Military Review

The myth of useless cavalry

89

This article is an abridged version of the chapter “With drafts on Tanks"From the book of A. Isaev" Ten myths of the Second World War "


Full ecstasy orgy of humiliation of cavalry reached in 90-x. Ideological blinders have fallen, and anyone who is not lazy, found it necessary to demonstrate their "professionalism" and "progressive views." Previously, the well-known domestic investigator of the initial period of the war, V. A. Anfilov moved to outright mockery. He writes: “According to the saying,“ Whoever hurts, he speaks about that, ”the inspector general of the Red Army cavalry, Colonel-General O.I. Gorodovikov spoke about the role of cavalry in the defense ... ". [40– C.48] Next - more. After scrolling through several pages of the same work, we are surprised to read about S.K. Tymoshenko at a meeting of the commanding staff in December 1940, such a comment by Viktor Alexandrovich: “Of course, the former division commander in the Cavalry Army of Budyonny couldn’t pay tribute to cavalry. “The cavalry in the modern war occupies an important place among the main arms of the armed forces,” he said contrary to common sense, “although there was little talk about it here at our meeting (they did the right thing. Auth.) In our vast theaters, cavalry will find wide application in solving the most important tasks of developing success and pursuing the enemy after the front has been broken. ” [40– C.56]

Was there a boy?

The thesis of the reassessment of the role of cavalry in the USSR simply does not correspond to reality. In the prewar years, the proportion of cavalry units was constantly decreasing.
The document, which quite unambiguously characterizes plans for the development of cavalry in the Red Army, is a report by the People’s Commissar of Defense to the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.), Dated 1937 in the fall, on the Red Army’s future development plan in 1938 – 1942. I quote:

a) Composition of cavalry in peacetime to 1.01.1938. Cavalry in peacetime (1.01.1938) consists of: 2 cavalry divisions (of which 5 is mountain and 3 are territorial), separate cavalry brigades, one separate and 8 reserve cavalry regiments and 7 cavalry corps directorates. The number of peacetime cavalry on 1.01.1938 – 95 690 people.
b) Organizational arrangements for the cavalry 1938 – 1942.
In the 1938 year:
a) the number of cavalry divisions is proposed to be reduced to 7 (from 32 to 25), by disbanding the 7 cavalry divisions using their personnel to replenish the remaining divisions and to strengthen the mechanized troops and artillery;
b) disband the two controls of the Cav [Alerian] Corps;
c) disband the two reserve cavalry [allery] regiments;
d) in the 3 cavalry [Aleri] corps, form one anti-aircraft artillery division (each 425 person);
e) reduce the composition of the cavalry division from 6600 man to 5900 man;
e) cavalry divisions OKDVA (2) to leave in the reinforced composition (6800 people). The number of mountain cavalry divisions have - 2620 man. " [25– KN.2, C.536]


The number of cavalry corps directorates decreased to 5, cavalry divisions to 18 (of which 4 in the Far East), mountain cavalry divisions to 5 and Cossack (territorial) cavalry divisions to 2. As a result of the proposed transformations, “peacetime cavalry as a result of the reorganization is reduced by 57 130 people and will have 138 people 560 people” (ibid.).

With the naked eye it can be seen that the document consists entirely of proposals of the form “reduce” and “dissolve”. Perhaps, after a rich repression in the army of 1938, these sensible plans on all sides were forgotten? Nothing of the kind, the process of disbanding the cavalry corps and reducing the cavalry as a whole did not stop.

In the autumn of 1939, the plans for cavalry reduction were put into practice.

The government-approved proposal from the People’s Commissariat of Defense against 21 in November 1939 provided for five cavalry corps as part of 24 cavalry divisions, 2 separate cavalry brigades and 6 reserve cavalry regiments. At the suggestion of NGOs from 4 in July 1940, the number of cavalry corps was reduced to three, the number of cavalry divisions - to twenty, the brigade remained alone and the reserve regiments - five. And this process continued until the spring of 1941. As a result, the cavalry divisions available in the USSR to 1938, 32, and the corps directorates to the beginning of the war, there remained the 7 corps and 4 cavalry divisions. Cavalry units were reorganized into mechanized ones. In particular, such a fate befell the 13 th cavalry corps, whose management and 4 division became the basis for the 34 mechanized corps. The commander of the cavalry corps, Lieutenant-General Dmitry Ivanovich Ryabyshev, led the mechanized corps and led him in June 8 to the battle against the German tanks under Dubno.

Theory

The theory of the combat use of cavalry in the USSR was done by people who looked at things soberly at things. This, for example, is a former cavalryman of the tsarist army, who became Boris Mikhailovich Shaposhnikov in the USSR as chief of the General Staff. He was the one who wrote the theory that became the basis for the practice of the cavalry in the USSR. It was the work "Cavalry (cavalry essays)" 1923, which became the first major scientific research on the tactics of cavalry, published after the Civil War. Work B.M. Shaposhnikova caused a great discussion at meetings of cavalry commanders and in the press: does the cavalry in modern conditions retain their former significance or are they only “riding infantry”.

Boris Mikhailovich quite intelligibly described the role of the cavalry in the new conditions and measures for its adaptation to these conditions:

“Changes made under the influence of modern weapons in the activities and device of the cavalry, are reduced:
In tactics. The modern power of fire made it extremely difficult for cavalry to engage in equestrian combat, reducing it to exceptional and rare instances. The normal type of cavalry battle is a combined battle, and the cavalry should not wait for action exclusively in the equestrian system, and, tying up the shooting battle, must lead it with full tension, trying to solve problems if the situation is not conducive to the production of equestrian attacks. Equestrian and foot fights are equivalent methods of action of the cavalry of our days.

In strategy. The power, destructiveness and range of modern weapons made it difficult for cavalry to work, but did not reduce its values ​​and, on the contrary, it opens to the cavalry a true field of successful activity as an independent branch of the military. However, successful operational work of the cavalry will be possible only when the cavalry in its tactical activities show independence in solving problems in accordance with the current situation of warfare, not deviating from decisive action on foot.

In the organisation. The fight against modern weapons on the battlefield, bringing one in the cavalry closer to infantry actions, requires a change in the organization of cavalry closer to the infantry, marking a numerical increase in cavalry units and the division of the latter for foot combat similar to that adopted in infantry units. The addition of cavalry infantry units, even if moving quickly, is a palliative - the cavalry must independently fight the enemy’s infantry, gaining success on its own, so as not to limit its operational mobility.

In arms. The modern power of firearms to combat them requires the presence of the same powerful firearms in the cavalry. By virtue of this, the "armored cavalry" of our days must adopt for its riders a rifle with a bayonet, similar to infantry, a revolver, hand grenades and automatic rifles; to increase the number of machine guns in both divisional and regimental teams, to strengthen artillery, both in number and in caliber, by entering necessarily a howitzer and anti-aircraft guns; strengthen yourself with the use of armored vehicles with cannons and machine guns, light vehicles with the same means of fire, tanks and air assault squadrons. ” [41– C.117]

Note that the opinion expressed hot on the heels of after the Civil War (1923) was by no means affected by the euphoria of the use of cavalry in 1918 – 1920. The tasks and scope of the cavalry are quite clearly outlined and defined.

The opinion of S.M. Budyonny, often represented by a dull, stupid cavalryman, the enemy of army mechanization. In fact, his position on the role of cavalry in the war was more than balanced:

“The reasons for the rise or decline of cavalry should be sought in relation to the basic properties of this kind of troops to the basic data of the situation of a certain historical period. In all cases, when the war acquired a maneuverable character and the operational situation required the presence of mobile troops and decisive actions, the cavalry masses became one of the decisive elements of the armed forces. This is manifested by a known pattern throughout. stories cavalry; as soon as the possibility of maneuvering war was developed, the role of cavalry was now increasing and some operations ended with its blows. ” [42– C.180]

Semyon Mikhailovich indicates the scope of cavalry - maneuvering war, the conditions for which may arise at any stage of the historical development of tactics and technology. The cavalry for him is not a symbol, taken out of the Civil War, but a means of warfare that meets modern conditions:

"We are persistently fighting for the preservation of a powerful independent Red cavalry and for its further strengthening solely because a sober, realistic assessment of the situation convinces us of the undoubted need to have such cavalry in the system of our Armed Forces." [42– C.181]

No exaltation of cavalry is observed. “The horse will still show itself” is the fruit of an analysis of the current state of the Armed Forces of the USSR and its probable opponents.

