How gentry from Russia were separated

48
How gentry from Russia were separatedTo the 150 anniversary of the beginning of the Polish uprising 1863 of the year

The uprising of the gentry that began in Warsaw on January 23, which was trying to restore Rzecz Pospolita, then spread to the territory of Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. In analyzing those events, in no case can one simplify both the causes of the uprising and the general situation in the Russian Empire and the world at that time.

By the beginning of 1863, the situation in Warsaw and in the Kingdom of Poland as a whole was very similar to the situation in the late Polish People's Republic since Jaruzelski and Solidarity, and the situation in the Baltic republics before the collapse of the USSR. The first concerns management and control more, and the second concerns attitudes towards the center and Russians in general.

The defeat of Russia in the Crimean War of 1853-1855 played a very negative role. Russia clearly did not have time - the world was moving forward: the leading countries of Europe began large-scale rearmament of the army and fleet. Armored ships were already replacing sailing ships, smooth-bore guns were replacing arms - rifled. The introduction of machinery and machine tools into the industry has sharply accelerated. In Russia, with all this, there were serious problems that were aggravated by the empty treasury and the unresolved serf question, which clearly hampered the development of the country.

In Poland, all this was closely monitored and believed that the weakening of Russia, its problems in relations with Europe provide the Poles historical the opportunity to restore the Commonwealth.

The peasant reform of 1861, which abolished the serf system, brought even more problems. But the problem of reform was that the noble landowners, who played one of the main roles in the Russian imperial court, obtained financial guarantees for themselves. The peasants, having received personal freedom, were partially deprived of the lands that they cultivated while in a serf position. In addition, the peasants had to pay the landowner a ransom for the land. This ransom was very large and served the sole purpose - to compensate the landowner for the loss of monetary dues or income from corvee. The landowner could put the money from the repurchase in the bank and live on the interest without losing anything. This could not be said about the peasant. For example, in case of 10 rubles a rent the peasant should have paid 167 in rubles. In other words - almost 17 years to pay the same dues, but also to work out another panchin or to additionally pay for using the land of the landowner (the one that went to the peasants after the liberation was not enough). Even taking into account the fact that the state lent these ransoms to 80%, payments for farmers were often overwhelming. All this met with great resistance from the peasants — peasant revolts and ferments began throughout the Russian Empire.

The reform of 1861 of the year was halfway and extremely controversial, since it deprived the peasants of their money for many years and all other problems were added to the estate, internal destabilization of Russia.

Under these conditions, Petersburg tried to solve the problem of Poland with admonitions and appeals in the style of speeches and actions of M. Gorbachev in the Baltic States.


The results of such activities appeared fairly quickly. By January, 1863, Warsaw was already difficult to manage - the orders of the central authorities were performed poorly, the police did not control the situation, prayers in churches often ended with processions and demonstrations. In the apartments of Russian residents, windows were periodically beaten, patrols passing through the streets were insulted, and Russian soldiers and even officers could just spit at the meeting. Police stations and troop locations were periodically stoned. Poles pointedly used everywhere only Polish, even in cases where the law was to be used Russian. Such forms of expressing hostility towards Russians and adherence to the ideas of Posopolita, such as special outfits and brooches among the ladies, became especially popular. Even pupils from various educational institutions often swaggered by burning Russian and German books (part of Poland was controlled by Prussia). The Catholic clergy openly called for the restoration of the Commonwealth. There was talk that the abolition of serfdom occurred solely out of Russia's fear of the victorious England and France, and under their dictation. It got to the point that even during his visit to Warsaw of Alexander II to meet with the Prussian king in October 1860, part of the Polish nobles pointedly chose to leave the city rather than accept the invitation of the emperor to visit him. Those who went to the ceremony were doused with oil, thrown in mud and even beaten.

Russian officers and soldiers received on this occasion only instructions in the style of "not to succumb to provocations" ...

Unrest in Ukraine to the west of the Dnieper, in Belarus and Lithuania was everywhere where the Poles, making up just 5-10% of the population, nevertheless represented up to 90% of the local nobility and practically controlled these territories in parallel with the central government.

It cannot be said that in Petersburg they did not understand what was happening, however, as in the times of the late USSR, there was no intelligible policy towards Poland. Some influential officials believed that Poland had nothing to do with being incorporated into Russia and it could have been separated into a separate state. But this would inevitably lead to a conflict with Prussia and Austria, which also controlled the Polish territories. Therefore, instead of somehow reacting to what is happening, Alexander II and his administration at first preferred to have a conversation with the Polish nobility, hoping to reach an agreement with him.

In 1861, Adam Czartoryski died in France, who was a close relative of the last king of the Commonwealth Stanislav Augustus Poniatowski. He led the Polish uprising of the year 1831, and in 1834, he was proclaimed in exile as the “king of the Commonwealth”. His place was formally taken by his son, Vladislav Chartaryi, who in France headed the Polish emigration. In 1862, 400 of Polish military instructors was already trained in Italy with his assistance. Now it would be called the camp of training militants. In addition, many Poles had the experience of serious hostilities, participating in the campaign "thousands of Garibaldi" in 1860.

In May, 1861 was the second person in the Kingdom of Poland, Count A. Velepolsky, an aristocrat close to Alexander II, with whose assistance the Russian emperor hoped to normalize the situation in Poland. From the very beginning, Velopolsky led the matter to the wide autonomy of Poland, hoping for a peaceful gradual restoration of the Kingdom of Poland.

With him, in almost all state administration bodies, Russians began to be replaced by Poles. Moreover, all 49 Russian teachers of the Kingdom of Poland have lost their jobs. From now on, teaching was conducted only in Polish.

Petersburg looked at it with the silent hope of loyalty in exchange for concessions.

27 May (9 June) 1862, the emperor's brother, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, was appointed vicar of the Kingdom of Poland. He decided to confide in local affairs mainly to A. Velepolsky, he did little, taking rather a wait-and-see attitude. The situation is rapidly going towards a denouement.

