Military Review

Mannlicher semi-automatic pistol without shutter

Despite the fact that pistols very quickly supplanted revolvers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in this short, by the standards of stories, a period of time could fit a huge number of the most interesting designs, before those were found that became the foundation for creating the usual weapons. It should be noted that at that time there were no well-known automatic systems for pistols, there was no elementary basis for calculating and creating these automatic systems, that is, everything was done “from scratch” and not always successfully. Nevertheless, it was this search, which was conducted by the gunsmiths of the time, that it could survive in the conditions of fierce competition of the arms market, and what did not. In the same article I will try to acquaint you with a weapon that is not widely spread, moreover, the considered sample of the pistol is built according to the scheme of automation, which is very rare in a short-barreled weapon, that is, we are talking about a unique sample of the weapon, from which side don't come up In general, let me introduce Ferdinand Mannlicher’s M1894 pistol.

This gun was called semi-automatic at that time because the weapon itself only reloaded itself, and the cock had to be made by the hands before each shot. In other words, the pistol has a single-action firing mechanism, and the automation is not interconnected with the trigger. Although there are rumors that there was also a sample that was completely identical to this one, in which Mannlicher managed to link the weapon’s automatic system with the trigger, as well as establish a double-action firing mechanism. But since this information cannot be confirmed by a specific sample, then we will omit it as possibly true and return to the simpler and really existing M1894 pistol.

First of all, it is necessary to note the appearance of the weapon, and the appearance of the pistol, as for me, is so simple a masterpiece. Absolutely nothing superfluous, no curls, curly gadgets and it is not clear what, to stand out from the competition, and attract the attention of the buyer. Nevertheless, passing such a weapon would not be easy at all. It is precisely with its minimalism that the pistol draws attention to itself, plus we will add an unusual silhouette, not typical for modern weapons, and an easily outstanding real age of the sample. Weapon controls include a trigger, trigger, and reload projection. Probably the most remarkable is this very protrusion, since, knowing the common schemes for the automation of short-barreled weapons, the question may arise: why is the “bolt” in its normal state in the extreme rear position? The answer to this question is very simple - the gun does not have a shutter.

Mannlicher semi-automatic pistol without shutterAutomatic weapons does not work at the expense of recoil energy and not at the expense of powder gases, but at the expense of another phenomenon that occurs when firing a weapon, namely, due to the friction force of the bullet, during its passage through the bore. Since the bullet in the barrel bore feels far from free, if, of course, it corresponds to the barrel caliber, then if the barrel has the ability to move forward, the bullet will try to move it along with itself, this phenomenon formed the basis of the gun Ferdinand Mannlichera. Let's try to figure out how it all works.

The barrel of the weapon is spring-loaded return spring and has the ability to move forward, compressing the return spring. When fired, the barrel and the bullet start moving from the shooter, it’s natural that their speeds are unequal and the bullet leaves the barrel bore before the barrel moves at least a millimeter. But a part of its energy is transmitted by the bullet to the barrel of the weapon, and due to its mass, the barrel retains it only as much as is necessary for it to reach its extreme front point. Another interesting feature of the weapon is that the pistol has a slide lag, or rather a barrel delay. It is connected with a trigger and is a spring-loaded part with a hook at the end. So, while the trigger is squeezed all the way, this part rises and slides along the barrel of the weapon until it is “grabbed” by the notch below. After the trigger is released, this part is lowered and the barrel under the influence of the return spring moves back. If step by step, then everything looks as follows. The shooter manually cocks the trigger of the weapon, pulls the trigger, causing the trigger to disrupt and raise the “barrel” delay. The primer is broken, the powder charge ignites, the powder gases expand and push the bullet through the bore, the sleeve rests against the frame of the weapon at this time. The bullet leaves the barrel, the barrel moves forward, throws out the cartridge case and compresses the return spring, stopping in its forward position. The shooter releases the trigger, the barrel is released from the delay and under the influence of the return spring moves backwards, picking up a new cartridge in the chamber, on the way. After that, everything repeats. Simplicity, but try to come up with this.

The dimensions and weight of the weapon, in principle, well fit into the framework of reasonable. The total length of the weapon is 215 millimeters, while the length of the barrel of the gun is equal to 165 millimeters, which is a kind of record in the ratio of the total length of the weapon and the length of the barrel, plus everything you should not forget about the handle, which is made much back. The weight of the gun is 1 kilogram. When fired, the barrel stroke is 50 millimeters. It feeds weapons from the non-detachable magazine with a capacity of all 5 cartridges. The caliber of the 6,55 pistol, unfortunately, I cannot say exactly what was used for the ammunition, but it is known that the initial speed of the bullet fired from the barrel of the МХNUMX pistol was 1894 meters per second. Also there is information about the version of the gun caliber 243, but the exact same cartridge is not specified back.

