Military Review

Chinese GPS is open for civilian use.

Chinese GPS is open for civilian use.

China recently opened Beidou (its GPS version or "global positioning system") for civilian use and hopes to capture a significant market share from the original US satellite-based GPS navigation system by the end of the decade. At present, China has commissioned the 14 35 navigation satellite Beidou (Compass). This is enough to ensure the reception of satellites throughout China. By the end of the decade, all 35 satellites will be in orbit and access to Beidou will be provided throughout the entire planet.

Five years ago, China decided to expand its original satellite navigation system Beidou 1 to cover the entire planet and compete with GPS, Galileo, GLONASS. China uses the experience of its early network Beidou 1 to create the worldwide network "Beidou 2".

The Chinese network Compass includes the best features of the Russian GLONASS and European Galileo, as well as some features of the planned next-generation GPS satellites. With all this, no one has found a way to make money on the network of navigation satellites, at least not directly. There are many ideas, but so far no one has turned them into money. In addition, there are problems in the relationship between organizations Beidou, Galileo, GLONASS about the priority in the use of radio frequencies. No one disputes the right to the frequencies used by GPS, since this system ranked them first. However, the three other players among themselves there are certain problems.

All this competition is the result of the success of American navigation satellite GPS. Nevertheless, entry into the market of competitors was much more difficult than expected. The European consortium Galileo took the lead, despite rising costs and technical problems. Initially, Galileo was to be financed with private funds. But the costs have already exceeded the most optimistic estimates of future revenues, so Galileo is currently funded by taxpayers, as was the case with GPS and competing Russian and Chinese systems.

Four navigation satellites of the European Galileo system began to function in the last two years and 18 were ordered. Four is the minimum number of satellites needed to provide three-dimensional location information. These four satellites will be used to test technology. All Galileo 30 satellites are scheduled for commissioning by the end of this decade.

The appearance of Galileo is due to the fact that the Europeans did not like the dependence on the American system and the lack of confidence that Russia would be able to keep its GLONASS system viable. If the Galileo system becomes operational, then European countries will pay for it, and not the end user. Devices capable of receiving both signals (GPS and Galileo) will not cost much more expensive (perhaps only 20 percent) than GPS receivers. The presence of two separate sets of signals will allow you to create more reliable and accurate receivers. In addition, the orbits of Galileo satellites will provide increased reliability in high latitudes and built-up areas.

Russia's response to GPS - the GLONASS system was in full force (satellite 24) in the 1996 year shortly after the end of the Cold War. However, the end of the Cold War in the 1991 year also meant the end of the regular GLONASS funding. To maintain the system, replacement satellites are required every 5-7 years. By the end of 2002, only seven GLONASS satellites were still operational. Nevertheless, the Russian economy recovered and funds were allocated for a series of launches in the 2003 year, which increased the number of active satellites to twelve, and by the end of the 2007 year to 18. By 2011, Russia had 24 GLONASS satellites in orbit and brought the system to full operation last year, making it the first real competitor to GPS.

Funding for the GLONASS system comes from the Russian government, which does not want to be dependent on the American-controlled GPS system. The availability of money due to high oil prices. Most of the GLONASS receivers used are in fact integrated GPS / GLONASS receivers. Russia will have to invest billions of dollars in GLONASS over the next few years to get a fully functioning system and then spend even more money to maintain the satellite constellation.

The editorial board of Voenniy Obozreniye urgently needs a proofreader. Requirements: impeccable knowledge of the Russian language, diligence, discipline. Contact: [email protected]

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  1. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 21 January 2013 09: 10 New
    If it goes on like this, it will become crowded in the near space. I just imagined that there would be no conflicts and contradictions, people would live in the world, how life on earth would change globally, in fact, a society of universal prosperity could be built. However, there are more Fools on earth and we endure this whole madhouse.
    1. tronin.maxim
      tronin.maxim 21 January 2013 09: 14 New
      Quote: vladsolo56
      I just imagined that there would be no conflicts and contradictions, people would live in the world, how life on earth would change globally, in fact, a society of universal prosperity could be built