Russian troops were stationed in Warsaw, but there was no clear plan of action, as in August 1991, of the units entered into Moscow by the Emergency Committee.

In order to somehow defuse the situation, it was decided to recruit individuals to the army on special lists, which, first of all, included the most active young opponents of the Russian presence in Poland. Initially, the set was to be held on 13 (25) in January, but it began on 3 (15) in January. It was on this day that the Poles planned to begin a large-scale performance, and the recruiting recruitment that had begun suddenly made its own adjustments to what was happening.

Total planned to recruit more 8 000 recruits. But the lists that went to the police, which consisted of Poles, quickly became known, and since the end of 1862, Polish young people began to leave the cities, heading into the woods.

The local authorities received letters from the Polish underground threatening and demanding that they do not recruit and support Russians. In response to complaints about receiving such threats and letters, Konstantin Nikolaevich decided to simply ignore all this. The troops present in the Kingdom of Poland set up winter quarters, dispersing them to about a dozen people in different localities. All this later played a fatal role.

The recruitment in Warsaw itself was relatively quiet, but eventually it failed - 1 was delivered to 657 people, but only 559 was accepted for recruits, and 149 people were left in reserve - the rest simply did not fit for health reasons and other reasons.

The numerous Jewish population feared that in the event of an uprising, the nobility could suffer both themselves and their property and warned the Russian authorities that the Poles were preparing to speak, but the authorities did not take it seriously.

Payback for carelessness came on the night of 10 (22) on 11 (23) of January 1863 of the year - Russian garrisons were attacked throughout the Kingdom of Poland. Dispersed sleeping soldiers were cut straight asleep, in some cases simply burned along with the buildings from which they were fired. In addition to the garrisons, Orthodox monasteries were attacked and plundered, and the monks were assaulted and harassed. Martial law was introduced throughout the Kingdom of Poland.

At the same time, agitation began among Russian soldiers in order to instill in them the idea that both the Russian soldier and the Pole needed one thing - the will, and their enemy was the same - the Russian emperor. By the way, Russian liberals also behaved in a rather peculiar way. Back in the summer of 1862 in London, A. Herzen’s Kolokol magazine posted a letter from some anonymous Russian officers, in which, addressing Konstantin Nikolayevich, they warned him against solving the problem by armed means and immediately scared that the rebels and will turn bayonets against him.

However, the Polish nobility initially overestimated their strength and capabilities - one thing to do with impunity to spit and throw stones at soldiers who suffer because they are “not ordered to answer” and quite another to face the armed people who protect their lives. If the liberal Russian society in Russia itself was sympathetic to the revolutionaries in Warsaw, the officers and soldiers, who had fully experienced insults and humiliation, were determined. Already the first skirmishes showed the complete superiority of the Russians in combat training. The attackers were bad fighters and did not cause serious damage to the Russian garrison. On the first night, no more than one and a half hundred Russian officers and soldiers were killed and captured. At the same time almost 250 rebels themselves were captured. Polish peasants who were forced into insurrection were allowed to go home.

In all the following days and weeks of the active phase of the uprising, Russians practically won victories everywhere - it affected both the best military proficiency and the poor armament of the Polish insurgents. The detachments of the insurgents were headed by civilians - gentry, graduates of seminaries, raznochintsy and even priests, which also did not contribute to military success. But the Russians at first made serious mistakes - for example, they did not pursue the retreating, and those then quickly restored their troops.

In order to somehow compensate for the negative effect of their defeats, the rebels actively spread rumors about convincing victories, seizure of artillery and other successes, allegedly hidden by the royal authorities.

The insurgents switched to guerrilla warfare tactics, focusing on the communications of railways and telegraph lines, ambushed and unexpected attacks. The authorities made another serious mistake by diverting parts of the border guard closer to the large garrisons, thereby exposing the border and losing control over the situation on its part.

Shlyakhta was counting on the support of Polish peasants and came up with the idea of ​​restoring the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth within 1792, stating her claims to the lands of Belarus, Lithuania and Ukraine, which they considered their own, and where the Polish nobility played the leading role.

This is far from a unique case in the practice of that time on the territory of Russia - in the same Finland, despite the predominance of the Finnish population, the Swedish aristocracy occupied the dominant position, in Germany and Estonia - the German one.

Commonwealth, as is known, was a state consisting of two parts - the Polish kingdom itself (or the Crown), as well as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Russian Federation (Principality). At the same time, the Crown played a leading role, so the nobility of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, being Lithuanians and Russians (descendants of Russians of Polotsk, ancestors of modern Belarusians), adopted Polish language, manners and even the Catholic faith long ago and was part of the Polish world, unlike ordinary people. It was from the Polish gentry that the Lithuanian Provincial Committee (LPK) was formed on the territory of the Western Territory, which was headed by Kastus Kalinovsky. Kalinowski is now considered a national hero in Belarus. Meanwhile, Kalinowski himself about the Belarusians had the most vague idea, and the LPK’s appeal to the population sounded as follows: “Brothers! Kingdom rebelled. Our everywhere beat Muscovites. The blood that flows over the Neman calls us to arms. After all, for us the hour of struggle with the invaders for our sacred rights, for our freedom is coming! Let's speak together and together, but God will help us! God save the Poland! ”

Kalinowski was a supporter of the republic and restrictions on the rights of large landowners, but he also advocated the restoration of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but as a federation of the Crown and ON. Not everyone liked this in Warsaw, since ON and Vilna were traditional competitors of the Polish capital and the Crown within the Commonwealth speech. The so-called underground Polish national government even dismissed Kalinowski from the rebel control in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and he, though not without displeasure, was forced to submit.

At this time, in Warsaw and Vilna, the division of the insurgents into "white" and "red" was clearly delineated. Both those and others wanted the restoration of the Commonwealth, but the “whites” represented the interests of the large and medium Polish gentry, and the “red ones” - the minor gentry and the commoners. "White" feared excessive radicalization of the peasant masses, fearing for their position and property, so they relied more on diplomatic support from Britain and France, and the "red" were more inclined to revolutionary actions.