What do the documents say?

If we turn from theoretical studies to documents, the preferred course of action of the cavalry becomes quite unambiguous. The cavalry combat regulations prescribed an offensive in the equestrian ranks only if "the situation is favorable (there is shelter, weakness or lack of enemy fire)". [43 – CH.1, C.82] The main program document of the Red Army of the 30-ies, the Field Manual of the Red Army 1936, read: “The strength of modern fire will often require cavalry on foot. The cavalry must therefore be ready for action on foot. " [44– C.13] Almost word for word, this phrase was repeated in the Field Statute of 1939 g. As we can see, in general, cavalrymen had to attack on foot, using the horse only as a vehicle.
Naturally, new means of struggle were introduced into the rules of cavalry. The 1939 field manual indicated the need for cavalry in conjunction with technical innovations:

“The most appropriate use of cavalry units in conjunction with tank units, motorized infantry and aviation - in front of the front (in the absence of contact with the enemy), on the approaching flank, in the development of a breakthrough, behind enemy lines, in raids and pursuits. Cavalry units are able to consolidate their success and keep the terrain. However, at the earliest opportunity, they need to be freed from this task in order to save them for maneuver. The actions of the cavalry unit must in all cases be reliably covered from the air. ” [45– P.29]

Practice

Perhaps, all these phrases have fallen into oblivion in practice? We will give the floor to veteran cavalrymen. Ivan Alexandrovich Yakushin, lieutenant, commander of the anti-tank platoon of the 24 Guards Cavalry Regiment of the 5 Guards Cavalry Division, recalled:

"How did the cavalry in World War II? Horses used as a means of transportation. There were, of course, equestrian fights - saber attacks, but this is rare. If the opponent is strong, sitting on a horse and cannot cope with him, then the command is given to dismount, horse breeders take the horses and leave. And horsemen work like infantry. Each horseman took five horses with him and took them to a safe place. So the squadron accounted for several people of the grooms. Sometimes the squadron commander said: "Leave the whole squadron of two horse guides, and the rest in the chain, to help." Machine-gun carts that had survived in the Soviet cavalry found their place in the war. Ivan Alexandrovich recalls: “Tachanki were also used only as a means of transportation. In equestrian attacks, they did indeed unfold and, as in the Civil War, they spire, but this was rare. [...] And as the battle began, the machine gun was removed from the cart, the horse breeders were taken away, the cart was also leaving, and the gun remained.

N.L. Dupak (8-I Guards Cavalry Rivne Red Banner Order of Suvorov Morozov Division) recalls:

“I went to the equestrian attack only at the school, and so I didn’t have to chop down, and I didn’t have to meet with the enemy cavalry. The school had such learned horses that, even after hearing a pitiful "hurray", they were already rushing forward, and only hold them back. Snoring ... No, it was not necessary. Fought dismounted. Horse breeders took horses to shelters. True, it was often cruelly paying for it, because the Germans used to fire at them with mortars. The breeder was alone on the compartment of the 11 horses. ” [46]

Tactically, the cavalry was closest to the motorized infantry units and formations. Motorized infantry on the march moved on vehicles, and in battle - on foot. At the same time, no one tells us terrible tales about trucks with infantrymen ramming tanks and knocking bumpers into “Krupp steel”. The mechanism of combat use of motorized infantry and cavalry in World War II was very similar. In the first case, the infantrymen landed before the battle with the trucks, the drivers drove the vehicles into shelters. In the second case, the cavalry dismounted, and the horses were driven to the shelters. The scope of the attack in the equestrian system resembled the conditions for the use of armored personnel carriers such as the German “ganomag” - the enemy’s fire system was upset, his morale was low. In all other cases, cavalry in the cavalry and armored personnel carriers on the battlefield did not appear. Both the Soviet cavalrymen with their swords and the Germans attacking the coffin "ganomagahs" are nothing more than a cinematic stamp. BTR armor was designed to protect against long-range artillery debris in the original positions, not on the battlefield.

1941 Red Phoenix Bird

After all the reductions, the cavalry of the Red Army met the war as part of the 4 corps and 13 cavalry divisions. Staffing cavalry divisions 1941 city had four cavalry regiments, horse-artillery battalion (eight 76-mm guns and eight 122-mm howitzers), Tank Regiment (64 tank "BT"), anti-aircraft battalion (eight 76-mm anti-aircraft guns and two batteries of anti-aircraft machine guns), communications squadron, sapper squadron, and other rear units and institutions. The cavalry regiment, in turn, consisted of four saber squadrons, a machine gun squadron (16 heavy machine guns and four 82-mm mortars), regimental artillery (four 76-mm and four 45-mm guns), an anti-aircraft gun (three 37-mm guns and three quad maxims). The total regular strength of the cavalry division was 8968 man and 7625 horses, the cavalry regiment 1428 man and 1506 horses, respectively. The cavalry corps of the two-divisional structure approximately corresponded to the motorized division, possessing a somewhat lower mobility and lower weight of artillery salvo.

In June, the 1941 Cavalry Corps was stationed in the Kiev Special Military District in the 5 Bessarabian them. G.I. Kotovsky and 3 th them. Parkhomenko cavalry divisions, in the Odessa district was 14-th cavalry corps in the 2-th them. Mf Blinov and 5-th Crimean cavalry divisions. All these connections were old connections of the Red Army with stable military traditions.

The cavalry corps were the most stable units of the Red Army in 1941. Unlike the mechanized corps, they were able to survive in endless retreats and 1941 environments. The P.A. Cavalry corps Belova and F.V. Kamkov became the "fire brigade" of the South-West direction. The first later participated in an attempt to release the Kiev "boiler". Guderian wrote the following about these events:

“September 18 has developed a critical situation in the Romny area. Early in the morning, on the eastern flank, a battle noise was heard, which became more and more intense during the subsequent period. Fresh enemy forces - the 9-I cavalry division and another division along with the tanks - advanced from the east on Romny in three columns, approaching the city at a distance of 800 meters. From the high tower of the prison, located on the outskirts of the city, I had a good opportunity to observe the enemy was advancing; the 24 tank corps was tasked to repel the enemy’s advance. To accomplish this task, the corps had at its disposal two battalions of the 10 Motorized Division and several anti-aircraft batteries. Due to the superiority of enemy aviation, our air reconnaissance was in serious condition. Lieutenant Colonel von Barsevish, personally taken off for reconnaissance, barely escaped the Russian fighters. Then came the raid of the enemy aircraft on Romny. In the end, we still managed to keep in our hands the city of Romny and the forward command post. [...] The threatened position of the city of Romny forced me on September 19 to transfer its command post back to Konotop. General von Geyer made it easier for us to make this decision with his radio message, in which he wrote: “The transfer of the command post from Romna will not be interpreted by the troops as a manifestation of cowardice on the part of the command of the tank group.” [37– С.299 – 300]

This time, Guderian does not have any excessive contempt for the attacking cavalrymen. The Romny did not become the last battle of the 2 Cavalry Corps. In late autumn 1941, the building of P.A. Belova played an important role in the battle of Moscow, where he received the title of Guards.
In early July, 1941 in the camps near the stanitsa of Urupskaya and near Stavropol began the formation of the 50 and 53 th cavalry divisions. The main personnel of the divisions consisted of recruits and volunteers of the Kuban villages of Prochnopok, Labinsk, Kurgan, Soviet, Voznesenskaya, Otradnaya, Terek Cossacks of the Stavropol villages Trunovskoe, Izobilnoe, Ust-Dzhegutinskoe, Novo-Mikhailovskoye, Troitskoe. 13 July 1941 began loading in echelons. The commander of the 50 division was Colonel Issa Alexandrovich Pliev, and the 53 division was brigade commander Kondrat Semenovich Melnik. 18 July 1941 of the division unloaded at the station Old Toropa, west of Rzhev. Thus began the story of another legendary cavalry corps - 2 Guards L.M. Dovatora.

