“ARM-28 has become a more formidable force”: a new version of the ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft guns has been created in Poland

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“ARM-28 has become a more formidable force”: a new version of the ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft guns has been created in Poland

Illustrative photo


The Polish company WB Group has completed the next stage of modernization of the ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun; the newly created modification received the designation ARM-28.



The system has become a more formidable force when used against drones, helicopters and other air targets

- says MilitaryLeak.

As explained, high-intensity conflict in Europe has made NATO allies aware of how much of a threat small air assets pose. This category of threats includes cruise missiles, kamikaze UAVs and glide bombs.

The ARM-28 upgrade package is modular, which allows you to easily and quickly integrate new functional blocks with an outdated system, and also simplifies the repair of anti-aircraft guns.

ARM-28 electric drives with digital control allow you to accurately and quickly move the line of sight. The operator panel also makes it possible to determine “dead” zones in which the target is out of reach of fire. The system can target a threat manually, semi-automatically, or automatically using an OMS.


Project ARM-28


The ARM-28 package includes a modern optical-electronic sight, which allows the use of outdated OFZT and BZT projectiles, as well as modern APDS-T (sub-caliber) ammunition. As a result of modernization, the number of personnel required to maintain the system was also reduced (from 5 to 4 people).

The ARM-28 upgrade package includes:

electric drives for determining azimuth and location;
control panel and operator joystick;
sensors for measuring rotation and height;
the 2C27 sight was replaced with an electronic one;
electric drive control unit;
autonomous power supply.
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  1. -3
    4 January 2024 23: 22
    as well as modern APDS-T (sub-caliber) ammunition

    Very relevant against UAVs good drinks wassat
    How big a threat do small aircraft pose?
    1. -5
      4 January 2024 23: 35
      Quote from Enceladus
      as well as modern APDS-T (sub-caliber) ammunition

      Very relevant against UAVs good drinks wassat
      How big a threat do small aircraft pose?

      Why not? It is difficult to fit explosive shells into such a small caliber. But sub-caliber ones are easy. Contact fuses are not needed against UAVs, because the design of the UAV is very fragile. And sub-caliber shells increase the radius of destruction of the target, because they shoot further due to the greater muzzle velocity
      1. +5
        4 January 2024 23: 39
        But it’s okay that the sub-caliber does not imply a steel core, but all sorts of carbides, etc., which is a rather expensive resource, especially for such a rapid-firing weapon... in one salvo it fires more than a tank scrap weighs. If these are just steel blanks, then yes... but in the end what’s the point? It will not be able to work particularly well against the same ground targets of infantry fighting vehicles/armored personnel carriers. At least from the frontal projection and even from the heading angle.

        Helicopters and other aerial targets? Which ones? Helicopters will never approach such a range, and against “others” the range and altitude reach will not be enough.
        1. +1
          4 January 2024 23: 48
          Quote from Enceladus
          But it’s okay that the sub-caliber does not imply a steel core, but all sorts of carbides, etc., which is a rather expensive resource, especially for such a rapid-firing weapon... in one salvo it fires more than a tank scrap weighs. If these are just steel blanks, then yes... but in the end what’s the point? It will not be able to work particularly well against the same ground targets of infantry fighting vehicles/armored personnel carriers.

