Military Review

The Ministry of Defense will test the Krona antisatellite complex

At the end of 2013, the Russian Defense Ministry is going to test a modernized version of the Krona anti-satellite complex, the Izvestia newspaper reports, citing its own sources in the General Staff of Russia. Work on the creation of this complex was begun in the USSR, but because of the suspension of funding, it was stopped. According to the information contained in open sources, the Krona complex took up combat duty only in the 2000 year and consists of 2's main parts: a laser-optical locator and a radar station.

According to the plans of the Ministry of Defense, the deadlines and plans for testing the upgraded Krona anti-satellite defense complex are scheduled for the end of 2013. It is reported that the main emphasis will be placed on the interaction of various components, especially percussion aids, with ground-based ROK — a radar-optical complex for searching and identifying space targets. It is reported that the radars of the complex, which still have the old Soviet index 45Ж6, were released in 1980-ies, but during 2009-2010 the state tests were modernized and passed. According to the officers of the General Staff, they have no complaints about ROC itself.

The Krona Radio Optical Space Recognition Complex is an object of the space monitoring system, which includes 2 operating systems: radio-band and optical, it is part of the Russian Space Defense Forces. This complex monitors outer space using observations both in the active (laser location) and in the passive mode. After computer processing, the data received by him are transferred to the CCC, the Center for Control of Outer Space.
The Ministry of Defense will test the Krona antisatellite complex
Radar 20Ж6 complex "Krona"

The work on the creation of the Krona ROCR KO was started in accordance with the resolution of the USSR Government of November 1984. The construction of the facility was carried out by the Scientific Research Institute of Industrial Design and JSC NPK NIIDAR. The beginning of work on its creation was in the Soviet era, but the restructuring that had begun and the collapse of the country slowed them down significantly. In the 1994, the object was tested on the test-experimental work, and in 2000, the complex finally got up to combat duty. In 2010, it was upgraded, during which it received a high-precision radar channel "H", designed to determine the position and recognition of targets in Earth’s orbit.

The radar-optical complex for the recognition of space objects 45Ж6 “Krona” is intended for the recognition of various military space objects, as well as information and ballistic support of the anti-space defense actions and active anti-missile defense systems of the country. The complex initially included:

- the radio part of the 40Ж6 complex with 20Ж6 radar, which has 2 main channels of operation: channel "A" is intended for detecting artificial Earth satellites and channel "H", intended for extremely accurate angular measurements of parameters of artificial Earth satellites;
20ZH radar can operate in decimeter (channel "A") and centimeter (channel "H") ranges. The radar is able to detect a target deleted by 3500 km.

Channel “A” is a receiving-transmitting antenna array with an aperture of size 20 × 20 m and electron beam scanning, phased antenna array (PAR). Channel “H” is a receiving-transmitting system consisting of 5 rotating parabolic antennas that operate on the principle of an interferometer, due to which they make it possible to accurately measure the orbital elements of space objects.

- Optical means of the system consist of a laser-optical locator (LOL) "30Ж6" (from 2005 year), which includes: receiving and receiving-transmitting channels, Passive channel autonomous detection (CAO) of space objects, which patrols with search for previously unknown space objects.

- command and computing center equipped with the 13K6 computer complex with the 40Х6 computer (as far back as Soviet times).
object on Mount Chapal, photo:

The capabilities of the Krona complex in determining the coordinates of space objects made it possible to use it as a means of targeting anti-space defense systems. In the USSR, it was planned to build an 3-like complex, which should have covered the entire southern border of the country. The only operating complex is currently located on the territory of Karachay-Cherkessia at the top and in the vicinity of Mount Chapal.

The entire system of ROCK “Krona” functions in the interaction of all 3-x channels: this is how channel “A” of the radar locates a space object and measures its orbital characteristics, with the use of which channel “H” is guided to a given point and carries out its work. At the same time, according to the trajectory data of channel “A”, the optical passive or active channel, which collects its information about the detected object, starts its work. As a result of this interaction, it is possible to significantly improve the accuracy and detail of information about the detected space object. At the same time, the throughput of the entire complex is estimated at the level of the order of 30 000 objects per day.