Not only proven connections with long-standing military traditions won Guards ranks, but also newly formed corps and divisions. The reason for this, perhaps, is to be found in the level of physical training necessary for each cavalryman, which inevitably affected the moral qualities of the fighter.

1942 d. Instead of a breakthrough - raid

In the 1942 winter campaign, the newly formed cavalry divisions were actively used in battles. A typical example is the fighting on the southern sector of the front. E. von Mackensen, who fought there, subsequently recalled:

“At the time of receiving the command of the group in Stalino in the afternoon of 29 in January, the enemy was already dangerously close to the Dnepropetrovsk-Stalino railway and thus to the vital (as it was the only) railway supply line of the 17 army and 1 tank army. Focusing on the circumstances, initially it could only be about keeping the necessary communications and organizing the first defense. ” [48– S.58]

Only in the course of a stubborn struggle with the sappers from the pontoon battalions thrown into battle did the Germans manage to resist. His opponent was almost one cavalry: "The corps in the past eight weeks of combat fought against the Russian 9 rifle divisions, the 10 cavalry divisions and the 5 tank brigades." [48– S.65] The German commander is not mistaken in this case, he was really opposed by more cavalry than rifle divisions. Against the von McKenzen compound, the divisions of 1 (33, 56 and 68), 2 (62, 64, 70) battled against 5 (34, 60) I, the 79-I) cavalry corps, also the 30-I separate cavalry division of the Southern Front. The reasons for the wide use of cavalry in the battle of Moscow are quite obvious. At that time, there were simply no large mobile units in the Red Army. In the tank forces, the largest subunit was the tank brigade, which could be operatively used only as a means of infantry support. The association recommended at that time under the same command of several tank brigades also did not produce results. The only means allowing deep walks and detours was cavalry.

In the same scenario, the entry of cavalry into a deep breakthrough, the 1-th Guards Cavalry Corps PA A. acted. Belova. The ups and downs of the actions of the Western Front in the winter of 1942 are fairly well covered in memoirs and historical literature, and I will only allow myself to draw attention to several important details. Belov’s group was given really large-scale tasks. The Western Front Command Directive dated 2 in January 1942 stated:

“A very favorable environment was created for the entourage of the 4 th and 9 th armies of the enemy, and the main role should be played by the Belov strike group, operatively interacting through the front headquarters with our Rzhev group.” [TsAMO. F.208. Op.2513. D.205. L.6]

However, despite the losses incurred during the Soviet counteroffensive of December 1941, the troops of Army Group Center kept their controllability.
The breakthroughs, which the cavalry corps entered first, and then the 33-I army, were closed by the Germans by flank attacks. In fact, the surrounding troops had to go to semi-guerrilla actions. The cavalrymen in this capacity acted quite successfully. The Belova group received an order to enter their units only on June 6 (!!!) 1942 of the Partisan detachments, of which P.A. Belov formed rifle formations, again split up into separate units. An important role in the overall development of events was played by the mobility of the 1 Guards Cavalry Corps, provided by horses. Thanks to this corpus PA Belov managed to get to his not the shortest way, breaking the German barrier with his forehead, but in a roundabout way. In contrast, the 33 Army M.G. Efremova, not possessing the maneuverable capabilities of cavalrymen, in April 1942 was defeated when she tried to break into her band in the 43 army. The horses were transport and, however cynical it sounds, independently moving food stocks. This ensured greater stability of the cavalry in the not always successful offensive operations of 1942.

1942 Stalingrad - a forgotten feat of cavalry

The battle of Stalingrad became one of the decisive battles of the Second World War, the name of the city on the Volga became known to the whole world. The cavalry corps played a role in the offensive phase of the Battle of Stalingrad, which is difficult to overestimate. In any operation on the environment is required not only to cut off the path of retreat and supply lines surrounding, but to ensure the outer front of the ring. If you do not create a strong external front of the environment, then the enemy can unblock those who are surrounded by external strikes (usually an external line by mechanized connections), and all our labors go down the drain. They break through behind their backs as deep as possible to the rear of the enemy, seize key positions and occupy defenses.

At Stalingrad in November 1942, this role was assigned to three cavalry corps. The choice fell on the cavalry, since the Red Army at that time had few well-trained mechanized units. It must be said that the terrain in the Stalingrad area did not favor the use of cavalry. Large forest tracts, in which horsemen usually hid, were absent. On the contrary, the open terrain allowed the enemy to influence the cavalry corps by aviation.

The heaviest battles fell on the 4 Cavalry Corps. Ironically, he was the least equipped with the people and equipment of all three who participated in the operation. The corps arrived in the area of ​​concentration after a long march (350 – 550 km). In parentheses, we note that the same march for a tank compound in the same period would have ended with a massive exit of tanks even before entering combat. According to the decision of the front command, two mobile connections were to be entered into the breakthrough: the 4 th mechanized corps, followed closely by the 4 th cavalry corps. After entering the breakthrough, the ways of the mechanized and cavalry corps diverged. The cavalrymen turned south to form the outer front of the encirclement, the tankers moved towards the shock group of the Don front to close the ring behind the back of the Paulus army. The cavalry corps was introduced into the November 20 1942 breakthrough. Romanian units were the opponents of the cavalry, and therefore the first target - Abganerovo - was captured on the morning of November 21 by an attack in the horse formation.

Large trophies, more 100 guns were taken at the station, warehouses with food, fuel and ammunition were captured. The hull losses were scanty compared to the achieved results: 81-division lost 10 people killed and 13 wounded, 61-I - 17 people killed and 21 wounded. However, the next task assigned to the 4 Cavalry Corps - to capture Kotelnikov, required 95 km to be overcome in a day, which is a nontrivial task even for a mechanized connection. Perhaps only the German motorcycle units reached this pace of advancement in the summer of 1941. In the morning of November 27, the 81 Cavalry Division reached Kotelnikov, but failed to capture the city. Moreover, here the cavalrymen were awaited by an unpleasant surprise in the face of the fresh 6 Panzer Division that arrived by rail from France. In Soviet literature, divisions from France often appeared on the battlefield, out of nowhere, but in this case everything is absolutely reliable. At the end of November 1942, the 6 Tank Division arrived from 27 in November in Kotelnikovo after rest and manning in France (the division suffered heavy losses in the winter of 1941 – 1942). After the recruitment and rearmament of the 6-I tank division was a serious force. In November, 1942 had a division consisting of 159 tanks (21 "Pz.II", 73 "Pz.III" with long-barreled 50-mm cannon, 32 "Pz.III" with short-barreled 75-mm gun, 24 "Pz.IV" "With a long-barreled 75-mm gun and 9 commander tanks). The overwhelming majority of the division’s tanks were the latest models capable of withstanding the T-34.

In fact, the Soviet 4 Cavalry Corps was in an extremely piquant situation. On the one hand, the formation of the external front of the encirclement demanded that our cavalrymen proceed to defense. On the other hand, it allowed the Germans to easily accumulate unloaded at railway stations in the area of ​​Kotelnikov, or simply in the steppes from the platforms of people and the 6 armored division vehicles. First, the command gave the order to attack. In 21 h. 15 m. 29 November, the commander of the cavalry corps received from the headquarters of the 51 th army a second cipher telegram: “Fight for Kotelnikovo to continue all the time. To 12.00 30.11 pull up artillery, conduct reconnaissance. Attack of the enemy in Kotelnikovo in 12.00 30.12.42 ".
But on November 30, the commander of the 51 Army N.I. Trufanov suspended the operation, ordering parts of the 4 Cavalry Corps to stand up in defense, conduct reconnaissance to the west and south, bring up fuel and prepare for the capture of Kotelnikov.