          Where did you get this from? Did you come up with it yourself?
          Sub-caliber cartridges may well be made of ordinary steel, such as cartridges for the PGK machine gun or, for example, lightweight cartridges for the Steer 2000 rifle.
          1. +3
            4 January 2024 23: 58
            The problem with steel is its low density and, accordingly, mass. That’s why tungsten/depleted uranium is used because the density is 2,5 times higher, because Due to the sub-caliber, the volume does not allow the steel to store the required amount of kinetic energy. There, only speed decides - but, as a consequence, high wear (damage to the barrel and rifling) due to the use of nitroglycerin fast-firing powders, whose combustion temperature is 1,2-1,5 times higher. And uranium also has the property of ablation (ablation cutting, sometimes called self-sharpening) + pyrophoricity of fragments. For UAVs made of plastic, such power is not needed. Yes, steel sub-calibers make sense. But sometimes even with an AK it’s difficult to shoot down a hovering drone at a distance of 50m because the target is very low contrast. And there’s no need to talk about the flying one
            1. +2
              5 January 2024 00: 05
              Quote from Enceladus
              The problem with steel is its low density and, accordingly, mass. That’s why tungsten/depleted uranium is used because the density is 2,5 times higher, because Due to the sub-caliber, the volume does not allow the steel to store the required amount of kinetic energy. There, only speed decides - but, as a consequence, high wear (damage to the barrel and rifling) due to the use of nitroglycerin fast-firing powders, whose combustion temperature is 1,2-1,5 times higher. And uranium also has the property of ablation (ablation cutting, sometimes called self-sharpening) + pyrophoricity of fragments. For UAVs made of plastic, such power is not needed. Yes, steel sub-calibers make sense. But sometimes even with an AK it’s difficult to shoot down a hovering drone at a distance of 50m because the target is very low contrast. And there’s no need to talk about the flying one

              Hmm, don’t confuse the projectile/core material and its design. Tungsten shells may well be caliber, such as a bullet from the BS-41 cartridge from a PTRD. Or there may also be sub-caliber shells made of steel, like a lightweight cartridge for the Shtaer 2000 (Both are actually anti-tank rifles).
              A priori, sub-caliber projectiles have better flatness than caliber projectiles made from similar materials. And flatness is important for air defense.
              1. 0
                5 January 2024 00: 09
                Why am I arguing? There is a twofold situation here: due to lower mass and higher speed, steel ones lose this same speed/energy faster and at long ranges do not have such penetration. Although for UAVs this does not matter. As against a UAV, it is obvious that the task is not to penetrate, but to hit. Against ground targets - more likely no than yes
                1. +2
                  5 January 2024 00: 29
                  Quote from Enceladus
                  Why am I arguing? There is a twofold situation here: due to lower mass and higher speed, steel ones lose this same speed/energy faster and at long ranges do not have such penetration. Although for UAVs this does not matter. As against a UAV, it is obvious that the task is not to penetrate, but to hit. Against ground targets - more likely no than yes

                  Not much wrong. The main characteristic that allows the projectile to maintain speed longer is the lateral load, i.e. the mass of the projectile per its cross section. Accordingly, there are two ways to increase this lateral load: heavier material and greater elongation. Either we make elongated shells or take tungsten. You can do both, then everything will be fine, except for the price.
                  Well, as opposed to ground targets, the ZU-23 is still an anti-aircraft installation and should not fight against ground equipment.
                  Nevertheless, the Swiss have long offered sub-caliber shells for the ZU-23 with armor penetration up to 40mm of homogeneous armor along the normal. Those. the turret forehead and lower armor part of the BMP-1/2 and BTR-80/82A will be sewn without any problems. The BMP-3 is very debatable, but here we need to look at full-scale tests. The Poles are probably worse, but the approximate level of armor penetration is clear.
                  1. 0
                    5 January 2024 00: 33
                    So that’s exactly what it’s used for, like shilka or tunguska. They were actively used in the mountains against the Mujahideen. Not only will it hurt infantry and infantry fighting vehicles, but it won’t penetrate a tank either, but it will put it out of action without even penetrating.
                    1. +1
                      5 January 2024 00: 55
                      Quote from Enceladus
                      So that’s exactly what it’s used for, like shilka or tunguska. They were actively used in the mountains against the Mujahideen. Not only will it hurt infantry and infantry fighting vehicles, but it won’t penetrate a tank either, but it will put it out of action without even penetrating.

                      What is used and what should be used are two very different things. Shilka and especially Tunguska are redundant for this, and they are used against infantry only because of the shortcomings of standard infantry fighting vehicles/armored personnel carriers. To be fair, the ZU-23 did have a “normal” anti-personnel version in the form of the Bulgarian BMP-23, which had a single-barrel 2A14 variant in the turret.
                2. 0
                  5 January 2024 07: 36
                  As against a UAV, it is obvious that the task is not to penetrate, but to hit.