Since the anti-satellite system was designed not only for the detection of space objects, but also for their destruction, an anti-satellite system was included in its composition aviation 30P6 Kontakt complex consisting of: MiG-31D carrier aircraft and 79M6 Kontakt interceptor missile, which had a kinetic warhead. Before its collapse, the Soviet defense industry was able to modernize 3 supersonic high-altitude interceptors MiG-31, which were entrusted with the task of delivering anti-satellite missiles to the upper atmosphere. Such aircraft received an additional letter "D" in the name. All 3 MiG-31Ds made in the USSR in the early 1990s were sent to the Sary-Shagan Kazakh training ground, where they remained subsequently. There is still no official data that tests of the 79M6 Kontakt interceptor missile were conducted in the USSR.

The remaining MiG-XNUMHD fighters on the territory of Kazakhstan first tried to use them for commercial purposes, trying to adapt them for launching small space rockets. However, the Kazakh project ended in failure, and now these planes are just dead. The revival of the large-scale anti-satellite defense project began only after 31 years after the collapse of the USSR. In 18, the then commander-in-chief of the Russian Air Force, Colonel-General Alexander Zelin, said that the anti-space defense system based on the MiG-2009 interceptor fighter would be reanimated to solve the same tasks.

If there are at least some information about the ground components of the Krona complex that can be easily found on the Internet, then its air component is classified much more strongly. At present, it is only known that the creation of a new anti-satellite rocket, which should replace the "Contact", is carried out by the Fakel design bureau, located in Khimki near Moscow. The same design bureau specializes in the development of rocket and space technologies, but it refused to inform journalists about new products for Krona. Along with this, there is no information on the modernization of the new batch of MiG-31 supersonic interceptor fighters, which will have to be replaced by planes lost in Kazakhstan. At the same time, Izvestia sources in the military-industrial complex say that bringing the aircraft to modification “D” does not constitute any particular problems.

With such an aircraft, all suspension and mounting assemblies are removed, the on-board radar, the radio transparent cap is changed to a metal one. At the ends of the wings of the fighter for a more stable flight with a vertical climb established special aerodynamic influxes, which are called "flippers". They are also used to stabilize the flight of the MiG-31 with the antimissile system suspended under the fuselage, since it has a large mass and dimensions, and the area of ​​the wing of the aircraft does not allow for stable flight with it. After that, a new communications complex and an aiming complex are installed on the aircraft.
Space Control Center

The Russian Defense Ministry explained that the upcoming tests will verify the possibility of issuing target designation of strike aircraft from the ground, as well as the interaction between the air and ground components of the Krona. At the same time, at the initial stage, instead of the MiG-XNUMHD, the usual MiG-31 from the Russian Air Force will work out. MilitaryRussia website editor and military expert Dmitry Kornev believes that the algorithms and logic of combat work, ground equipment can be used and what was created back in 31-1980-s.

At the same time, the rocket will most likely need a new one, which will be created by the forces of the same design bureau Fakel, Novator, Vympel. However, he did not rule out the reorientation of the entire system, for example, to ground-based missiles. In the event that the Krona is really equipped with ground-based missiles, it becomes clear why the air component of the anti-satellite complex is so secret. In this case, it simply does not exist and never will.

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  1. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 28 January 2013 09: 32
    Interesting! For the first time I learn about such a system, it would be necessary to study it more deeply.
    1. Hunghuz
      Hunghuz 28 January 2013 12: 06
      soldier So Mzhal Taburetkin dispersed the skills of the Academy of Gagagin and Zhukovsky .......)))))
      1. crazyrom
        crazyrom 30 January 2013 06: 23
        To go nuts, well, well done, what country, huh? Shoot a rocket from an airplane on satellites! bully Yes p ... dosam such and in a nightmare did not dream!
    2. ochakow703
      ochakow703 28 January 2013 12: 34
      I would like to take a closer look at this system. For the first time I hear.
      1. dedroid71
        dedroid71 29 January 2013 01: 45
        Greetings to all those present !!
        If there are such developments, then horseradish will tell about them.
        And they’ll do it right. laughing
      2. vikontas56
        vikontas56 29 January 2013 03: 00
        They were mentioned in one of the "Military Secret" programs, which told about the construction in the United States of replacing the "Shuttle" in the form of a space bomber capable of hovering unnoticed by terrestrial air defense systems over the desired country - the target of the strike and practically inflicting it with impunity! So "Krona" is a necessary thing in the economy! It was said that when the laser components of the system were tested, back in Soviet times, an American spaceship flying over the USSR was irradiated. The Americans were so jolted that they almost jumped out of the rocket!
    3. ramzes1776
      ramzes1776 28 January 2013 13: 31
      Quote: tronin.maxim
      Interesting! For the first time I learn about such a system, it would be necessary to study it more deeply.