At the beginning of February, the 2-I Guards Infantry Division arrived in Vilna.

Residents of the city immediately noticed the changes in the behavior of the Russian military — now they always had firearms or knives at the ready. Spitting at officers and soldiers or insulting them was simply not safe.

Proclamations sent out by the forestry complex, as well as in Poland, among the peasants found a weak response, despite promises of land and will.

Then the insurgents in Warsaw and Vilna switched to a different tactic - intimidation and terror. They took away food from the peasants by force, killed those who refused to join the ranks of the rebels. At the first stage, the effect of terror was such that the peasants were even afraid to talk to the authorities, fearing that they would be dealt with for this. Here is what Konstantin Nikolayevich himself wrote about these atrocities against the peasants: “Their atrocities, especially the peasants,” he reported to the emperor of 2 (14) of May, surpass all imagination! They hang them up and cut mercilessly, even wives and children. Through these peasants are completely terrorized ... General impunity also comes from universal terrorism. ” According to eyewitnesses, in response to the support of the Russian military, Polish peasants and peasant women were hanged, sometimes according to 2 and according to 4, a person was tied together in a “brotherly” embrace. There were cases of reprisals with children. It is clear that such actions did not cause the Polish peasants anything but hatred and fear.

An additional problem was the relationship of peasants and landlords in Belarus. The landowners were mostly Poles and insurgents, and the peasants were their opponents. At the same time, the tsarist government even supported the Polish gentry out of a sense of estate solidarity.

Meanwhile, the Belarusian peasants themselves began to rise in the struggle against the Polish gentry. In April 1863, after the killing of Russian soldiers, Belarusian peasants in Vitebsk province burned down and destroyed the estates of the Polish gentry around 20 and defeated several detachments of the rebels. In the Slutsk district, the peasants gathered a thousand detachment to defend against the nobility.

To the despondency of the Polish gentry, a similar situation developed in Ukraine, in the Baltic States, and even in Poland itself. Near Kiev, peasants, armed only with axes and stakes, killed a whole detachment of armed Polish gentry. When the insurgent Poles under the command of Count L. Plater killed Russian soldiers and captured vehicles moving from the Dinaburg fortress to Drissa, the Old Believers, armed with sticks and clubs, attacked the insurgents who were trying to escape. The first time the attack was repulsed, but the second time the Old Believers celebrated their victory and, taking the nobility captive, surrendered them to the authorities. The Belarusians and Latvians followed the example of the Old Believers and also actively began to catch the rebels in the surrounding forests.

In Poland itself, the peasants practically did not join the ranks of the rebels. Here is what one insurgent wrote to his friend: “News from Poland is extremely sad. Everything written in the newspapers is a perfect lie. The insurgents have no guns; there are no peasant peasants in the camp and they act in complete harmony with the Russian government. ” Thus, in the village of Klut vorde Konské, up to 3 thousands of Polish peasants gathered to fight the gentry. Sometimes the authorities were even handed over by the priests who had instigated the uprising.

Speeches against the insurgent nobility of the Polish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Latvian peasants took on such a scale that they were like a rising anti-feudal war, which was not at all part of the plans of the tsarist government.

The rebels relied on the help of England and France. Periodically, even rumors were spreading that France had already entered the war and landed landings. Of course, the matter did not come to this, but the situation was difficult - Russia, as it happens in our time, was under serious diplomatic pressure. On the territory of Austria in Galicia were created entire camps for the rest and training of the Polish rebels. Only Prussia came out in support of Russia, which, fearing the spread of the uprising to its Polish territories, decisively blocked the Prussian-Russian border. During the fighting, Russian troops sometimes crossed the borders of Prussia and Austria, and if there was complete mutual understanding with Prussia, it was more difficult with Austria.

The Vatican also sided with the rebels and in 1863, the canonized Uniate bishop I. Kuntsevich, who was killed by the Vitebsk citizens in 1623, for mockery and mockery of the Orthodox.

A. Herzen behaved rather unattractively, who in the pages of Kolokol actively supported the rebels and wished the Russian troops defeat in the same way as the Bolsheviks, borrowing his rhetoric, would later wish to defeat Russia in the First World War. “Bell” and Herzen paid a serious price for this — if in the 1862 year, the magazine’s circulation was from 2 500 to 3 000 exelections, then since 1863, it has decreased to 500 and has never risen higher, having only existed 5 years.

Britain and France began again to threaten Russia with war, although in practice they didn’t want it either, hoping to simply force Petersburg to make concessions. Russia did not have allies in Europe then — at best, it was possible to count on the neutrality of Prussia and Austria. However, Russia was preparing for a possible intervention.

The threat of a new war, as well as the facts of the mockery of the captured Russian officers and soldiers, who were sometimes tortured to death, mocked and tried to force to take communion with a priest in the Catholic rite, caused outrage among a significant part of Russian society. Poland’s claims on the lands of Belarus and Ukraine were also perceived as overt aggression. In general, the Russian society 1863 of the Year was ready to defend their homeland even in the event of a new big war. The sympathies of even the liberal circles of St. Petersburg and Moscow to the rebels were rapidly melting.

Without external support, the insurgents were doomed, having no support even among their own peasantry. The European powers were limited to sending menacing diplomatic notes.

1 (13) in May, General M.N. was appointed head of the Vilna Governor-General. Muravyov is a resolute and strong-willed person who immediately declared the need to protect Belarusian peasants from the arbitrariness of the Polish landowners. The first thing he did was to free those Old Believers from the Dinaburg Prison, who had been sent there for ... fighting against the insurgent gentry.

Muravyov, not being a bloodthirsty man, nevertheless, understood the need for decisive and tough measures - for example, May 24 (June 5) 1863, Vilnius, were shot by a priest and a gentleman who read a manifesto with the aim of inciting the population to revolt.

These and similar measures, which contrasted sharply with the inaction of the authorities before that time, quickly led to the result - it became much calmer in Vilna.