                  If the goal is simply to hit, then you need to increase the transverse area of ​​the projectile due to the folding tail, and the tail should be as long as possible away from the projectile - so that in total it looks like an anchor. But no one does this (not even the “Royal Wolves”), which means no one needs it, apparently it’s cheaper to continue trying to hit a small target with small shells.
          2. 0
            5 January 2024 09: 33
            Quote from Escariot
            Sub-caliber cartridges may well be made of ordinary steel

            hi
            We are talking about 23x152 z pociskiem APDS-T ammunition, from the Polish manufacturer MESKO S.A.
            There is little information, the manufacturer does not have a translation in English.
        2. 0
          4 January 2024 23: 57
          Here is the video published on Military Chronicle today.
          https://ok.ru/video/6637288295040
          It does not ambiguously indicate that such installations have goals.
          And before that, about a year ago, the Lancet was shot down from such a launcher.
          1. 0
            5 January 2024 11: 24
            Quote: Sergey Alexandrovich
            About a year ago, the Lancet was shot down from such a launcher.

            The first mentions of this system date back to 2018
      2. +1
        4 January 2024 23: 46
        Quote from Escariot
        Why not? It is difficult to fit explosive shells into such a small caliber.

        And the small caliber will not allow the installation to be placed far from the LBS.
        and +- 1.5-2KM from the LBS is quite enough to cover not just 152mm artillery, but banal 82mm mortars.
        with such characteristics, a highly mobile complex, and not a towed thing, has the right to live (and even then not for very long).
        1. -3
          4 January 2024 23: 50
          Quote from: topol717
          Quote from Escariot
          Why not? It is difficult to fit explosive shells into such a small caliber.

          And the small caliber will not allow the installation to be placed far from the LBS.
          and +- 1.5-2KM from the LBS is quite enough to cover not just 152mm artillery, but banal 82mm mortars.
          with such characteristics, a highly mobile complex, and not a towed thing, has the right to live (and even then not for very long).

          What does LBS have to do with it? What, there is no need for air defense in the rear?
        2. 0
          5 January 2024 00: 10
          And the ZU-23-2 installation itself was originally intended to be placed far from the combat line. It is for the protection of headquarters and airfields. About the same as the 57 mm S-60.
          1. +2
            5 January 2024 00: 19
            Quote: Sergey Alexandrovich
            57 mm S-60

            WOW! Shot from it.... Don’t stand next to the barrel.... it’ll blow away good
            Loud tinny.... even with my headphones in, my ears were ringing for a couple of hours after it. Brutal thing! But loading with a cassette is a separate kind of perversion laughing I hope there is no such attraction in hell am drinks laughing lol
        3. The comment was deleted.
      3. +1
        5 January 2024 02: 53
        A sub-caliber projectile is, by definition, thinner, which means it will cause less damage. And how much will the radius increase there?
  2. +1
    4 January 2024 23: 23
    oh how they would have laughed two years ago at this “improvement” laughing
    1. 0
      5 January 2024 07: 45
      Nowadays they don’t laugh anymore (for some reason), but they still spit arrogantly and disdainfully towards the psheks, look at the branch. hi
  3. -2
    4 January 2024 23: 24
    The system has become a more formidable force when used against drones, helicopters and other aerial targets

    - says MilitaryLeak.
    The Poles cannot create anything of their own
    1. +4
      4 January 2024 23: 37
      Quote: oppozite28
      The Poles cannot create anything of their own

      And when was Poland a great weapons power? I'm not a gunsmith historian, so I don't remember. Maybe the experts know?
      And attaching a spinning reel to the spinning rod instead of a “drum” and attaching a new spinner - this does not require an outstanding mind.
      1. +2
        4 January 2024 23: 57
        Quote: Zoldat_A
        Quote: oppozite28
        The Poles cannot create anything of their own

        And when was Poland a great weapons power? I'm not a gunsmith historian, so I don't remember. Maybe the experts know?
        And attaching a spinning reel to the spinning rod instead of a “drum” and attaching a new spinner - this does not require an outstanding mind.