      These are the "themes" we did in the Union. And how many more have been mothballed due to the cessation of funding. If it were not for the collapse of the Union, we would probably be ahead of the rest of the world today !!! The Yankens were shocked. We developed and were also in service. One hundred percent of what China made and successfully tested an anti-satellite missile thanks to our Soviet development.
      1. Heccrbq
        Heccrbq 28 January 2013 22: 37
        What happened to them when they found out about "Spiral" !!!
        1. Van
          Van 29 January 2013 20: 31
          Quote: Heccrbq
          What happened to them when they found out about "Spiral" !!!

          They probably realized that their SOI compared to our Spiral is nervously smoking on the sidelines. If of course it all went so far. yes
    4. APASUS
      APASUS 28 January 2013 14: 15
      Quote: tronin.maxim
      Interesting! For the first time I learn about such a system, it would be necessary to study it more deeply.

      And we already 25 years ago knew what this device was for!
      Of course, this is all unverified information, but
      Years ........ ago, ours tried to knock down the target satellite from this object, but something went wrong and they soaked the canned satellite of the Americans. I remember how everything stopped, everyone was dispersed, everyone was hiding like rats and everything was quietly quiet. ...........
      1. askort154
        askort154 28 January 2013 14: 45
        Quote ... APASUS ... Years ........ ago, ours tried to knock down a satellite target from this object, but something went wrong and they soaked the canned satellite of the Americans. I remember how everything stopped, everyone dispersed, everything hiding like rats and everything is quietly quiet ........

        Yeah ! Clever, a rocket, completed its task by 104%, knocking down an American satellite instead of its target. (For which it was created) Only she was unlucky, was born in the era of the traitor-perestroika.
        1. APASUS
          APASUS 28 January 2013 16: 57
          Quote: askort154
          Yeah ! Good girl, rocket, completed her task by 104%

          I can’t say what exactly is there, but not a rocket. Rather, an electromagnetic pulse or a laser.
          1. dedroid71
            dedroid71 29 January 2013 02: 06
            I agree, hardly a rocket. To get the satellite off course, it is enough to feed a sufficiently powerful directional EM pulse (or, equivalently, a laser / maser beam (the principle of operation is the same) to its receiving antennas). After this, of course, there will be a small artificial meteorite, which in a couple of decades will burn in the atmosphere. But how can I figure out where to aim? This is not an aerodynamic / ballistic target (30-50 km)
      2. avt
        avt 28 January 2013 17: 44
        Quote: APASUS
        Years ........ ago, ours tried to knock down the target satellite from this object, but something went wrong and they soaked the canned satellite of the Americans. I remember how everything stopped, everyone was dispersed, everyone was hiding like rats and everything was quietly quiet. ...........

        They told us another joke. Amers were frightened by the leadership, they say Shuttles, how planes can dive! laughing They say it will descend from a high orbit - the bomb will be thrown back and forth out of reach. So no one could dissuade the leaders! Oh how! Well, that means that the shuttle is flying low over our country, and DF Ustinov, take it and call this "laser rangefinder", they say, highlight it by 60 percent! Here the Yankees cut off all Lena Brezhnev's phones laughing laughing Like what are you doing !! Our astronauts are roasting alive !!!! Immediately Dima discouraged shuttles over the USSR to fly low, Ilyich 2nd to bother !!! laughing
        1. APASUS
          APASUS 28 January 2013 19: 25
          Quote: avt
          They told us another joke. Amers was frightened by the leadership, they say Shuttles, how planes can dive

          The scout told us. We took a recruited scientist in Moscow and he had a questionnaire from the US Embassy. There were 600 questions in the questionnaire and somewhere around 40% were on this subject ..
    5. Papakiko
      Papakiko 28 January 2013 16: 01
      Optoelectronic complex “Window” (“Nurek”) is located at an altitude of 2200 m above sea level in the Sanglok Mountains (Pamir). It is part of the space forces of Russia. Designed for the detection and recognition of space objects. He has been on pilot combat duty since July 18, 2002. Allows the detection of space objects at altitudes of up to 40 km. In October 000, an agreement was reached on its transfer to Russian ownership. For this, Russia wrote off the debt of Tajikistan in the amount of $ 2004 million. The territory on which the node is located has been leased to Russia for 242 years.
      In April 2005, an act was signed in Dushanbe on the transfer of the Nurek optical-electronic node to Moscow. In exchange for this, Russia pledged to invest $ 2 billion in the economy of Tajikistan for 5 liters.