      Oh hoho request My friend! This is utopia!
      1. vladsolo56
        vladsolo56 21 January 2013 09: 34 New
        Yes, it may be, but otherwise, our world is plunged into the darkness of hatred spreading throughout the earth. It’s sad. but fact
    2. older
      older 21 January 2013 09: 33 New
      Quote: vladsolo56
      essentially a prosperity society could be built
      laughing As long as your car is better than mine, and your summer residence is more, never ... In a society where people work for material rewards, always some will have more, others less ... The mind is valued more than hands .. and the ability to steal is valued even more than mind .. .Even the term is coined for such theft-commercial acumen ...
    3. mamba
      mamba 21 January 2013 09: 38 New
      Quote: vladsolo56
      However, there are more Fools on earth and we endure this whole madhouse.

      It’s not fools, but people who crave absolute power over the world. Here are those who, in the struggle for resources, are ready to wipe entire nations off the face of the earth; and those who are trying to comb the whole world under one religious comb of radical Islam; and those who are simply greedy for a foreign land, and those who are trying to parasitize the global economy.
  2. dmitreach
    dmitreach 21 January 2013 09: 12 New
    "Standards Wars" Are Coming Again? I would not like the history of confrontations between giants (JVS vs Panasonic and the like) to be embodied in the consumer sector.
    1. older
      older 21 January 2013 09: 35 New
      Quote: dmitreach
      "Standards Wars" Are Coming Again?
      They won’t come ... As soon as we create our own efficient system and not what Glanak is now, our technology will be equipped only with this guidance ... The Chinese correctly make their market independent of the American system ...
  3. pav-pon1972
    pav-pon1972 21 January 2013 09: 30 New
    Own navigation system is necessary as air, this was also shown by events in the Caucasus, starting from the 2nd CCC and at 08.08.08 and at other events with the participation of our military and scientists in other parts of the world ...
    It is necessary to connect to it the countries of the customs union, the countries with which we have good relations, so that they do not depend on GPS /
  4. Papakiko
    Papakiko 21 January 2013 09: 36 New
    The satellite constellation of the NAVSTAR GPS system revolves around the Earth in circular orbits with the same altitude and orbital period for all satellites. A circular orbit with a height of the order of 20200 km is an orbit of daily multiplicity with a period of 11 hours 58 minutes; Thus, the satellite makes two orbits around the Earth in one stellar day (23 hours 56 minutes). Orbital inclination (55 °)
    The basis of the system should be 24 satellites moving above the Earth’s surface in three orbital planes with an inclination of orbital planes of 64,8 ° and a height of 19 100 km. The measurement principle is similar to the American NAVSTAR GPS navigation system. The main difference from the GPS system is that the GLONASS satellites in their orbital motion have no resonance (synchronization) with the rotation of the Earth, which provides them with greater stability. Thus, the GLONASS spacecraft grouping does not require additional adjustments during the entire period of active existence. Nevertheless, the service life of GLONASS satellites is noticeably shorter.
    Galileo satellites will be launched into orbits with an altitude of 23 222 km (or 29 600,318 km from the center of the Earth), passing one orbit in 14 hours 4 minutes and 42 seconds and orbiting in three planes inclined at an angle of 56 ° to the equator, which will ensure simultaneous visibility from anywhere in the world of at least four devices. The time error of atomic clocks installed on satellites is one billionth of a second, which will ensure the accuracy of determining the location of the receiver at about 30 cm at low latitudes. Due to a higher orbit than GPS satellites, accuracy of up to one meter will be ensured at the latitude of the Arctic Circle.
    There is much less information about the Chinese, but: The system will include four geostationary satellites, 12 spacecraft in inclined geosynchronous orbits, and nine spacecraft in circular orbits with an altitude of 22000 km.
    Question: What can we do with our GLONASS?
    It will certainly come out more expensive due to the need to update the satellite constellation. the impact of understanding Mother Earth.
  5. pav-pon1972
    pav-pon1972 21 January 2013 09: 45 New
    I will add that it is planned that by 2020 about 35 satellites will be involved in the Chinese NSS, and then the Beidou system will be able to control the entire globe. The Chinese NSS provides the following services: positioning with an accuracy of 10 m, speed up to 0,2 m / s and time up to 50 ns. A special circle of users will have access to more accurate measurement parameters. China is ready to interact with other countries on the development and operation of satellite navigation. The Chinese Beidou system is fully compatible with European Galileo, Russian GLONASS and American GPS.