        You just have a bad idea about weapons development. There are very few revolutionary solutions in this matter, basically it is precisely “attaching a spinning reel to the spinning rod instead of a drum” or adding it locally using a file.
      2. -2
        5 January 2024 00: 06
        And attaching a spinning reel to the spinning rod instead of a “drum” and attaching a new spinner - this does not require an outstanding mind.
        The Poles are not far from the gypsies. You can hear their camp a mile away request
    2. +3
      5 January 2024 00: 14
      Polish 60mm mortar on the front line is an unpleasant thing
      1. +1
        5 January 2024 00: 18
        Even as a trophy?
        1. +1
          5 January 2024 00: 27
          Everything will do on the farm. But as a weapon, it is unpleasant because the arrival is heard only at the last moment. As I understand it, they used them as wanderers.
          1. 0
            5 January 2024 00: 40
            But to prevent the Ukrainians from being used as wandering artillery reconnaissance, as well as UAVs
            1. 0
              5 January 2024 00: 46
              The UAV is working, until the artillery wakes up, they have time to escape. There were no jokes directed at the artillerymen. It got boring. “The boys did a good job, accurate, but they already fried the kebabs and left a long time ago.” There were jokes that artillery does not fire blanks by chance
              1. -2
                5 January 2024 01: 13
                It got boring. “The boys did a good job, accurate, but they already fried the kebabs and left a long time ago.” There were jokes that artillery does not fire blanks by chance
                They fried it correctly and left, which means the boys are full and don’t need further accompaniment. From the MLRS on duty, a package of mezim to help along the radius of work so that with a quality guarantee from the veterinary and sanitary service.
      2. +3
        5 January 2024 00: 27
        Polish 60mm mortar on the front line is an unpleasant thing
        It is necessary to fight Polish mortars in warehouses with the help of the Aerospace Forces. Wholesale is desirable
        1. +2
          5 January 2024 00: 32
          Yes, they have a lot of things that need to be destroyed in warehouses, but everything is not destroyed, everyone is waiting for something. Maybe we can gather here at VO and write a petition to them?
        2. 0
          5 January 2024 00: 32
          Yes, they have a lot of things that need to be destroyed in warehouses, but everything is not destroyed, everyone is waiting for something. Maybe we can gather here at VO and write a petition to them?
          1. 0
            5 January 2024 00: 43
            Maybe we can gather here at VO and write a petition to them?
            They wrote it a long time ago in the Bible and the Koran. About everything ...
  4. -1
    4 January 2024 23: 44
    I think 57-2 with a radar would be better.
    And then add a roof (otherwise the drones will drop a grenade there), and think about the task of detonation via radio, timer, or something else, and wow.
    In addition, it can knock on a tank if the armor-piercing ones remain. Strengthen the nibble too.
    1. +3
      5 January 2024 00: 07
      Quote: pettabyte
      I think 57-2 with a radar would be better.
      And then add a roof (otherwise the drones will drop a grenade there)

      It would also be nice to have a solid armored cap to protect the crew and it would be very convenient to install. on caterpillar tracks for autonomy of movement.
      Yes... Still, a quadruple thing will probably be much more effective than a twin one.

      True, the crew can then be renamed the crew... feel
      1. +5
        5 January 2024 00: 47
        Probably something like this? ))
        1. +1
          5 January 2024 00: 52
          Quote: Chief Officer Lom
          Probably something like this? ))

          Well... I was just daydreaming about how else to modernize the ZU-23-2, but it turns out that everything has already been invented a long time ago... crying
          1. +2
            5 January 2024 00: 58
            I’m sure you were making fun of the dreamers by describing Shilka one-on-one))
            1. +1
              5 January 2024 06: 17
              Quote: Chief Officer Lom
              I’m sure you were making fun of the dreamers by describing Shilka one-on-one))

              I remember “Shilka” with special warmth. Especially the way it lifts up the trunks almost vertically - an irreplaceable thing in the mountains.