      When the complex was put into operation, NASA astronauts, when flying in "shuttles" through the work-observation sector of the complex, began to complain of diarrhea, migraines, etc., etc.
      Such is she optics-electronics. wink

      After that, the United States installed a "mega radar" in the flight zone of our missiles, and our vehicles began to fall into Tikhiy Okiyan and fall into orbit, and other problems (blamed on RB "Breeze")
      1. APASUS
        APASUS 28 January 2013 16: 59
        Quote: Papakiko
        Optoelectronic complex “Window” (“Nurek”) is located at an altitude of 2200 m above sea level in the Sanglok Mountains (Pamir). It is part of the space forces of Russia.

        Why are you doing this?
        This is not a Window. It is Krona. And to be in the Caucasus!
      2. cherkas.oe
        cherkas.oe 29 January 2013 16: 38
        That's right, this is the case.
  2. King
    King 28 January 2013 09: 35
    Russia is reborn to spite enemies!
    1. Mitek
      Mitek 28 January 2013 10: 10
      That's why shit pours on the leadership, which is being reborn and out of spite. And if everything was like with fucking or a hunchback, only there would be laudatory articles about the new "democratic" rulers. And peace-b awards were distributed .... blah how disgusting it is to remember these creatures!
      1. NSG42
        NSG42 28 January 2013 11: 28
        - Another left, this is his friend - but he is our enemy.
      2. aleks
        aleks 28 January 2013 14: 19
        this is probably why in Russia they are embarrassed to talk about the USSR, they eat from that plate and pour over smelly sauce
    2. 1946095andrey
      1946095andrey 28 January 2013 10: 21
      Quote: King
      to spite enemies

      1. INTER
        INTER 28 January 2013 13: 31
        Yes, we have a lot of unknown and secret, besides dangerous for a Western lobbyist rights and freedoms. In addition, they are worried about the vagueness and illegibility of Russia's actions, so they rage and pour mud on us. laughing
  3. erased
    erased 28 January 2013 09: 37
    Such a system is extremely important in the current conditions! She is vital! The ability to knock down enemy satellites and not only them will ensure the safety of space in every sense!
    But if everything ends again with chatter and swindle, then ... again no one will be punished except the switchman. Then it will be lousy.
  4. Apollo
    Apollo 28 January 2013 09: 59
    quote Editor-in-chief of the MilitaryRussia website and military expert Dmitry Kornev believes that the algorithms and logic of combat work, ground equipment can be used and what was created back in the 1980-1990 years.

    this is what Soviet (Russian) military engineering thought means. We still use it. The military-industrial complex thought for decades to come. Bravo good
  5. Lopatov
    Lopatov 28 January 2013 10: 02
    And who knows, they can knock down geostationary?
    1. kpd
      kpd 28 January 2013 13: 28
      This complex is not.
      The target capture distance of 3500 km is also stated there, and at least one more zero is needed for the geostationary.
  6. nickname 1 and 2
    nickname 1 and 2 28 January 2013 10: 25
    Are there any secrets to us? Don’t know the Basurmans! In, all your companions are knocked down, and why have the Fighters fought back? What are you worth without your glonass? What will you do?
    Maybe ours purposely leaked info?

    No need to let them sleep!
    1. sniper
      sniper 28 January 2013 19: 59
      Quote: nick 1 and 2
      What are you worth without your glonass? What will you do?

      Shhhhh! Namesake, GLONASS is our system, do not knock down ... GPS adversaries wassat
  7. Byordovvv1
    Byordovvv1 28 January 2013 10: 30
    We are able to create complete superiority in modern armament over a potential adversary under only one condition: not allowing nanochubais and the like into this process.
  8. borisst64
    borisst64 28 January 2013 10: 30
    As I understand it, Krona not only detects an object in orbit, but also transmits information to an aircraft that guides the rocket to its target. This means that such a rocket with an airplane should appear, they said "A", and "B" must also be said.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 28 January 2013 10: 38
    2. Bort radist
      Bort radist 28 January 2013 11: 23
      Quote: borisst64
      This means that such a rocket with an airplane should appear, they said "A", and "B" must also be said.