This gun was offered to the armies of many countries for adoption, however, referring to the heavy weight and a more objective reason in the form of a small amount of ammunition in the gun shop, this weapon was rejected everywhere. On the one hand, it’s quite possible to understand the military, this pistol in all respects was losing to revolvers, with which then the struggle for primacy was going on, and other models of pistols were more convenient and practical. Nevertheless, this weapon, in spite of all its flaws, I personally am madly in love with, and the operation scheme of automatic weapons in general is like from a parallel universe, in which everything is the opposite.
Photos used:

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  1. avt
    avt 28 January 2013 09: 56
    The look of this design has always pinned me! smile It seems like it’s not a revolver, but not a gun yet! laughing And of course loading like Mauser and Steer - from a spoon! Well, damn it! good laughing laughing
  2. omsbon
    omsbon 28 January 2013 14: 09
    Some kind of a kinky gun. I did not see the beauty of weapons in him!
  3. kavad
    kavad 28 January 2013 17: 41
    Yah! Nice and original.
  4. Captain45
    Captain45 28 January 2013 17: 55
    Kirill, thank you for the interesting article. It turns out that later Mannlicher's idea was developed and automatic equipment operating on a short stroke of the barrel was created. By the way, isn't this Mannlicher who stole Pavka Korchagin from an Austrian officer in the Leshchinsky estate in the novel "How the Steel Was Tempered"?
    1. scrabler
      28 January 2013 18: 16
      Yes, not at all))) Not quite so. The fact is that in weapons with a short barrel stroke, that energy is used that the powder gases transfer to the cartridge during the shot, it is transferred from the cartridge to the bolt, and the bolt drags the barrel behind itself. It also uses bullet friction when passing through the barrel, so the principles are completely different, I won’t give Browning an insult smile
      And the Austrian officer, as I understand it, pulled the M1905 model, because if I didn’t confuse anything, the gun was ten-shot, although the M1905 is also available in the 8-charging variant. Here it looks like:

      You can make an article about him if you're interested smile It’s not difficult for us wink
      1. sniper
        sniper 28 January 2013 19: 34
        Cyril, as always only "a plus" and many thanks for the article !!!
        1. scrabler
          28 January 2013 21: 02
          Thank you for your rating)
      2. Captain45
        Captain45 28 January 2013 20: 44
        Thanks again! And if the article about M1905 will be, thanks in advance. After all, a historical gun. But didn’t you try to make a series of articles about pistols and revolvers, which are mentioned in famous novels, otherwise everyone read about them in books, but not everyone saw them in the sense of pistols.
        1. scrabler
          28 January 2013 20: 59
          I didn’t have such a thought) It’s necessary to tackle the issue, only the series that have already been started must be completed first, otherwise it’s necessary to finish smile
      3. Petr7
        Petr7 2 December 2016 17: 49
        One of my favorite pistols of the time:
        There is almost nothing superfluous in design, absolutely nothing superfluous in mechanics (there are a lot of levers, but this is subjective).
        Alas, he did not make a normal, competitive pistol under 9x19Par,

        Quote: scrabler
        You can make an article about him if you're interested smile It’s not difficult for us wink

        It is not difficult when the hand is full and there is a syllable. I’m talking about weapons of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but I don’t write a word!

        Kirill, I will be glad if you continue to post on the "shooter", but this is the case, I try to repost interesting things in VK, and there is a limit on the number of characters (16383 characters fit into the post) and photo albums - no, you can stuff it there an awful lot of photos, but few people look at the whole album, and only 9 photos fit into the post itself + refer to the source ...
  5. georg737577
    georg737577 28 January 2013 23: 22
    Thank you, I always read your materials with sincere pleasure! God give you health and good luck!
  6. georg737577
    georg737577 28 January 2013 23: 44
    Thank you, I always read your materials with sincere pleasure! God give you health and good luck!
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  8. Petr7
    Petr7 2 December 2016 17: 29
    Manlicher’s weapon is fantastic. It was ahead of its time: slightly changing the design, finalizing the little things - and Modern weapons of the highest class