Until 2 December, parts of the corps strengthened the occupied lines, brought fuel. Opponent tightened reserves and strengthened Kotelnikovo, Semichny, Majorsky, Pokhlebin. On December 3 on December 2 the order was received by the commander of the 51 army:

“The 4 of the Kav [Aleriy] Corps (without the 61 to the [Avaleriya] d [Ivizii]) with the 85 of the [Ankovy] br [Igada], covering itself from p. Don, by 11.00 2.12, reach the Mayorsky-Zakharov line and, by the end of 2.12, master the western part of Kotelnikov. One reinforced regiment to master the meliorative detour. Having mastered Kotelnikov, develop a strike along the railway to Dubovskoye. To the left comes 302-th with [trilkovy] d [iviziya], which by the end of 2 December should seize the eastern part of Kotelnikov. ”

The corps commander, in response, informed the commander of the 51 army about the absence of fuel in the 85 tank tank brigade. N.I. December 2 Trufanov ordered "the action of the order to seize Kotelnikov to suspend until a special order."

2 and 3 December, the corps and 85-th tank brigade units were replenished with fuel to one refueling. The headquarters of the 51 Army handed over the order: in the morning of December 3 to proceed with the execution of the order of the Army Commander from December 1 to seize Kotelnikov.

The delay was truly fatal. The commander of the 6 Panzer Division, Erhard Raus, later recalled: “I could not understand why the Russians stopped their advancement as soon as the first German units arrived, despite the fact that they had orders to seize Kotelnikov. Instead of attacking immediately, while they still had a quantitative advantage, the Russians passively watched the accumulation of our forces in the city. ” [50– P.144]
Finally, on December 3, the 4 Cavalry Corps (without J. Kuliev's 61 Cavalry Division), reinforced by the 85 Tank Brigade and the Katyush guards mortar division, came out of the occupied area. In 7 hours, the advanced units of the 81 Cavalry Division met with stubborn resistance in the Pokhlebin area, but they rejected the enemy and captured the village. According to German data, the losses of the attackers amounted to six tanks at the cost of complete destruction of a platoon of the newest 75-mm anti-tank guns. The cavalry division with reinforcements crossed the Aksai river and moved south to reach Kotelnikov from the rear. But further attempts to attack were repulsed by the enemy. By that time, prisoners from the 6 Panzer Division, indicating the arrival of this compound from France, were at the disposal of the Soviet command.

Assessing the situation and fearing the environment of the 81 Division in the Pokhlebin area, the commander of the 4 Cavalry Corps, Major General Timofey Timofeevich Shapkin, asked the 51 Army commander to withdraw the corps. The commander of the 51 Army ordered: “Perform a previously assigned task, taking possession of Major, Zakharov, and Semichny before dawn. The start of the offensive is 7.00 4.12.42. ”

A secondary report in the morning of December 4 to the commander of the 51 army about the need to withdraw the corps commander could not, because neither the commander of the general N.I. Trufanov, no chief of staff of Colonel AM Kuznetsov was not. Parts of the hull back in December 19 3 received orders to continue the offensive. But by that time the Germans had managed to concentrate sufficient forces for a counterattack, and had accumulated on the flanks of the Soviet cavalry that had broken into the depths of their defense. In fact, a full-fledged tank division lined up around a reinforced artillery cavalry division, possessing both qualitative and quantitative superiority. Already in 10 hours of 4 December, they opened high density artillery fire. In the middle of the day, all the 150 tanks of both tank battalions of the 6 tank division and infantry of the 2nd battalion of the 114 motorized infantry regiment on the Ganomag armored personnel carrier attacked the 81 cavalry division in the Pokhlebin area. All artillery, including the 1113 anti-aircraft artillery regiment arrived at night and anti-tank guns, took part in repelling a tank attack.

14.00 81 Cavalry Division was completely surrounded, tanks and motorized infantry Germans began to compress the resulting "boiler". The cavalrymen fought throughout the day, and with the onset of darkness they began to break in small groups from the encirclement.

Subsequently, Erhard Raus described the battle as his 6 tank division with the surrounded 81 cavalry division and the 65 tank brigade:

“By 10.00, the fate of the IV Cavalry Corps was decided. There were no longer any ways to retreat, despite this, the surrounded enemy showed fierce resistance for several hours. Russian tanks and anti-tank guns fought with the companies of the 11 Tank Regiment, rolling down the hills. The stream of tracers of armor-piercing shells continuously rushed up and down, but soon more and more tracers flew down and less and less in response to them from below. One volley after another fell upon Pokhlebin, raising the sultans of the black earth. The city began to burn. The sea of ​​fire and smoke hid the terrible end of the brave garrison. Only individual shots of anti-tank guns met our tanks entering the city. The grenadiers who followed our tanks were forced to use hand grenades to break the resistance of the enemy, who fought hard for every house and trench. ” [50– P.150 – 151]

The losses of the 11 Tank Regiment of the 6 Tank Division amounted to the 4 of the tank, irretrievably lost (plus another, destroyed before December 3), and 12 temporarily out of service.
The losses of the 81 cavalry division in the battle of Pokhlebin killed, wounded and missing were 1897 man and 1860 horses. Parts of the division lost fourteen 76,2-mm guns, four 45-mm guns, four 107-mm mortars, eight 37-mm anti-aircraft guns. The division commander, Colonel V.G. Baumshtein, Chief of Staff Colonel Terekhin, Chief of the Political Department of the Regimental Commissar Turbin. All this happened a few days before the events described in the “Hot Snow” of Bondarev. Despite the tragic outcome of the battle for Kotelnikovo, the Soviet cavalry played an important role in the initial stage of the defensive battle against attempts to unlock Paulus’s army. The 81 Cavalry Division led an isolated battle in the depth of enemy building in the separation of 60 – 95 from its neighbors against a large reserve of Germans. If it were not there, nothing prevented the 6 Panzer Tank Division from spending time and, with the arrival of the first echelons, moving closer to Stalingrad, disembarking at stations north of Kotelnikov. The presence of the Soviet cavalry made it necessary to sustain a pause for the period of arrival of the main forces of the division in Kotelnikovo and then spend time on defensive, and then offensive battle with it.

Only December 12, the main forces of their Kotelnikovskoy grouping go over to the counter-offensive in order to break the encirclement from the southwest, compressing F. Paulus's 6 army near Stalingrad. In the period of December 12 – 17, the 4 Cavalry Corps, together with other units of the 51 Army with heavy fighting, ensured the concentration of the 2 Guards Army.
Despite the lengthy story about Cannes near Pokhlebin, the commander of the 6 Panzer Division, Raus, seriously assessed the threat from the remnants of the 4 Cavalry Corps:

“It was also impossible to ignore the remnants of the 4 Cavalry Corps, concentrated in the area of ​​the Upper Yablochny and Upper Kormoyarsky (on the flank of the 6 Tank Division. - AI). According to our estimates, it was dismounted cavalry, reinforced by 14 tanks. These forces were not enough for a tank division, but they threatened our supply lines. ” [50– P.157]

It so happened that the feat of the 2 Guards Army on the Myshkovka River was repeatedly sung in literature and on the silver screen. The actions of those who ensured the deployment of the 2 Guards Army unfortunately remained unknown. This was particularly true of cavalry, in particular the 4 Cavalry Corps. Therefore, for many years, cavalry bore the stamp of an obsolete and non-patronized branch of service. Without him, in fact, the entourage of the army of Paulus near Stalingrad could fail.

1945 Last battle

The cavalry found its use even in such a highly fortified area as East Prussia. Here is what KK writes about the use of cavalry corps in the East Prussian operation. Rokossovsky: “Our equestrian corps N.S. Oslikovsky, bursting ahead, flew into Allenstein (Olsztyn), where several trains with tanks and artillery had just arrived. With a dashing attack (of course, not in the equestrian ranks!), Stunning the enemy with guns and machine guns, the cavalrymen captured echelons. It turns out that the German units relocated from the east to close the gap made by our troops. ” [52– C.303] We see that Konstantin Konstantinovich, just in case, for heard stories about drafts on Krupp armor, specifies - “not in a horse system”, with an exclamation mark. Indeed, the 3 Guards Cavalry Corps, already familiar to us, was introduced after breaking through the enemy defenses and moved to Allenstein on horseback, after which he entered the battle on foot. From the air corps N.S. Oslikovsky was supported by the 230-I assault air division, covered by the 229 th fighter aviation division. In short, the cavalry corps was a full-fledged mobile unit, the “obsolete” of which consisted only in the use of horses instead of cars.