      I think both E and E are already working.
    3. Egoza
      Egoza 28 January 2013 13: 29
      Quote: borisst64
      This means that such a rocket with an airplane should appear, they said "A", and "B" must also be said.

      Well, tell you everything right so !!!! soldier
  9. Wedmak
    Wedmak 28 January 2013 10: 40
    I wonder why the anti-satellite missile was "planted" on the MiG-31? Just because of its speed and altitude?
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 28 January 2013 11: 30

      In 1983. Mikoyanists defended and approved a technical proposal for a carrier aircraft for such a heavy anti-satellite missile. In 1987, the MiG Design Bureau modified a pair of MiG-31s ​​for this missile. The aircraft received the designation MiG-31D ("product 07"). The MiG-31D was created as part of the Russian "Star Wars" program to destroy enemy orbital stations and satellites. In the United States, a similar system was developed under the ASAT program and included a two-stage rocket on the McDonnell Douglas F-15 carrier. The fighter, working as the first stage, "jumped out" to the dynamic ceiling and launched the rocket. Our "Contact" rocket was originally three-stage. The principle was the same as that of the Americans with the help of an airplane to bring a rocket into the upper atmosphere and launch it.

      According to the information of the deputy general designer of the OKB im. Mikoyan A. Belosvet, since 1997, it began the development of a system for launching space vehicles into near-earth orbits using a converted MiG-31 interceptor. The experience gained by the Design Bureau as a result of experiments on the creation of the MiG-31D anti-satellite fighter will be the basis. The commercial launch vehicle RN-S with a payload capacity of 40-200 kg will be launched from a flying launcher - a MiG-31D fighter flying at an altitude of about 17000 m at a speed of 3000 km / h. It should be developed by the Vympel Design Bureau, which specializes in the creation of air-to-air missile systems. The first test launch of this launch vehicle is expected in 1999-2000. Currently 071 and 072 machines are located in Kazakhstan. The MiG-31 also serves as a carrier for the VLL-AS hypersonic flying laboratory.

      Information taken here
      1. Wedmak
        Wedmak 28 January 2013 11: 40
        Well, in general, I see.
        In general, I mean that more than 10 years have passed. New developments in the field of rocketry have appeared. The dimensions of the missiles have decreased, the speeds have increased. Maybe you should introduce an anti-satellite missile into the ammunition YES? Perhaps just for the promising PAK YES. How do you like this idea? Having at least 4 such missiles on board, it will be able to clear a very significant area from satellite observation. Yes, and it is easier for a long-distance operator to get out "under the orbit" of a satellite than for an interceptor.
        1. Ascetic
          Ascetic 28 January 2013 13: 04

          Perhaps it will be so, But a new solid-fuel rocket of no more than two stages is needed, but alas, it is not there yet. TRV Corporation OJSC, together with NPO Mash, are engaged in similar developments, but the specific information is naturally classified, so we can judge this based on the name Aviation Complex which provides at least the performance of tasks for various purposes by one carrier.
          1. Wedmak
            Wedmak 28 January 2013 13: 11
            Well, what is involved is already good news. And the fact that it is called the "Aviation Complex" gives food for imagination. Moreover, it is somehow stupid to make a new complex for some CDs.
            1. Ascetic
              Ascetic 28 January 2013 13: 29
              Quote: Wedmak
              Moreover, to make a new complex for some CDs is somehow silly.