Then the insurgents' supporters set about frank terror. But Muravyov did not make concessions. 177 priests were expelled from the governorship-general, 7 priests were shot. M.N. Muravyov in modern Belarusian historiography is called the Hangman, but it does not mean that from May to September 1863, when he was executed, 31 people were executed. The number of people the rebels often killed in just one day. In total, under Muravyov, 128 people were executed, of whom 47 was for killing people, 11 was for playing the role of executioners. Most of the executed hands were stained with blood. And this is not a rant. The hands of these officially instigated executioners or “gendarmes-hangers” executed about 600 a man from among peaceful citizens, officials, Orthodox priests, peasants and burghers, accused of sympathy for Russia.

The rapprochement of Russia with the United States contributed to the prevention of war in Europe - during the war of the North and the South Russia defiantly supported the North unlike England, sending a squadron to the shores of San Francisco. The United States, in response, supported Russia in the Polish question.

By February, 1864, the situation in Warsaw, Vilna and throughout the whole West of the Russian Empire came to a relative norm. Austria closed all camps on its territory and banned any insurgent activities in Galicia. Alexander II announced an amnesty to all participants in the events, which the nobility mainly took advantage of, seeking to preserve the position and property. But still, many of the participants in the events had to make compensation payments. However, it was better than losing everything. Polish aristocrats departed from insurgent activity, trying to shift all the blame on raznochintsy and intellectuals.

The fate of K. Kalinowski was tragic. In the summer of 1863, he was returned to the leadership of the uprising in Belarus and Lithuania, and in October of the same year he was seized in Vilna and hanged on 10 in March of 1864. Kalinowski fought for the restoration of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and therefore has very little to do with the heroics of the Belarusian people themselves.

The lessons of the 1863 uprising of the year are valuable because in retrospective terms one can see many of the challenges that the USSR failed to cope with and which, in my opinion, present problems for present-day Russia.

For those interested in the uprising, I can recommend in more detail an extensive and in-depth monograph by the associate professor of the Faculty of History of Moscow State University. Mv Lomonosov, Candidate of Historical Sciences Oleg Rudolfovich Ayrapetov "Kingdom of Poland in the politics of the Empire in 1863-1864 ..", dedicated to the 150 anniversary of the Polish insurrection 1863 year. This monograph is published on the website "Western Russia".
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48 comments
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  1. Denis_SF
    +12
    January 25 2013
    Muravyov, not being a bloodthirsty man, however, understood the need for decisive and harsh measures

    It proves once again that with a kind word and a revolver you can achieve more than one good word.
    1. +3
      January 25 2013
      Quote: Denis_SF
      It proves once again that with a kind word and a revolver you can achieve more than one good word.

      In such matters, only rigidity bordering on cruelty can help, especially for federal states, otherwise krants.
      1. +2
        January 25 2013
        An excellent overview of Russian-Soviet --- Polish relations.
        who has 1:30, recommend viewing drinks
      2. vyatom
        +2
        January 25 2013
        It’s a pity that they didn’t cut all the noblemen, as they dared to raise a hand to our soldiers and priests.
        Ch. M.shny people - these psheks. They always beat them all - and did it right.
        Polish cat always falls on his head - folk wisdom.
    2. vyatom
      -3
      January 25 2013
      But the problem of the reform was that the noble landowners, who played one of the main roles in the Russian imperial court, achieved financial guarantees for themselves.

      There are also those who wonder at the Red Terror. My opinion is that if I were now in the 17th, I would have cleaned out all the landlords.
      Therefore, do not let the incomplete monarchists, Cossacks and other shellups cry - greed killed these fraers in the 17th, and there can be no other opinion.
      1. vyatom
        +1
        January 25 2013
        My opinion is unchanged - the October Revolution was inevitable. Russia should be ruled by the people, and not by a handful of August nobles and landlords who have survived from the mind.
        1. +6
          January 26 2013
          At the same time, agitation began among Russian soldiers in order to instill in them the idea that both the Russian soldier and the Pole needed one thing - the will, and their enemy was the same - the Russian emperor. By the way, Russian liberals also behaved in a rather peculiar way. Back in the summer of 1862 in London, A. Herzen’s Kolokol magazine posted a letter from some anonymous Russian officers, in which, addressing Konstantin Nikolayevich, they warned him against solving the problem by armed means and immediately scared that the rebels and will turn bayonets against him.

          Judas Herzen, a personal friend of Rothschild, settled in London with his money and with his donations published a "revolutionary" magazine for Russia.
          1. +2
            January 26 2013
            Quote: Ross
            Judas Herzen, a personal friend of Rothschild, settled in London with his money and with his donations published a "revolutionary" magazine for Russia.

            Nothing to add .. just +
          2. ISO
            ISO
            +2
            January 26 2013
            Etozh how much time the Rothschilds financed the hydra of the Racean revolution, before they beat off this loot belay This patience and endurance in achieving goals, as they say from father to son, was transmitted as a prayer: to ruin Russia ...
        2. ISO
          ISO
          0
          January 26 2013
          I wonder what kind of people: the Rothschilds, Rockefellers, there are still a couple of families with unpronounceable Jewish surnames .... Individual clans have always ruled and rule, at best from the titular nation.
        3. +1
          January 26 2013
          the February revolution was inevitable! and the October one still comes around to us
  2. Avenger711
    +6
    January 25 2013
    It is imperative to study in schools, and even in the USSR, the rotten essence of psheks and their pathological desire to get back territories whose population clutched at axes from such a perspective and was silent.
    1. vyatom
      +1
      January 25 2013
      So much territory was given to these kaslams after World War II. Although they certainly did not deserve.
      1. Avenger711
        -1
        January 25 2013
        As I understand it, they gave away territories with the Polish population, modern Poland is absolutely mono-ethnic, no one wants to live there anymore.
        1. 0
          January 26 2013
          This mono-nationality was achieved as a result of the Jesuit operation "VISLA".
  3. +4
    January 25 2013
    The Polish enlightener, philosopher, historian and writer Hugo Kollontai (thoroughbred Litvin) said not without irony: “The Poles do not know how to fight. But rebel! ”
    ON (essentially Russian lands and little Zemaitiya), until a certain time Orthodox, which in conjunction with Poland formed the Commonwealth.
    Once this state existed in all its splendor and grandeur. And the word “Litvin” just means that subsequently catholic Slav who put a lot of work into flourishing his dissolute gouging brother “Lyakh”. Litvin and dragged on a united power.
    As a matter of fact, the history of Poland for seven hundred years only serves to confirm a simple thesis: life in Poland is going well and some successes are achieved only if the state is ruled by foreigners, including Litvin Pilsudski ...
    1. Insurgent
      -11
      January 25 2013
      Well, in 1410 the battle of Grunwald stopped the Germans for 600 years, and the Ottomans stopped the Ottoman Turks and 60% of Belarusians want with Europe and not with Russia
      1. +4
        January 25 2013
        You in Germany know this better, of course. Belarusians did not forget to ask?
        1. Insurgent
          -7
          January 25 2013
          You ask the Belarusians about this, how they look at it, I can’t understand the history of Russia. Ask the Western Belarusians how they lived under the Panams and then, under Soviet rule, draw a conclusion
          1. +5
            January 25 2013
            Quote: Insurgent
            You ask the Belarusians about this, how they look at it, I can’t understand the history of Russia. Ask the Western Belarusians how they lived under the Panams and then, under Soviet rule, draw a conclusion