              It’s also nice to meet someone at VO who knows what irony is. My way of expressing myself often slips into sarcasm and irony, and people often take it too literally and seriously. Hence the misunderstanding, but it’s too late for me to change myself.
          2. +3
            5 January 2024 01: 00
            Yes, we also touched on the topic above. The Mujahideen were no less afraid of Shilka than the Buratos good
      2. +2
        5 January 2024 16: 35
        Quote: Zoldat_A
        It would also be nice to have a solid armored cap to protect the crew and it would be very convenient to install. on caterpillar tracks for autonomy of movement.
        Yes... Still, a quadruple thing will probably be much more effective than a twin one.

        Yeah, Shilka rules.

        Yenisei too.
        But there didn’t seem to be anything like this with the 57mm (with radar, in the sense that the ZSU-57-2 is a bit old).
        So 57mm is already a good high explosive, it can destroy a target with shrapnel.
  5. +2
    5 January 2024 00: 02
    Overall, a very significant upgrade that seriously increases the capabilities of the anti-aircraft gun.
    Moreover, a modular principle has been implemented during modernization.
    1. 0
      5 January 2024 02: 52
      Well, if we assume that the usefulness of it in modern war is near-zero, but it has become ten times higher, but still near-zero. How many of these do you need to put around the warehouse to protect yourself from suicide bombers? And even then, in a dive, he might get hit several times, but he will still do things.
      1. 0
        5 January 2024 16: 39
        Quote from alexoff
        near-zero

        It seems they can be placed around the protected target and controlled according to the mod (there was some kind of system with motorized guidance and synchronization.
        In this version, “because they simply already ARE” may be quite useful).
        Well, ambushes for helicopters/armored personnel carriers. More solid than a machine gun.
        1. +1
          5 January 2024 17: 23
          What kind of goal should this be? A lonely building standing in the middle of the desert, the entrance to an underground bunker? How about raising the zushki higher on pedestals? Somewhere in the rear? Well, because 50 km from the front they will cover him with some kind of MLRS. And this is only from geraniums; a flying caliber will most likely reach the last 500 meters even in fire and destroy everything, and the second one will break it.
          Quote: pettabyte
          Well, ambushes for helicopters/armored personnel carriers. More solid than a machine gun.


          With such a bandura, rushing to set up ambushes is more likely to go to certain death, although for the dry landers this is probably a topic, they will write down a hundred of their groups as missing in action, and the one hundred and first will take bright shots, already victorious.

          In general, it seems to me that most of these installations in modern warfare will, at best, stand idle, and at worst, create a false sense of security.
          1. 0
            5 January 2024 20: 20
            Quote from alexoff
            What kind of goal should this be?

            But here only the military base/port/airfield is being expanded. request

            Somewhere in the rear?

            Yes. Plus, you can paint the grass instead of the grass, and that’s it.

            Quote from alexoff
            With such a bandura, going to set up ambushes is more likely to go to certain death

            Well, an ambush, like just ZUshki in the forest (waiting for helicopters/bayraktars), may work for layered defense on the border. But this is more likely in our case and not in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Kind of like a roadblock.


            Quote from alexoff
            stand idle

            Apparently yes (if there is no MTLB to which they can be welded, everything is welded to it).

            Quote from alexoff
            will create a false sense of security

            So yes, 2 x 23mm, a solid thing, it can create something.
            But if you make sure that a dozen 3 ZUs are aimed at the target that the radar sees, it could be interesting against missiles.
            1. +1
              5 January 2024 21: 41
              Quote: pettabyte
              But here only the military base/port/airfield is being expanded.

              An airport or port should probably be blocked off with several dozen of these things. And then the cassette arrives and what’s the point? If you still buy a radar for guidance, then maybe it’s better to just get a shell, a Thor, or, at worst, put an arrow-10?
              Quote: pettabyte
              Well, an ambush, like just ZUshki in the forest (waiting for helicopters/bayraktars), may work for layered defense on the border. But this is more likely in our case and not in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Kind of like a roadblock.