              I agree and stupid and expensive and inefficient
        2. Mikhail3
          Mikhail3 28 January 2013 18: 02
          Such devices are intended for "satellite crashes due to unspecified problems." Apparently ours have established exactly that "Phobos-Grunt" did not fall on its own, and thus they are thickly hinting ... Why clean large parts of orbits in such a complicated and costly way? If it is needed, why have we "lost" so many satellites? Some of them do not fall for some reason ... And if you activate the squib in the canister with balls from the bearings, the orbit will be cleaned, reliably and for a long time.
  10. JonnyT
    JonnyT 28 January 2013 12: 41
    Such news inspire optimism .... I look forward to the future with faith ... We'll wait!
  11. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 28 January 2013 12: 44
    Again the Mistral, squalor and not a ship, Nowadays such a colossus will only leave the home port, satellites will already detect it and then you will not hide it anywhere, especially according to the strategy of use it should go in a group of ships of some squadron. A logical question against whom are we going to use it, against NATO? or against a banana republic on the coast of Africa? If no one ever laughs at NATO even at a small distance accessible for landing, if it is against African countries, does Russia have such interests there? It turns out that they bought a super expensive imported toy, which would also be just as expensive, the French built a ship that they didn’t need and who didn’t need to sack it, but then our burdocks turned up and bought it at exorbitant prices. I am amazed at such an active discussion of such an empty topic, and Mistral’s supporters do not quit disputes, like stubborn rams trying to find out what is very necessary and most importantly what a beautiful and comfortable ship, the most powerful argument on their part is that it’s important new, it’s interesting who lives in the city will buy super expensive potato harvester just because it is new?
    1. Wedmak
      Wedmak 28 January 2013 12: 46
      You are not mistaken in the article?
      1. vladsolo56
        vladsolo56 28 January 2013 12: 52
        strange when I wrote a comment I went into an article about Mistral, and she got in the wrong place
    2. Simon
      Simon 28 January 2013 13: 52
      But they are buying!
  12. fatalist
    fatalist 28 January 2013 12: 55
    I wonder what justifies the use of the aircraft as a platform for launching an interceptor missile.

    It seems like an anti-satellite complex without an airplane has many advantages:
    1) less reaction time (and then while the aircraft was prepared, while it took off, it gained the desired height)
    2) less dependent on weather conditions
    3) you can quickly bring down a large group of satellites in a short period of time (or there aren’t a lot of suitable modifications of aircraft, until they take off, get to the right height, start, return, and so many times - and with the real confrontation, the Americans need to knock out a hundred, or maybe more satellites)

    Maybe someone will explain this moment.
    1. Wedmak
      Wedmak 28 January 2013 13: 06
      Well, let's put it this way: to place such a system in a stationary way is nonsense, you understand. Satellites will not always fly over it. It can be placed by type of mobile Topol, on ships (American SM3), aircraft. Apparently, they chose the most mobile and high-speed option. Moreover, the Mig-31 is gaining altitude and speed very quickly, it is also an interceptor and works from the ground - in fact, this is a manned missile.
      and the Americans in a real confrontation need to knock out a hundred, or maybe more satellites

      Let me doubt it. In reality, if dozens of spy satellites fly over our territory at one point in time, this is already a bit too much.
      1. fatalist
        fatalist 28 January 2013 14: 42
        Quote: Wedmak
        Let me doubt it. In reality, if dozens of spy satellites fly over our territory at one point in time, this is already a bit too much.

        If you believe the states have about XNUMX active satellites (some of them are declared as commercial, but sometimes they put military load on commercial satellites).

        In case of destruction, new satellites will be displayed, which also need to be shot down.

        Part of the satellites of NATO countries (and maybe not only them), during the confrontation will also need to bring down.

        In general, more than a hundred satellites - it seems a very real estimate.
      2. Kaa
        Kaa 29 January 2013 17: 25
        Quote: Wedmak
        In reality, if dozens of spy satellites fly over our territory at one point in time, this is already a bit too much.

        Place several missiles on the An-124 and take turns letting several planes barrage, for fear of adversary ...
  13. SEM
    SEM 28 January 2013 13: 15
    I think this is justified at this developmental stage, but in the future it will certainly need to be changed since the use of an aircraft to deliver missiles is not always possible and expeditious + a lot of unfavorable factors are weather, combat operations (when flights may be impossible because they can be shot down), it is appropriate to use the same satellites to destroy enemy ones, either hypersonic missiles with the fastest speed of destruction, or absolutely fantastic combat laser systems, but this is still in the future, but for now the very possibility of destruction is very worthy)))
  14. 755962
    755962 28 January 2013 13: 27
    The new state first tried to use the MiG-31D fighters remaining on the territory of Kazakhstan for commercial purposes, trying to adapt them to launch small-sized space rockets.