            ] Under the peace-loving hand of Pan Pilsudski, Belarusians and Ukrainians and Lithuanians lived well and happily. Okay, about the war against Russia in 1919. We’ll keep silent about the concentration camps and mass shootings, too, after all, this does not concern Belarusians, because they felt good. when a Polish landowner takes care of him from above, a small-town huckster plucks from below a speculator who is also not of Belarusian nationality, but he must all and at the same time manages to live well.

            In relation to the territories occupied in the East, Pilsudski pursued a tough policy of polonization. On June 17, 1934, on his order, a special concentration camp for political prisoners was opened in Bereza Kartuzskaya. Belarusian schools and cultural organizations were persecuted. Here are some quotes from the memorandum of the Bialystok voivode Ostashevsky to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Poland ("Problems of strengthening the Polish dominant position in Bialystok province"): “Sooner or later, the Belarusian population is subject to polonization. They are a passive mass, without a broad popular consciousness, without their own state traditions. Wishing to speed up this process, we must overcome the ancient Belarusian culture"(GAOO GO, f.6195, op.1, d.28, l.16). [/ Quote
            ]
            “In rural volosts where the Belarusian population lives, the material culture of the Poles must, of course, be raised to the highest level. This is one of the fundamental conditions of Polish expansion ... It is necessary to make a decision that any reserve of land or private parcels of Polish estates takes place subject to the transfer land in the hands of the Poles and, if possible, to the Belarusian elements, then only showing tendencies of polonization. The proletarianizing Belarusian element going from village to city is subject to faster assimilation there than in the countryside ... The point is not to reduce the land holdings of the Poles , because from the point of view of the country's policy, those in whose hands the land are superior "(GAOO GO, f.6195, op.1, d.28, l.4).

            "Vskhodnye kresy", as the Poles called the Belarusian lands, were just an agrarian and raw material appendage of their country, and also served as a source of cannon fodder. Moreover, the brave lords planned to use it both in the East and in the West long before 1939. In the minutes of the meeting No. 25 of 3.10.1935/XNUMX/XNUMX, the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Army noted, in particular: "The rule is - we develop the" East ", and after that we will try to solve the" West "within the framework of the" East "plan." (Plan "East" is a plan of war with the USSR, plan "West" is a plan of waging war with Germany.


            Full article here
          2. Avenger711
            +1
            January 25 2013
            Panov then guarded the guards so that the grateful Belarusians would not cut them.
          3. +3
            January 25 2013
            Greetings from western Belarusians, I live in g, Minsk (born in Brest region, Stolin district, g, David-Gorodok) as we lived with a pan-part of the houses on the street, Naberezhnaya is on the ground of my grandfather he had horses and a mill and a hefty farm, as we lived under the USSR — yes, part of the land was transferred to the city, the mill was closed but it lived very well our grandfathers always worked a lot very much, he traveled throughout Russia and worked as a carpenter and carpentry worker and he sold ice cream in the family was prosperity-ALWAYS
          4. Yankes
            -1
            January 25 2013
            here for these words of yours, Insurgent will subscribe for 10000000% ... in our village I have heard a lot of things about the 39th year and when the Red-bellied season was hard ..... it was terrible .. we hated them fiercely ..... 50 % of the population was evicted .... I live in the very western Belarus itself ..... whoever you ask, they hated the advice scary ..... they still spit .....
      2. sq
        +8
        January 25 2013
        About 60% of you, dear, a little bent. BUT, I think anyone would like to have a European standard of living at the prices of the times of the USSR.
        ABOUT the Battle of Grünwald. It was the troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania who made the main contribution to the victory in it. And if you look at the Polish authors, for example the same G. Senkiewicz "Crusaders" and others, describing the events of the times of the Republic of Poland, not a single major victory could do without Litvin. Poles bawl and puff more, but when it comes to something serious, they cannot do anything without calm and silent Litvin, they just talk about how to substitute their "dupa" more often.
        1. +5
          January 25 2013
          Henryk Sienkiewicz’s mother is Litvink, and his father is from the Tatars who settled in Poland in the old days. And one of my favorite writers, Stanislav Lem, is again not a Lyakh, but a Jew from Ukrainian Lviv (at one time he clearly expressed himself about the Hugo Prize winners and, accordingly, the level of English-language non-fiction literature of recent years).
          The trilogy of Henryk Sienkiewicz - “Fire and Sword”, “Flood”, “Pan Volodyevsky Poles treat with reverence and awe. For eighty years, generations of Polish schoolchildren have been going through it like ours, “War and Peace”.
          But there are no Poles among these Polish knights! The honor of Poland is defended by some foreigners: the Lithuanian warriors Kmitsits and Podbipyatka, the “Russian gentry”, as they call themselves, the glorious pan Volodyevsky and his comrades (Catholicized Ukrainian nobles). Among them, there is only one ethnic Pole, pan Zagloba, but this is a secondary character, for the background, glorious mainly by drunkenness and lies ...
          1. Insurgent
            -1
            January 25 2013
            Litvins this is the Belarusians This is Catherine called Belarusians there was no such people before
            1. Yankes
              0
              January 26 2013
              everything is correct .. I agree 100% .... our people are so pamyarkounny ..... a herd ..... it's good that I'm Russian .. and I'm proud of it .. !!!!
        2. Insurgent
          -3
          January 25 2013
          And I do not embellish the Poles, but they also contributed to the victory, and the Turks under the vein helped to defeat
          1. +4
            January 26 2013
            Quote: Insurgent
            And I do not embellish the Poles, but they also contributed to the victory, and the Turks under the vein helped to defeat