    Beidou is effectively used in the preparation of weather forecasts, disaster prevention, in the field of land, air and sea transport, as well as geological exploration.

    China plans to constantly improve its satellite navigation system. The increase in the number of satellites will expand the service area of ​​the entire Asia-Pacific region. (from the "Military Review" of 3.10.12/XNUMX/XNUMX)
  6. mamba
    mamba 21 January 2013 09: 46 New
    Russia will have to invest billions of dollars in GLONASS over the next few years in order to get a fully functioning system, and then spend even more money to maintain the satellite constellation.
    If the resource of our satellites remains the same, then the author of the article is right: the content of GLONASS will be an overwhelming burden for Russia. Here, for our space industry and its branch science, broad prospects for work open up. The main thing is that our government timely allocates money in the right amount and tightly controls their spending.
  7. itr
    itr 21 January 2013 10: 25 New
    Damn, it seems only recently they sent a snake into space
    This is growth!
    Popovkin shoot before it’s too late then they’ll definitely shoot
  8. DmitriRazumov
    DmitriRazumov 21 January 2013 12: 15 New
    The navigation satellite system is primarily a military application and was conceived as a means of guidance and target designation. Before global systems like GLONASS, NAVSTSR, full-scale satellite navigation was used only by the military. Those. systems existed. allowed not real-time positioning of submarines and other strategic means. NAVSTAR. for some reason, it is customary to call GPS (Global Position System, GLONASS can also be called a term) belongs to the United States Defense Ministry and is operated exclusively by the military.
    The same situation was with us, until Serdyukov came to power in the Moscow region, he shook off an object in Roskosmos that was incomprehensible to him and "problematic" for understanding and declared GLONASS a civil system, and then started selling real estate in the Moscow region. At this stage, after the corruption scandals in Roscosmos, they are again trying to hand over the grouping to the Ministry of Defense, but the Aerospace Forces does not accept, knowing full well that Roscosmos should answer for the stolen funds.
    The development of both GLONASS and NAVSTSR was carried out "head to head" and was started almost simultaneously, so that the first devices were already launched in 1983. Then, in the 90s, there was a degradation of the system. Now we have increased the grouping again. And then and at the present stage we are somewhat behind in the spacecraft durability. Therefore, we have to do more launches.
    In any case, Galileo, NAVSTAR, etc. will work or not. In any case, GLONASS will be operated and maintained in the interests of the Defense Ministry and the security of the state, first of all.
    Of course, commercial applications are good, but neither in our country nor in the USA will they ever cover the costs of developing and operating the system. In addition, receiver manufacturers (private companies) don’t pay anything to MO. Actually, it bears the main costs of maintaining and operating the system.
  9. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus 21 January 2013 13: 09 New
    I wonder what the Chinese have the satellite resource, because if the miserable nothing comes of it ...
    1. Professor
      21 January 2013 15: 30 New
      It turns out that they do not consider money when it comes to the prestige of the nation. They will change satellites at least once a year, giving it off as a great achievement.
  10. Director
    Director 21 January 2013 13: 37 New
    what a shame it’s a shame, we gave birth for 20 years giving birth, and here again, once, once, and NNNAAAAAA
    n ...... ahui, Chinese navigation system CHINESE EPT. fool
  11. Kosmodrom
    Kosmodrom 21 January 2013 21: 25 New
    The author of the article distorts the facts - how Galileo can get ahead by launching only 4 satellites ???. The Russian group is fully formed and efficient, and the issue of maintaining the group is relevant for all systems. And where does the price of oil?
    Question: What can we do with our GLONASS?
    It will certainly come out more expensive due to the need to update the satellite constellation. exposure to mother earth

    A friend of mine in orbit at 19200 km can be a satellite for hundreds of years !! orbit correction is carried out on all satellites. The question is the period of active existence of iron, which is currently shorter than that of competitors. Technology understanding.