    One of the novelties of the recent exhibition in Singapore was the project of the promising Ishim missile system presented by the Kazakh company Kazkosmos, designed for the operational launch of small spacecraft into orbit with the help of a launch vehicle launched from the MiG-31I. "Ishim" is a joint project of Russia and Kazakhstan (as evidenced by the name of the complex - by the name of the river flowing through the territory of both countries), implemented by Kazkosmos in cooperation with Russian enterprises - RSK MiG and the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering.
  15. Simon
    Simon 28 January 2013 13: 55
    Good system! The eyes and ears of our military and the arrows of Hermes in addition. Good roof for Russia.
  16. Strezhevchanin
    Strezhevchanin 28 January 2013 14: 12
    Well!!! But someone tried to me that all the money abroad, as you can see, is far from all. Great news, thanks for the article. good
  17. Zomanus
    Zomanus 28 January 2013 14: 25
    Great news. Not all polymers are fucked up ... But Tan decided to break off relations with us in the field of protecting civil liberties. Because we banned pi..rov.
  18. edeligor
    edeligor 28 January 2013 14: 51
    As far as I know, there were problems with launches of anti-satellite missiles with 31D, who knows? And if you dream, it would be nice to this complex, but the laser and missiles are not necessary)))))))
  19. Scorpio 83
    Scorpio 83 28 January 2013 16: 29
    That's how it is possible and we will have a powerful missile defense soldier
  20. Natalia
    Natalia 28 January 2013 16: 39
    Yes, it is high time to implement something like that, it would level our capabilities in relation to the Aegis system and their SM-3 interceptor missile. Although in order to shoot down satellites, several directions were proposed, one of these S-500:
    S-500 "Prometheus", 55R6M "Triumfator-M" air defense systems - the Russian anti-aircraft missile system (SAM), which is currently being developed by OJSC Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern. "
    The S-500 is a new generation of anti-aircraft missile systems, in which it is proposed to apply the principle of separate solution to the tasks of destroying ballistic and aerodynamic targets. The main objective of the complex is to combat the combat equipment of medium-range ballistic missiles, and, if necessary, ICBMs in the final section of the trajectory and, within certain limits, in the middle section. From these means of destruction, cover will be provided for individual regions, large cities, industrial facilities, and priority strategic goals. Destruction of hypersonic cruise missiles, aircraft and UAVs of both conventional high-altitude and “waverider” type (hypersonic missiles with a speed of 5 Mach and higher). Destruction of low-orbit satellites and space weapons launched from hypersonic aircraft, shock hypersonic UAVs and orbital platforms.
  21. spirit
    spirit 28 January 2013 16: 59
    Yes!! US missile SM3 is an expensive pleasure. and I think the launch from MIG will be an order of magnitude cheaper! steps it turns out there will be less + MIGs can constantly patrol the space and irritate the enemy! I think someone confusing the X37B will now not be so comfortable flying with the MIG near by
  22. Byordovvv1
    Byordovvv1 28 January 2013 21: 39
    But is it time to revive the underground combat boats that were tested in the USSR in the Crimea. That would be a terrible weapon for the enemy today. Imagine a titanium atomic cigar-shaped boat emerging from the ground in the courtyard of the Pentagon?
  23. Zhylaw
    Zhylaw 28 January 2013 22: 17
    I think that the website published some information about Krona in 2007. Details, of course, are not enough there.
  24. StrateG
    StrateG 28 January 2013 22: 36
    to the Space Defense Forces of Russia