            I’ll add a little: They betrayed, and sold, and betrayed, and sold ....... (emphasize not necessary) wink
          2. 0
            January 26 2013
            Yeah! help not fight!
      3. vyatom
        +3
        January 25 2013
        You are wrong about the Belarusians. I have all the relatives from Belarus. Poles for them are the same enemies as the Germans. In the 39th, our army was greeted with bread and salt.
        1. Insurgent
          -1
          January 25 2013
          There is Belarus and not Belarus
          1. +1
            January 26 2013
            Quote: Insurgent
            There is Belarus and not Belarus

            Jews as always know best wink
            1. Insurgent
              -1
              January 26 2013
              Well, you know better to a Jew
              1. 0
                January 27 2013
                Insurgent, I, unlike you for other flags, I don’t tare, it is the flag of the country of my residence.
        2. Yankes
          0
          January 26 2013
          this is not quite so ...... maybe where it was but not in our woodland .... but a year later they hated fiercely ..... it is a pity that because of the red-bellied inhabitants, they projected hatred on all Russians ... ..
        3. 0
          January 27 2013
          “The Red Army Zbruch has crossed - the sun has shined to Galicians”
          From the declaration of the Ukrainian National Assembly of October 27, 1939 on the acceptance of Western Ukraine into the USSR and its inclusion in the Ukrainian SSR.
          The Ukrainian people in the former Polish state were doomed to extinction. His share was oppression, destruction and robbery ... Ukrainian peasants were deprived of land. Workers and office workers were not allowed to work in factories, factories and institutions. Ukrainians were not accepted into educational institutions. Eradicated the native Ukrainian language. They sought to destroy the Ukrainian culture. All this repeatedly caused a storm of protest, peasant uprisings against the colonial regime of the ruling circles of Panski Poland.
          But the time of oppression and lawlessness has ended. By the will of the entire multinational Soviet people, by decree of the Soviet government, the Red Army freed forever the people of Western Ukraine from the power of Polish landowners and capitalists ...

          The Ukrainian National Assembly, being an expression of the unbending will and aspirations of the people of Western Ukraine, decides:
          To ask the Supreme Council of the USSR to accept Western Ukraine into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, to include Western Ukraine in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in order to reunite the Ukrainian people in a single state, to put an end to the centuries-old disunity of the Ukrainian people.
          Long live free Ukraine!
          The biggest "smut" for the Red Army is the protection of captured Polish gendarmes and police from the lynching of the local population.
      4. +2
        January 25 2013
        In the center of the troops of the Poles at the Battle of Grunwald, two Smolensk regiments stood to death.
        And with regard to the Poles, there is such a pattern: if Russia is doing well, then the Poles sit on "the priest evenly", and if Russia has any problems, then the "Poles" bark and try to bite the leg.
        1. sq
          +2
          January 25 2013
          Dear, where did the third Smolensk regiment go?
          in those days, Smolensk could really put up one banner, and the tale of the three Smolensk regiments appeared much later. This has already been repeatedly understood in historical literature, but once a launched stamp is repeated again and again.
          1. Insurgent
            -3
            January 25 2013
            Smolyans are the same Litvinov
            1. Yankes
              0
              January 26 2013
              I agree .. I used to think that this is a purely Russian city .. but this is not so ....
            2. 0
              January 26 2013
              Yes, you have only one Litvin throughout Russia
      5. Yankes
        0
        January 25 2013
        it’s not .... everyone understands that we can’t live without Russia .. we just die of hunger and cold ... we are all brothers ..... Poles are walking nonsense ..... we don’t like them here. .. but everyone is jealous of their beautiful life .......
      6. +1
        January 26 2013
        another pshek got out! at least visit Belarus, and then talk about 60% of the warrior
  4. +6
    January 25 2013
    Poland in the 1860s was instigated by France, England, Germany. As in our time, who incited swamp hamsters to rebellion in Russia? Again the same faces. In the 80s, when talking with his grandfather about the war, he spoke negatively about the Poles, who surrendered him when he escaped from a concentration camp. Although the German found Russian prisoners in the basement, he fed them for a week. I look at the Poles this is not an isolated case, but the norm, Betray, forgiveness, it is always welcome.
    1. sq
      +6
      January 25 2013
      Let no normal people be told offense, but that the Poles, that the Balts are just German underserved .... ki, the descendants of that crusader trash, the dregs of Europe with the corresponding mentality.
    2. vyatom
      0
      January 25 2013
      Swamp hamsters to tear out nostrils, flog with bats - and to Siberia in shackles. no support and help for pshekam - let the creatures suck
  5. Sharas
    0
    January 25 2013
    It seems like a normal site about weapons to read, but as soon as some kind of rebellion against Russia ... order, delirium, lies, ..., pah! Even something to refute such a lie below my dignity! And how much can be written in articles and on the forum Belarusians, Belarus. What is this? Belarus and Belarus, and for example, I’m not writing the RSFSR!
  6. Sharas
    +4
    January 25 2013
    It seems like a normal site about weapons to read, etc., but as soon as some kind of rebellion against Russia ... order, nonsense, lies, ..., pah! To deny such a lie below my dignity! And how much can be written in articles and on the forum Belarusians, Belarus. What is it, who are they? Belarus and Belarus, we are, no other! For example, I’m not writing the RSFSR! Let us respect everyone, not just ourselves.
    1. 0
      January 25 2013
      below my dignity - here's how? I think in such cases, yours - pah. should fly at you, for idle talk. And the point here is not your dignity, but the facts that you do not have. Belarus and Belarus we - that is, Belarus and Belarus are now both disrespectful and insulting? It remains only to laugh, excuse me.
    2. sq
      +1
      January 25 2013
      Look in context. If they write according to the old Soviet habit, thoughtlessness or inveterate illiteracy - this is forgivable, but if there is a clear desire to insult - you must answer, culturally, politely and thoroughly, by citing references. The overwhelming majority on this site are very decent people who, if they blurt out something without thinking, it is imperative to apologize, but sometimes the stearners and outright boors are combed.
      LIVE BELARUS !!!
      1. -1
        January 25 2013
        write according to the old Soviet habit, thoughtlessness or inveterate illiteracy - Well, here you are a comedian, how can one write with inveterate illiteracy? blurt out something without thinking “What are you talking about here?”
    3. +10
      January 25 2013
      how much can be written in articles and on the forum Belarusians, Belarus. What is it, who are they? Belarus and Belarus, we have no other