German cavalry

Wehrmacht motorization is usually greatly exaggerated, and, worst of all, they forget about the purely cavalry units that existed in each infantry division. This is a reconnaissance detachment of regular 310 people. He almost completely moved in the equestrian system - it included 216 riding horses, 2 motorcycle and the whole 9 car. The divisions of the first wave had armored cars, in the general case, the reconnaissance of the Wehrmacht infantry division was carried out by a quite ordinary cavalry squadron, reinforced by 75-mm light infantry and 37-mm anti-tank guns.
In addition, in the Wehrmacht at the time of the outbreak of war with the USSR, there was one cavalry division. In September 1939, she was still a cavalry brigade. The brigade included in Army Group North participated in the battles of Narew, storming Warsaw in mid-September 1939. In the fall of 1939, it was reorganized into a cavalry division and as such participated in the campaign in the West, ending it on the coast Atlantic. Before the attack on the USSR, it was included in the 2-th tank group of Heinz Guderian. The division quite successfully operated in conjunction with tank formations, maintaining their rate of advance. The problem was only supplying her 17 000 horses. Therefore, it is in winter 1941 – 1942. It was reorganized into the 24 tank division. The revival of the cavalry in the Wehrmacht took place in the middle of 1942, when the Army Group North, Center and South formed one cavalry regiment each.
A special feature of the organization of the regiment was the presence in its composition of an armored battalion with a company of motorized infantry on the 15 semi-tracked armored personnel carrier "ganomag." In addition, by the middle of 1942, cavalry appeared among the troops, which are usually associated with "tigers" and "panthers" - SS men.

Back in 1941, the 1 Cavalry SS brigade was formed in Poland, deployed by the 1942 summer in the 1 Cavalry SS division. This division participated in one of the largest battles of the Army Group Center - a reflection of the Soviet offensive in the Rzhev region, conducted as part of Operation Mars in November-December 1942. The appearance of the Tigers and the Panthers did not lead to the destruction of German cavalry .
On the contrary, in 1944, the individual army cavalry regiments were reorganized into 3 and 4 cavalry brigades. Together with the 1 of the Hungarian cavalry division, they made up the cavalry corps Von Hartenek, which participated in the battles on the border of East Prussia, in December 1944 it was transferred to Hungary. In February, the brigade reorganized 1945 (!!! - AI) into divisions, and in March of the same year they took part in the last German offensive in World War II - the counter attack of the SS tank army at Lake Balaton. In Hungary, the two SS cavalry divisions, 8, Florian Geyer, and 22, Maria Theresa, formed in 1944, also fought. Both were destroyed in the “boiler” at Budapest. The 1945 Cavalry SS division "Lutzov" was formed from the remnants of the divisions that had jumped out of the entourage of the 37 in March.
As we see, the Germans did not disdain this kind of troops like cavalry. Moreover, they ended the war, having several times more cavalry units available than at its beginning.

***

Tales of stupid, backward cavalrymen, rushing to tanks with sacks, are at best a delusion of people poorly versed in tactical and operational matters. As a rule, these errors are the result of the dishonesty of historians and memoirists. The cavalry was quite adequate in time to the means of conducting maneuverable military operations in 1939 – 1945. This was most clearly demonstrated by the Red Army. The cavalry of the Red Army in the prewar years has undergone a sharp reduction. It was believed that it could not seriously compete with tank and motorized units on the battlefield. Of the 1938 cavalry divisions and 32 corps controls available to 7 by the start of the war, only 4 corps and 13 cavalry divisions remained. However, the experience of the war showed that the cavalry hastened with the reduction of cavalry. Creating only motorized parts and connections was, firstly, unaffordable for the domestic industry, and secondly, the nature of the terrain in the European part of the USSR in many cases did not favor the use of motor vehicles. All this led to the revival of large cavalry formations. Even at the end of the war, when the nature of the hostilities changed significantly as compared with the 1941 – 1942, the Red Army successfully operated the 7 cavalry corps, 6 of them bore the names of the Guards. In fact, during the sunset, the cavalry returned to the 1938 standard, the 7 cavalry corps directorates. The Wehrmacht cavalry experienced a similar evolution - from one brigade in 1939 to several cavalry divisions in 1945.

In 1941 – 1942 Horsemen played a crucial role in defensive and offensive operations, becoming the indispensable "quasi-infantry" of the Red Army. In fact, cavalry until the appearance in the Red Army of large independent mechanized formations and formations was the only maneuverable means of the operational level. In 1943 – 1945, when the mechanisms of tank armies were finally debugged, cavalry became a subtle tool for solving especially important tasks in offensive operations. Tellingly, the number of cavalry corps was approximately equal to the number of tank armies. There were six tank armies in 1945, seven cavalry corps. Most of those and others wore the title of the Guard at the end of the war. If tank armies were the sword of the Red Army, then cavalry was a sharp and long sword. A typical task for cavalrymen in 1943 – 1945. was the formation of the external front of the environment, a breakthrough far into the depths of the enemy’s defenses at a time when the old front fell apart and a new one had not yet been created. On a good highway, cavalry, of course, lagged behind motorized infantry. But on unpaved roads and in a wooded and marshy area, it could advance at a rate quite comparable to that of a motorized infantry. Moreover, unlike motorized infantry, the cavalry did not require the constant delivery of many tons of fuel. This allowed the cavalry corps to advance deeper than most of the mechanized formations and to ensure a high rate of advance of armies and fronts in general. The breakthroughs of cavalry to a greater depth allowed the forces of the infantrymen and tankers to save.

Argue that cavalry is a backward branch of the armed forces, only by thoughtlessness of the leadership remained in the Red Army, can only a person who does not have the slightest idea about the tactics of cavalry and vaguely imagines its operational use.
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  1. Mikhado
    Mikhado 22 January 2013 09: 26
    +20
    Great article. I remember all these ridicule by idiots at the "horsemen". And in fact, in the difficult conditions of the beginning of the war, they had a mobile "fuel-independent" well-trained infantry !!
    That is, in fact, the dragoons of the 20th century, and unlike motorized infantry, the cavalry could leak out of the way - through forest paths, through marsh gates.
    And if necessary, it was advantageous to attack some rear part on the march in a cavalry manner - against drafts.
    1. Fox
      Fox 22 January 2013 10: 40
      +6
      Quote: Mikhado
      All these ridicule by idiots at the "horsemen" I remember

      it is strange that no one is laughing about the mounted police and mounted border guards.
      1. Skavron
        Skavron 22 January 2013 11: 23
        +3
        Quote: Fox
        mounted border guards

        Especially taking into account some sections of the borders of Russia, where ONLY either on foot or on horseback.
        1. Vladimir 5
          Vladimir 5 April 22 2018 10: 35
          -1
          "nj d 21 This is in the 21st century, Today, with drones, helicopters, all-terrain vehicles, we remembered the need for horses, so don’t forget donkeys and camels ...... The successors of Voroshilov and Budyonny, whose authority on the cavalry merits of civilian, is not Due to the fault of Voroshilov and Budyonny, cavalry corps were created and continued to exist, no army of states allowed themselves such stupidity after the lessons of the 1939 war ... The famous cavalry divisions were dispersed by the Luftwaffe in 1941 in a couple of days, what can we say about meetings with motorized and tank divisions of the Wehrmacht.The horse in the Second World War became a burden immediately upon reaching the front And the main horse train died or at best went for food, especially since 1942 .. Read the memories of cavalrymen, raids on the rear turned into survival, especially in winter, attacks from a position of koonoy lava turned into a beating. From the recollection of an officer of the Wehrmacht: We knew about the raids of cavalry units on our rear and preparing an ambush. On one and left Cav. division. Three times heaped up with an equestrian attack, and each attack ended with the extermination of literally everyone with a massive machine-gun fire .. After three hours of battle, nothing was left of the division ... (approximate retelling) .. That's because the Villery divisions fought, WWII, there was not a civil war, but a war of trained and stable regular units saturated with automatic weapons ...
      2. Lee
        Lee 22 January 2013 16: 25
        0
        Quote: Fox
        and equestrian border guards