              I can hardly imagine shooting from the forest; there are only trees further than 30-50 meters. Well, if it’s on the border of a forest, then it’s a layered defense and some exorbitant amount of money and servants for all of this.
              Quote: pettabyte
              if there is no MTLB to which they can be welded, everything is welded to it

              Well, since there is no money for an infantry fighting vehicle...
              Quote: pettabyte
              But if you make sure that a dozen 3 ZUs are aimed at the target that the radar sees, it could be interesting against missiles.

              And here the questions of price begin. There is a video of indiscriminate fire from dry landweeds at geraniums; it seems to me that thousands, if not tens of thousands of shells fly off in a minute. And so one shell costs, well, maybe a stolnik, but such firing, with no result, can already cost quite a lot of money and it’s easier, cheaper and more efficient to send something controllable. Otherwise, they saved a lot of old missiles on mechanization and computerization, spent a lot of shells, but there was little use, the missiles were retrained to dive from a height of a kilometer and that’s it.

              It seems to me that it would be better to come up with grapeshot shells for 30 mm cannons, and teach BMP-armored personnel carriers to automatically fire at approaching drones. At the same time, on occasion, the fighters will be able to shoot ducks for dinner. And to revive the zushki, which were outdated in Vietnam, let the Poles spend money on it.
  6. 0
    5 January 2024 00: 03
    Overall, a very significant upgrade that seriously increases the capabilities of the anti-aircraft gun.
    Moreover, the modular principle for improvement has been implemented.
  7. +1
    5 January 2024 00: 08
    Well, this is a suitable thing for working in an object air defense system to counter the same UAVs such as shahedogerans. If target designation for the drives also comes from a radar or an aiming station with a thermal imaging channel, then the leather ones will only need to have time to bring the ammunition and load it.
  8. -1
    5 January 2024 00: 33
    Quote: Zoldat_A

    This does not require an outstanding mind.


    Just like hanging a missile from an OTRK from an aircraft and calling it a hypersonic weapon “having no analogues.”
  9. 0
    5 January 2024 01: 04
    Quote: Sergey Alexandrovich
    Overall, a very significant upgrade that seriously increases the capabilities of the anti-aircraft gun.
    Moreover, the modular principle for improvement has been implemented.

    The modular principle makes the difference. And if you cut down the multi-caliber... The loot will flow like a river.
  10. +2
    5 January 2024 01: 34
    The Poles did what we should have done long ago.
  11. -2
    5 January 2024 03: 31
    I seriously doubt that this Polish exhaust is worth the resources spent on it,
    expenses for rubles, and winnings for pennies
  12. 0
    5 January 2024 09: 31
    This category of threats includes cruise missiles, kamikaze UAVs and glide bombs.
    belay Mmmyyyyy. To shoot down a bomb from an anti-aircraft gun, you need to be a pshek. request feel
  13. 0
    5 January 2024 10: 56
    What about an autonomous energy source - a generator? Will he rattle constantly?
    1. 0
      5 January 2024 16: 17
      I think that a modern car battery will fully ensure the operation of the charger. If you take lithium, then even more so.
  14. 0
    5 January 2024 12: 55
    The ZUshka is a completely outdated weapon, no... it will certainly kill, and will find its niche in the war. But it’s outdated, no matter what you put on it. After the box, the trunks spit on themselves, and replacement is still a little thing..
    1. 0
      5 January 2024 16: 18
      Modernization will make it possible to use ammunition more economically and delay the time of changing barrels.
  15. 0
    6 January 2024 01: 10
    Quote: oppozite28
    Polish 60mm mortar on the front line is an unpleasant thing
    It is necessary to fight Polish mortars in warehouses with the help of the Aerospace Forces. Wholesale is desirable

    They don’t carry the ammunition and the mortar itself... there’s no time for wandering here