      Dear Shara, do not forget that you are on a Russian site. In Belarus you can call yourself what you like. And on the Russian site, for example, it surprises me when they write - Moldova. Moldova can do for Moldavians, Kyrgyzstan for Kyrgyzstan, and Belarus for Belarusians. But you have it there, on your land. And for me it is Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Belarus. Do not climb into someone else’s monastery with your charter. Do not teach us what we need to call this or that state and its inhabitants, taking into account the peculiarities of OUR language.
      As for the article, it is very similar to the current position of our leadership in the Caucasus. The same seduction of finances, turning a blind eye to hooliganism, violence, banditry and terror. And as a result, the chaos of the Caucasians is already in our, Russian, cities. Ultimately, in full accordance with the law on the transfer of quantity into quality, there will be an explosion, which we actually see from time to time hi .
      But in general, the author is a plus.
      1. +2
        January 25 2013
        Quote: Shkodnik65
        Moldova can do for Moldavians, Kyrgyzstan for Kyrgyzstan, and Belarus for Belarusians. But you have it there, on your land. And for me it is Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Belarus. Do not climb into someone else’s monastery with your charter. Do not teach us what we need to call this or that state and its inhabitants, taking into account the peculiarities of OUR language.

        A very true remark, I subscribe to every word. And yet, I noticed a peculiarity in myself: when I read about how our tails pressed our Poles in the old days, the mood rises.
        1. Insurgent
          -2
          January 25 2013
          There is a charter. It says RB Belarus. We don’t write a race, but Russia
          1. Yankes
            0
            January 26 2013
            Bravo! Bravo! Bravo!
      2. Insurgent
        0
        January 25 2013
        Who cares who owns the site, even Putin can not belly tell Belarus
      3. sq
        +1
        January 25 2013
        Do not forget that you are on a Russian site. In Belarus you can call yourself what you like. And on the Russian site, for example, it surprises me when they write - Moldova. Moldova can do for Moldavians, Kyrgyzstan for Kyrgyzstan, and Belarus for Belarusians. But you have it there, on your land. And for me it is Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Belarus. Do not climb into someone else’s monastery with your charter. Do not teach us what we need to call this or that state and its inhabitants, taking into account the peculiarities of OUR language.

        but this is rudeness. then do not be offended if you are called not a Russian, but a Muscovite or mo ... rocks ... unwashed. and in general it looks like a children's inferiority complex: "do not go to my sandbox"
        1. 0
          January 27 2013
          Quote: kvm
          But this is rudeness. do not be offended then if you are called not Russian, but Muscovite or mo ... rocks ... unwashed

          We are Russians and wash themselves enough times to stay clean.
    4. vyatom
      +2
      January 25 2013
      I myself am a Belarusian, although I was born and raised in Russia.
      Belarus or Belarus makes no difference - cheap show-offs. And I remind you that as a separate and independent ethnic group, Belarusians formed only after the October Revolution and only as part of the USSR.
      1. Yankes
        0
        January 26 2013
        and Vilno, by the way, ours .. we still need to raise this issue ....
  7. jury08
    -4
    January 25 2013
    vyatom -You are not Belarusian and not even Belarus! -if you write this!
    Quote: Kalinovsky fought for the restoration of the Commonwealth and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, therefore he has a very distant relation to the heroism of the Belarusian people proper. your freedom! And not only the Belarusian gentry renamed by you to the Polish one, but also the common people-Russian troops should remember the Kasiners well! The call to the people sounded - "For our and your freedom"
    No wonder that in the USSR Kastus was revered as a hero!
    1. +2
      January 25 2013
      And not only the Belarusian gentry renamed by you into Polish but also ordinary people - Interestingly, it’s not funny for you to write this yourself, just reading your comment, it seems as if you are a participant in those events and you know exactly what happened in fact, in this case sir, you should be more than 150 years old, you are a long-liver, however.
    2. 0
      January 25 2013
      jury08 "Well, not a fig for myself Kastus (Lithuanian-Belarusian) has nothing to do with the Belarusian people"
      Belarusians-Litvin-guys You seem to be confused. Who you are? Who are you with? Where are you? You already decide, and then show us your misunderstandings. The gentry is damn Belarusian hehe, and even go Orthodox hehe. Cosigners are Belarusian, however! We have nothing to remember this nonsense! You have not come up with proto-Belarusians there yet? Type of ancient ukrov?
      1. sq
        +1
        January 25 2013
        Themselves are confused - themselves and unravel. The official story is very falsified. You still remember the history of the BSSR in Abecedarsky (there was such an author of the school textbook in the 80s), so there in general the history of Belarusian lands began from the 20th century. And now we are starting to find out that the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, RUSSIAN and Zhamoitsky was very advanced at the time.
        And to you, since you are so painfully sensitive to Belarusian, a couple of questions. Why can’t they find the battlefield on the Kulikovo field? Why was Moscow in 1382 led by a little-known Litvin, and not Prince Dmitry?
        1. Yankes
          0
          January 26 2013
          you tell the truth about the defense of Moscow .. there finally your disgrace was complete .... the prince in horror ate..al in an unknown direction such as for help ... laughing and the people got drunk so much that they couldn’t defend .... in short, drunkenly surrendered to Moscow drunk .. shame cattle ....
        2. +1
          January 26 2013
          kvm "We got confused ourselves - we ourselves will unravel."
          It is unlikely!!!
          kvm "Why can't they find the place of the battle on the Kulikovo field?"
          Are you in doubt? Tady counter question how many have found evidence of say the battle of Agincourt?
          kvm "Why was the defense of Moscow in 1382 led by a little-known Litvin, and not Prince Dmitry?"
          And who is this garnish Lithuanian guy? Hehe Sabonis? I see you are already screaming from the name Litvin. Will you be renamed in your passport? Hehe ...
          1. sq
            0
            January 26 2013
            Communicate with you that urinate against the wind.
            There is a good saying: "When you argue with a smart one, you become smarter, When you argue with a fool, you sink to his level." Therefore, I close the topic.
    3. Yankes
      0
      January 26 2013
      Who are Belarusians ?? aa ??? I have never heard of them ... until the age of 21 .... an artificial state .... and so it’s a whole bunch of Pamyarkoy shkvarachnikikou ... and alkocharoshnikau wa headed by a half-witted ... com ...
      1. +1
        January 26 2013
        Quote: Yankes