        Are they available now in the Russian Federation?
        1. klimpopov
          klimpopov 22 January 2013 17: 29
          0
          Yes. At least in Arkhyz and in the Krasnodar Territory there are, although it may be seen as an experiment, but I definitely saw it.
          1. dmitreach
            dmitreach 22 January 2013 19: 13
            0
            there was such a 121 operational regiment of the explosives.
          2. dmitreach
            dmitreach 22 January 2013 19: 38
            0
            121th regiment
            [http://rutube.ru/video/a78aefd70bf5a32d99fd143a8ab4d417/]
          3. dmitreach
            dmitreach 22 January 2013 19: 41
            0
            http://rutube.ru/video/a78aefd70bf5a32d99fd143a8ab4d417/
            Experimental Regiment. The army returns to the service of horses
          4. enot555
            enot555 1 February 2013 22: 46
            0
            it’s just at Arkhyz that I saw how tormented by horses from a near mind, I can’t get too sick, I can’t control it. I’m silent about the correct fit of the saddle and bridle, and the horse’s fate fell out of his mouth. laughter alone.
            1. WhiteBear
              WhiteBear 9 March 2013 02: 05
              0
              Because it is forbidden to take locals (since they have a clan system and are afraid to trust them), and you will not find horsemen in the call during the day with fire already.
        2. dmitreach
          dmitreach 22 January 2013 19: 12
          +2

          Lee
          , there is even a mention of camels.

          Order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation of 31.12.1999 N 628
          On approval of the lists of equipment, horse-drawn and packaged vehicles provided by organizations and citizens to troops, military units and bodies, and instructions on the registration of equipment, horse-drawn and packaged vehicles in organizations and citizens, property of organizations and repair organizations in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation

          http://docs.cntd.ru/document/901756811
          1. Uruska
            Uruska 22 January 2013 20: 13
            0
            And, imagine a tachanka paraconna in the Taman brigade!
            1. dmitreach
              dmitreach 22 January 2013 20: 33
              0
              Honestly, it’s easier for me to imagine on horseback border guards, VVshnikov and police officers.
              1. Lopatov
                Lopatov 22 January 2013 20: 36
                0
                And the mountain shooters?
                1. dmitreach
                  dmitreach 22 January 2013 21: 58
                  0
                  You can remember them.
                  The 121st experimental regiment of the explosives is cooperating with mountain brigades and the FSB.
                  http://www.vvmvd.ru/anons/prnalchik/
          2. Lee
            Lee 22 January 2013 22: 15
            0
            Well, it's all about pack and horse-drawn vehicles, but are there exactly cavalry units?
        3. Uruska
          Uruska 22 January 2013 20: 10
          0
          There was a cavalry regiment (starred in War and Peace), but it was reduced and made a Presidential escort. Well, you saw it on TV ...
        4. WhiteBear
          WhiteBear 9 March 2013 02: 02
          0
          There is a mountainous area. Use Karachai and Mongolian horses. Mostly like packs. 08.08.08 used to deliver ammunition to heights.
      3. enot555
        enot555 1 February 2013 22: 42
        0
        EH, poher preparation for covalery, would you see these border guards, if one out of a hundred can be controlled with a horse, that’s good. But there’s only one laugh !!!!!! I saw it myself. !!!
  2. Armavir
    Armavir 22 January 2013 09: 48
    +3
    Just a great article, and thank you very much for reminding everyone what the grandfathers faced and how much effort was spent on victory !!!
    Cavalry, after all, is also deep hidden and almost noiseless raids behind the front line, this is reconnaissance ... and they worked perfectly in the Caucasus. Thank you to our Grandfathers !!!
  3. borisst64
    borisst64 22 January 2013 09: 56
    +3
    To assess the effectiveness of the cavalry, I recommend attending Moscow events guarded by mounted militia and come closer and imagine that at full gallop it flies at you with a bitch or a lance. If the cavalry is close, neither machine guns nor machine guns will help.
    1. omsbon
      omsbon 22 January 2013 13: 22
      +5
      The raid on the rear of the Germans Cossacks Dovator made an indelible impression on the Nazis. Those Germans who managed to survive after meeting with the Cossacks, remembered this as the most terrible day.
    2. WhiteBear
      WhiteBear 9 March 2013 02: 10
      0
      Nonsense. The horse is a very gentle animal. She has no chance against a firearm. In modern conditions, they only deliver the fighter to the place of battle. Or against the unarmed crowd are used.
  4. Akim
    Akim 22 January 2013 10: 01
    0
    in the late 80s they wrote about a regiment or brigade of mountain assignment in the Caucasus. From the horses and then did not refuse. Interestingly, is this formation left in Russia?
    1. leon-iv
      leon-iv 22 January 2013 11: 56
      +2
      Yes 34 mountain brigade called EMNIP from double basses. Which constantly drives Indra.
      1. dmitreach
        dmitreach 22 January 2013 20: 24
        0
        There were another 121 regiments of explosives in Kabardino-Balkaria.
  5. avt
    avt 22 January 2013 10: 35
    +4
    Quote: Akim
    Great article. I remember all these ridicule by idiots at the "horsemen".
    So this is the main principle of de-Stalinizers - the main thing is to crow! And when you calmly begin to understand, consider the facts in relation to the time in which they occurred, then the picture immediately turns from flat to three-dimensional, but if you dare to just say about it - immediately wild oh that you are a de Stalinist face, a typical cheating trick, distort the facts and shout so that no one figured it out. I also want to add already on the topic of the article, the Germans already in the 41st requisitioned from our population up to 200000 horses with carts to increase the mobility of infantry formations. Source reference B. Müller-Guildenbrand "Land Army of Germany". So they come out, too, "horsemen" stupid, that the soldiers were carried on carts?
    1. Skavron
      Skavron 22 January 2013 11: 20
      +4
      Quote: avt
      , the Germans already in 41m requisitioned from our population up to 200000 horses with carts to increase the mobility of infantry units

      This is confirmed by my relatives who survived the occupation.
      The first thing the Germans requisitioned was not food and clothing, but horses and carts. Here you have the motorized infantry of the Germans)
  6. 8 company
    8 company 22 January 2013 10: 38
    -16%
    The author is obviously a direct descendant of Budyonny. It leads, as an argument, that by the end of the war the Germans increased the number of cavalry formations. And by the end of the war they also formed military units from teenagers and old people.
    So, to argue that units from adolescents and old people are a backward branch of the armed forces, can only a person who does not have the slightest idea about the tactics of the actions of such units and vaguely imagine their operational use?
    1. Poppy
      Poppy 22 January 2013 11: 55
      +4
      author, unlike you, a military historian
      1. cumastra1
        cumastra1 22 January 2013 19: 06
        +1
        What about teenagers and old people? one might think that they were not in the Red Army. Let’s remember the women, in Israel they serve for a sweet soul. And about the cavalry - my grandfather served in some part of the cavalry, he said there was no reliable transport, and the Germans took trophies of horses - apparently there were a lot of them too.
        1. ikrut
          ikrut 22 January 2013 22: 04
          +4
          Quote: cumastra1
          Germans took captured horses from the Germans - apparently there were also a lot of them.

          Father said that the horses were very helpful in the war and ordinary infantry. They drove 82-mm mortars in carts. They threw themselves closer to the front line in the gully or some shelter. And secretly and quietly it turned out. Then a cart with horses - to the forest - a dozen more - one and a half minutes on targets, until the German spotted - and again silently to a new position,
          And the Germans had a lot of horse traction. And it is quite clear that by the end of the war they had more of them. After all, there was already not enough gasoline. Because they used horses more often. Including for maneuver by infantry. There is nothing strange.
    2. mark021105
      mark021105 22 January 2013 21: 38
      -2

      8 company


      Is it true that you once graduated from the Political-Military School?
    3. Alex
      Alex 24 October 2013 12: 28
      +2
      Quote: 8 company
      The author is obviously a direct descendant of Budyonny. It leads, as an argument, that by the end of the war the Germans increased the number of cavalry formations.