    How proud it sounds!
  25. werewolf
    werewolf 28 January 2013 22: 43
    You ask “Silence”,
    Above the expanse of arable land and “Fields”,
    And the “Birch” and “Topol”,
    Ask the soldiers again
    What kind of blade is “Option”,
    What kind of “shoe” on my feet,
    As the Goat catches fear.
    What the “Fly” and “Tulip” smell like,
    And what is filled with our “Glass”,
    In what places is our “Whirlwind” and “Shaft”
    Which “Skit” rules “Ball”,
    “Phantasmagoria” which
    “Bassoon” also plays “Oboe”.
    What delivers our “Courier”,
    And where is the "Barrier",
    Ask “Metis” with “Mulatto” as
    Caught in the Russian “Zoo”,
    What is connected with “Pinocchio” “Bumblebee”,
    And from what the “Pipe” will save
    Like from “Peonies” and “Carnations”
    Our flower garden is fragrant.
    What “Cacti” are growing,
    What “Cornflowers” ​​are in bloom.
    What kind of “Acacia" in the forest,
    And what will the Woodpeckers bring to you.
    What is the "Flame" of the "Bonfire"
    As the “Cranberry” Russian is red,
    Do Russians want problems?
    Ask the Chrysanthemums
    Forget-me-nots and Showcase
    Ask, do Russians need peace?
    And the “bearded man” will answer you
    And, with him, “Vampire” and “Rook”,
    “Foundling”, “Marya” and “Ivan”,
    “Hairpin”, “Goblin”, “Guardian”,
    And “Flounder” and “Cypress”,
    And “Canary” and “Narcissus”,
    Both “Tselina” and “Hyacinth”
    And “Mummy” and “Gnome” and “Screw”,
    And “Chernomorets” and “Wave”
    “Raccoon”, “Squid” and “Flounder”
    And even “Cypress” and “Tick”
    A simple thing will be explained to you.
    And you will understand my thought
    The war is us, Russian, poh ...
  26. kuman2705
    kuman2705 28 January 2013 22: 55
    applause, who is the author?
  27. StrateG
    StrateG 28 January 2013 22: 57
    I saw this verse in a group, VKontakte. I can give a link.
    1. sniper
      sniper 28 January 2013 23: 46
      StrateGHello Sasha! drinks
  28. studentmati
    studentmati 28 January 2013 23: 56
    Love, hope, quiet glory
    We were deceived for a short while,
    Young fun disappeared,
    Like a dream, like a morning mist;
    But desire still burns in us;
    Under the yoke of power fatal
    An impatient soul
    Homeland vneshlem calling.
    We are waiting with a longing for hope
    Minutes of holy liberty,
    How to wait for a lover young
    Minutes of a true date.
    While free burn
    While hearts for honor are alive,
    My friend, dedicate to the fatherland
    Souls are wonderful impulses!
    Comrade, believe: she will rise,
    Captivating Star of Happiness,
    And on the ruins of autocracy
    Write our names!
  29. andrey_knyazev
    andrey_knyazev 29 January 2013 16: 04
    No guys, it's not like that, it's not like that, guys! In fact, there is a second such complex "Krona", and it is located about 50 km from the city of Nakhodka, if you go in the direction of Vladik. After the village of Dushkino, there is, there is a place on the highway from which you can see the same complex, on a small hill. An interesting detail - after climbing the hill (where just the right turn to the "Krona") FM radio stations of Nakhodka are no longer caught, you have to switch to Vladik ...
    I remember back in 2008-2009, according to Nakhodka, in the newspapers they recruited radio electronics workers, and my wife also wanted to (by profession a radio installer), but thought for a long time, and the set ended ...
    In general, this crown looks cool !!!

    The only bad thing is that the aviation unit - probably 47 IAPs in Unashi was disbanded in the early dashing 90s. Now, most likely-Knevichi.
  30. StrateG
    StrateG 29 January 2013 17: 56
    sniperhello hello) How's life?

    Who cares, the group "Elimination of Illiteracy | Special Forces" I saw this verse there. You can also find all sorts of videos there.
  31. Joonkey
    Joonkey 29 January 2013 18: 27
    Reminiscent of the "anti-ballistic defense" tower from the Strugatsky Inhabited Island
  32. ZERG1
    ZERG1 29 January 2013 23: 10
    I served there recently, the 1st picture is old. There, new facilities are being built right now.
  33. Windbreak
    Windbreak 2 February 2013 00: 31
    reports the newspaper "Izvestia", referring to its own sources in the General Staff of Russia
    Why are there still people who believe this yellowness? Or, for example, such nonsense in an article about armored vehicles for the "Mistral"
    Other requirements of sailors - an obligatory complex of passive protection (TNT checkers are mounted on the outside to the armor, so that when a projectile hits with a directional oncoming explosion it extinguishes its striking force)
  34. rezident
    rezident 10 February 2013 19: 26
    There was such a topic in the 80s. By the way, the maximum height of satellites that you can shoot at has been published.
  35. Alikovo
    Alikovo 13 February 2013 22: 19
    can this complex, in addition to creating interference, disable it?
  36. kgbers
    kgbers 17 February 2014 19: 07
    Good article, warms the soul!