        Who are Belarusians ?? aa ??? I have never heard of them ... until the age of 21 .... an artificial state .... and so it’s a whole bunch of Pamyarkoy shkvarachnikikou ... and alkocharoshnikau wa headed by a half-witted ... com ...

        Yankes, tomorrow we will reduce the dose. THE DOCTOR WRITTEN.
  8. jury08
    -1
    January 25 2013
    Freedom is an eternal concept !!!
    And specifically what? Did Alexander Petrovich make you so amused?
    1. +2
      January 25 2013
      Are you orthodox
      1. +2
        January 25 2013
        Alexander Petrovich
        "Are you Orthodox?"
        Of course not. Looks like he’s harnessing for psheks. Their gentry was mostly Polish. More precisely, it’s blown over. Faith has been sold for a long time. Bent your Polish masters then, bend now. Although you will be enough dad.
        1. Insurgent
          -5
          January 25 2013
          You dig and drip deeper Polotsk. The principality of Kiev won over Polotsk not at the behest of Belarusians. There were a lot of similarities with the Poles and how history would go
          1. 0
            January 26 2013
            And if you drip even deeper, it turns out that the Poles and Russians have common roots. Let's dig them to the base already.
          2. 0
            January 26 2013
            Insurgent "and how the story would go"
            How would it go, how would history ...
        2. -1
          January 26 2013
          Simply, the so-called "Lithuanians" are usually Catholics. Descendants of either the Poles or the polarized population, mostly in the west of Belarus. There is nothing to be surprised at.
          1. -1
            January 26 2013
            Alexander Petrovich
            "Simply, the so-called" Litvins ", usually Catholics. Descendants of either Poles or the militia population, mostly in the west of Belarus."
            Hence their position. We are the type of Litvin, the most Litvinistic of the Litviniest Litvin !!! The Poles are closer and dearer to these friends, that’s what they think up nonsense. Just disown from the Russian name. And everything is simple - you guys have a great historical choice. And then and now. Or under the name of the Litvons to Poland. Or being Belarusians in a single state with Russia.
  9. jury08
    +3
    January 26 2013
    I’m Orthodox, and for me the Belarusian Catholic or the Orthodox doesn’t matter, he’s my brother, and we don’t have to tear us apart by faith, we Belarusians are one nation that wants to live their own mind !!!
    1. -2
      January 26 2013
      God forbid. no one is tearing you apart, you say, Belarusians are one nation, isn’t it? It turns out we are all Slavs. a single nation, but historically it happened that religions and other historical events divided us.
  10. +4
    January 27 2013
    My wife’s great-grandfather was discovered by an 7-year-old crying boy near a road in Poland by Russian soldiers at the end of the Polish uprising in 1831. The soldiers took pity on the orphan and took him with them to Russia. The boy grew up, received secondary education and was subsequently accepted for public service in St. Petersburg, rose to the rank of official 9, which gave personal nobility. His son served in the Russian army, fought in the Russian-Japanese staff captain, lost his eye in battle. The grandson, a former cadet, 15-years old in 1919, joined the Red Army, fought with Yudenich, after the civilian became a military man. In 1937 he was repressed, in 1939 he was released, reinstated in the military rank and in the party. In the Second World War he was an officer in the headquarters of the Air Defense Army, which defended Leningrad, steadfastly fought and survived the blockade, after the war - deputy. Commander of the Air Defense Army. In Khrushchev's time, he categorically refused to remove from the desktop a small portrait of Stalin. Those. the surrounding social environment and upbringing made these Poles by origin the real patriots of the Russian Motherland, they never mentioned Poland, they considered themselves real Russians.
    Thus, the views of man, his life position are completely dependent on the human environment, the society that raised him. From history: in the Middle Ages, the Turks forcibly took away young boys in the Caucasus (in Circassia, Georgia) and raised them in their midst, making them Janissaries, Mamluks and other Bashibuzukes, who became their most convinced Islamists, furious and desperate warriors. And no one could ever convince them with words. This is a reverse example of upbringing and environmental impact.
    Polonization and catholicization were not in vain for a part of the Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples.
  11. 0
    25 May 2015
    The Poles have always sought, achieved, and in the end have achieved what they wanted. Naturally, in these numerous uprisings, wars, battles they made mistakes and blunders. However, we must not forget that the Poles fought against very strong opponents such as Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary. And today, where are our former enemies? They disappeared from the face of the earth, but Poland remained.

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