      No need to juggle. The Germans had cavalry even before the beginning of the Second World War. What, according to your logic and the logic of other "advanced scientists", prevented the "highly motorized Wehrmacht" from getting rid of the "backward military service" altogether? Obviously, all the same undoubted advantages of cavalry over infantry in mobility and a relatively small dependence on a huge repair and maintenance service in comparison with mechanized troops. And the number of these formations in the Red Army and the Wehrmacht was quite consistent with their operational purpose.
      As for the units of the militia, so we had them. And there were partisans. And the underground. And all of them, along with army fighters, defended Moscow and Leningrad, defended Kiev and Sevastopol, closed the crossings on the Volga and passes in the Caucasus. And the fact that we whitewashed just speaks of who has concept of the tactics of action of such parts and who exactly vaguely imagining their operational use.
  7. Forest
    Forest 22 January 2013 10: 49
    0
    Pokryshkin wrote that he easily dispersed and shot the Romanian cavalry on MIG-3. For a short time, a few moments destroyed the cavalry unit, when the ammunition ended, they simply drove the horses into the field. So, everything has its time. Article of course +.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 22 January 2013 11: 42
      0
      Les "Pokryshkin wrote that he easily scattered and shot the Romanian cavalry on the MiG-3"
      In the steppe and sparrow you can drive to death. And in the forest near Moscow?
      1. Skavron
        Skavron 22 January 2013 11: 49
        0
        Quote: Nagaibak
        And in the forest near Moscow?

        Especially taking into account all the air defense barrels in the cavalry division.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 22 January 2013 12: 05
          +4
          Skavron "Especially considering all air defense guns in the cavalry division."
          In addition, in the corps there were up to a hundred guns with which they burned German panthers and tigers, for example near Karachev. There were mortars and anti-tank weapons. Just in some comments there is anger over this article. How does another perestroika myth fly into the furnace !!!
          1. Alex
            Alex 24 October 2013 12: 32
            +2
            Quote: Nagaibak
            How does another perestroika myth fly into the furnace !!!

            Bravo, comrade! hi
        2. Forest
          Forest 22 January 2013 12: 13
          0
          Something not a single Romanian even remembered about this, probably there was a reason)
          1. Skavron
            Skavron 22 January 2013 12: 28
            0
            Quote: Forest
            probably there was a reason)

            yes, and this reason is called "Romanian cavalry")))
            1. Forest
              Forest 22 January 2013 12: 53
              0
              Do not underestimate the merits of our aviators - the Romanians were quite combat ready.
              1. Skavron
                Skavron 22 January 2013 13: 07
                0
                So I do not underestimate))
                It was just an irony about the Romanians. I do not think that the Romanians were particularly resistant fighters.
                1. Forest
                  Forest 22 January 2013 13: 34
                  0
                  And without a reason they died)))
                2. ikrut
                  ikrut 22 January 2013 22: 13
                  +2
                  Quote: Skavron
                  I do not think that the Romanians were particularly resistant fighters.

                  The Romanians were ORDINARY fighters. Just like Poles, French, Americans or Italians. Compared to the Germans, all the "various other Swedes" were not fighters. Because honor and praise to our fathers, that even the Germans were able to break their necks.
                  As for the cavalry, I had to read that our cavalry also worked very effectively in the battles for the Caucasus. In foothill and mountainous regions, where the effectiveness of the technique was somewhat weaker and it was easier to hide from aviation, the cavalry proved to be in all its glory with dagger raids and quick attacks.
              2. The centurion
                The centurion 22 January 2013 13: 30
                0
                Quote: Forest
                we were quite efficient

                Especially great is their merit at Stalingrad. If it were not for the Romanians on the flanks of Paulus, it was not known whether they would be able to surround his army.
                1. ikrut
                  ikrut 22 January 2013 22: 17
                  +5
                  Quote: Centurion
                  Their merit is especially great at Stalingrad. If not for the Romanians on the flanks

                  This is not their merit, but our fathers and grandfathers, that any other warriors "just did". Well, the Germans are born soldiers. They even have a soldier's language :)))
                  Although, I think, the Germans were far from fools to completely disregard their flanks. Yes, and they had the opportunity to maneuver. Just ours were faster, more powerful and smarter then.
      2. Forest
        Forest 22 January 2013 12: 12
        0
        Have you seen the forest from a helicopter as viewed, if on a shaver? So, this is a matter of piloting technology.
        1. Skavron
          Skavron 22 January 2013 12: 29
          0
          Hmm ... I saw.
          Shitty viewed. Although of course looking what kind of forest, if deciduous in the summer, then you will not see nichrome in it.
          1. Forest
            Forest 22 January 2013 12: 49
            0
            Coniferous is normal.
            1. Skavron
              Skavron 22 January 2013 13: 06
              0
              Well, I’m saying ... depending on which one.
            2. Rjn
              Rjn 22 January 2013 13: 10
              0
              Yes, the taiga can be viewed perfectly, though within a patch of vertical review.
    2. Lee
      Lee 22 January 2013 16: 28
      0
      Quote: Forest
      Pokryshkin wrote

      His memories must be treated with caution.
      1. cumastra1
        cumastra1 22 January 2013 19: 15
        0
        Pokryshkin wrote this about his friend, who flew on and-16 Vadim Fadeev, and these, it seemed to me, were rumors - when the cartridges ran out, he caught up with the cavalrymen and chopped with a screw. Extremely unbelievable. and it was not in the forest, but in the steppe - in the south somewhere.
        1. Forest
          Forest 23 January 2013 11: 53
          0
          Read about yourself carefully, but also mentioned a friend.
        2. Forest
          Forest 23 January 2013 13: 39
          -1
          "In the morning, air reconnaissance discovered the advance of the enemy's cavalry division to Gai-Voron. Judging by the horse-drawn artillery, these were Hungarian or Romanian units. The air command showed high mobility and organization. Immediately, all regiments of fighters based near Kotovsk and to the east of it, it was a successful blow against the enemy cavalry, which was in the open during the day.
          Groups of "seagulls", "migs", I-16, replacing each other, stormed the cavalrymen. Bombs and "eres", machine-gun and cannon fire fell right on target. And when there was nothing to shoot with, the planes descended to the very ground, rushed with roaring engines, almost catching the cavalrymen with a screw. The frightened horses threw their riders off, cut off the lines of the cannons and scattered across the fields. Vadim Fadeev acted especially desperately. He so pressed his I-16 to the ground that, it seemed, was going to chop the enemy with a screw. By the middle of the day, the cavalry division was exterminated, and the pilots chased small groups and finished them off. "
          1. Alex
            Alex 24 October 2013 12: 39
            +2
            Forest
            And where does he write that he himself did this? This is just the work of the "seagulls" and "midges".
        3. Alex
          Alex 24 October 2013 12: 37
          +2
          Quote: cumastra1
          Pokryshkin wrote this about his friend, who flew on and-16 Vadim Fadeev, and these, it seemed to me, were rumors - when the cartridges ran out, he caught up with the cavalrymen and chopped with a screw. Extremely unbelievable. and it was not in the forest, but in the steppe - in the south somewhere.

          Absolutely, Pokryshkin did not ascribe these exploits to himself, and he just described the battles in the summer of 1941 in the south of Ukraine.
          And I doubt that on the Mig-3, which is more of an interceptor than an attack aircraft, you can deal with the cavalry like this. But the "donkey-midge" is quite suitable for this.
      2. Forest
        Forest 23 January 2013 13: 41
        0
        Then read Svanidze, there is "truth" just for you.
        1. Lee
          Lee 23 January 2013 15: 20
          0
          Quote: Forest
          Then read Svanidze, there is "truth" just for you.

          If this is you to me, then by, I just wrote that it refers to what Pokryshkin wrote about carefully.
          For example:
          Quote: Forest
          Judging by horse-drawn artillery, these were Hungarian or Romanian units.

          What was the Germans artillery mechanized without exception?
          Veterans, by the way, spoke about him not very well.
          1. Forest
            Forest 23 January 2013 15: 42
            0
            Without a doubt, you. After a while, such people will say that Pokryshkin is a literary image. And there is no need to hide behind fictional ones. "veterans".
            1. Lee
              Lee 23 January 2013 16: 21
              0
              Quote: Forest
              Without a doubt, you. After a while, such people will say that Pokryshkin is a literary image. And there is no need to hide behind fictional ones. "veterans".

