XNUMX missiles of this type were manufactured.
Assessments then made showed that it could take up to three Standard-1 missiles to hit modern air targets. By this time, tests of qualitatively new Standard-2 anti-aircraft missiles began at landfills and ships. It should be noted that even at the initial stages of work on the first “standards” for customers and developers of new types of ship-based anti-aircraft weapons, it was obvious that the introduction of improvements to existing ship-based air defense systems, including the creation of new missiles for them, would not be able to solve all the problems facing them. Therefore, even at the beginning of 1960's. In the United States, work began on creating the Aegis multi-purpose rocket complex (as the ancient Greek myths called the Zeus shield), designed to repel attacks that could become typical of 1970 - 1980's. "Aegis" was intended to intercept various high-speed air aids (airplanes, anti-ship missiles) with a small effective reflective surface when they use radio-resistance devices and in all weather conditions.
This complex was also calculated on the use as a weapon for the destruction of ground and surface targets. Over time, Ajis required its own versions of Standard missiles.