              No need to attribute to me without a doubt Your conjectures, and then "denounce" them. Or is it work for the rating?
              As for the "veterans", read at least Drabkin.
              1. Forest
                Forest 23 January 2013 16: 42
                0
                I cited a quote from Pokryshkin's book. You refer to mythical veterans "by the way, they did not speak very well of him" and also accuse me of demagoguery, purely because of a pharisee.
                1. Lee
                  Lee 23 January 2013 17: 03
                  0
                  Quote: Forest
                  I cited a quote from Pokryshkin's book. You refer to mythical veterans "by the way, they did not speak very well of him" and also accuse me of demagoguery, purely because of a pharisee.


                  "Mythic" veteran Shvarev Alexander Efimovich:
                  - Pokryshkin was good at shooting down. He flew only to shoot down, not to cover, nothing. He climbed to a height. He had a very good review. I was looking for a target, I came up at high speed, Bzhik, and went. When I was engaged in combat training for two years, his follower worked with me, I already forgot his last name. We asked him what it was like to fly with Pokryshkin. It turns out that Pokryshkin did not look at anyone, did what he wanted, while the followers had to protect him. And what will bring you down is not his business.

                  A.V. Drabkin. I fought on a fighter. The first hit. 1941-1942

                  Quote: Forest
                  I quoted from Pokryshkin’s book

                  Where did I dispute the fact of the defeat of the Cavas. parts?
                  1. Forest
                    Forest 24 January 2013 09: 28
                    0
                    "He climbed to the height. He had a very good view. He was looking for a target, approached at high speed, bzhik, and went." - this was called "falcon strike" - which was developed (and trained young pilots) by Pokryshkin relying on the performance characteristics of the MIG-3 , which had an advantage in vertical maneuverability over the M-109. The task and duty of the wingman was only to cover it. And he did not have "followers" - the main combat unit consisted of pairs (for which he fought for a long time), so that ONE slave. And this is the task of the slave to COVER the leader, so that the claims are unfounded.
                    In addition Heroes Kozhedub I.N. and Ivanov L.A. They wrote that they learned from his combat experience.
                    "Where did I dispute the fact of the defeat of the cavalry unit?" -You disputed the words of Pokryshkin - "One should be careful about his memories."
                    1. Lee
                      Lee 24 January 2013 14: 34
                      0
                      Quote: Forest
                      "Where did I dispute the fact of the defeat of the cavalry unit?" -You disputed the words of Pokryshkin - "One should be careful about his memories."

                      Be careful and dispute - these are two different things, right?
                      Quote: Forest
                      "He climbed to a height. He had a very good view. He looked for a target, approached at high speed, bzhik, and went." - This was called "falcon strike"

                      This is called free hunting, you choose a convenient target, attack from one run, shot down, failed - you go out at high speed. This is the method of German aces, the result is a great personal score. The combat pilots worked, not hunted, covered bombers, etc., there is no time to choose a convenient target, the main thing is to complete the task.

                      By the way, senior lieutenant Hero of the Soviet Union Trud [55], led by Pokryshkin, was tested in this camp. So, from his words, Pokryshkin flew out with a six or eight leading, said: “I attack, cover me all!” Gained up to 6 thousand meters, but usually fights were conducted from one and a half thousand to three and a half. The "Aero Cobra" is steady as an iron, the speed is huge, good weapons, and a cabin with excellent visibility. After the war, I flew them in the 72nd Guards Regiment. So, five or seven pilots only look at him so that no one comes up, no one knocks him down. At great speed, it crashes into the enemy group from above, shoots some plane and leaves. After him, this group repeats the maneuver. If the German group crumbled, they repeat the attack on singles or a couple.

                      Ibid.
                      1. Forest
                        Forest 24 January 2013 15: 13
                        +1
                        "Treats with caution and disputes are two different things, aren't they?" -treat carefully and talk about it without challenging petty.
                        "free hunting" is a method of combat use of an aircraft (which we used more at the end of the war, at the beginning it was not mentioned) consisted in an independent search for the enemy, ie. departure without a specific assignment. A "falcon strike" is a type of combat maneuver that Pokryshkin used both in the protection of our bombers and in the attack of enemy aircraft. So, do not confuse "fat with round".
                        "Pokryshkin flew out in six or eight" - moreover, in the first years of the war, they flew out to perform assignments as a squadron, distributing targets among themselves, BUT the basis of the combat unit was TWO. Where the task of the slave was to cover the leader. So all the accusations are FALSE.
                      2. Lee
                        Lee 24 January 2013 15: 39
                        0
                        Quote: Forest
                        "Treats with caution and disputes are two different things, aren't they?" -treat carefully and talk about it without challenging petty.

                        And you blame me for pharisaism?

                        Quote: Forest
                        So that all the charges are FALSE

                        These are not my accusations, these are the memories of specific veterans.
                      3. Forest
                        Forest 24 January 2013 16: 07
                        +1
                        "And you accuse me of pharisaism?" - so YOU ​​yourself will decide whether you dispute or "Treat carefully", although judging by the quotes you dispute.
                        "These are not my accusations, these are the memories of specific veterans." - IMHO for this purpose these "drabkins" are rewriting history to show white to black.
                      4. Lee
                        Lee 24 January 2013 16: 24
                        0
                        Everything is clear with you, I wish you good luck in the fight against windmills.
                      5. Forest
                        Forest 24 January 2013 16: 39
                        0
                        I will not wish you good luck in your "cautious case", but I will say goodbye with pleasure).
                    2. Alex
                      Alex 24 October 2013 12: 46
                      +2
                      Quote: Forest
                      "These are not my accusations, these are the memories of specific veterans." - IMHO for this purpose these "drabkins" are rewriting history to show white to black.

                      And at the same time - and his irreplaceable contribution to the cause of Victory. Envy is one of mortal sins, however ...
  • zadorin1974
    zadorin1974 22 January 2013 10: 50
    +9
    Someone who knows horses, who knows how to stay in the saddle, who went on horse-riding tours will never find fault with a horse - IT IS BETTER 5 HOURS TO RIDE THAN 15 HOURS TO GO. And at the expense of "with a saber on tanks" and now there are morons capable of nailing nails with an electron microscope
    1. Lee
      Lee 22 January 2013 16: 40
      0
      Quote: zadorin1974
      And at the expense of "with a saber on tanks"

      This has never happened before.
      1. Cossack23
        Cossack23 23 January 2013 01: 25
        0
        was in Kushchevskaya village
        1. Lee
          Lee 23 January 2013 15: 23
          0
          Quote: Cossack23
          was in Kushchevskaya village

          Hmm, I was thinking about a famous bike about Polish cavalrymen. and what happened in Kushchevskaya?
    2. ikrut
      ikrut 22 January 2013 22: 23
      +3
      Quote: zadorin1974
      Who is familiar with horses, who knows how to ride in a saddle, who went on horseback riding trips will never find a horse

      That's right. I had to travel in the Sayan mountains on horseback. Honestly, I can’t think of how I could resist the cavalry detachment there. Well, except that a constant helicopter barrage ... Although this could be overcome, having, for example, several. DShK in the luggage. The mountains are wooded, the mass of gullies, ravines, narrow valleys of streams and streams ...
      I think that in some places today it’s hard to come up with a replacement horse. The Buryats and their Tuvans in the mountains and taiga prefer everything else. And they have a great reason for this.
  • Skavron
    Skavron 22 January 2013 11: 03
    +3
    Dragoons of the 20th century!
    Article "+" is unambiguous.
    1. The centurion
      The centurion 22 January 2013 13: 42
      +3
      Quote: Skavron
      Dragoons of the 20th century!

      Father all war fought on the Belarusian fronts in the shock army. He said that these armies traditionally consisted of 3's corps, tank, mechanized and cavalry. I remembered that during the raids on the rear and breakthroughs, the cavalry corps never lagged behind and always went to the starting area on time in any weather. But with the Mechanized Corps, everything happened, especially in a thaw.
  • FIMUK
    FIMUK 22 January 2013 12: 21
    -11%
    With all due respect, but all that is described in the article is just far-fetched facts of the successful use of cavalry corps.
    The author himself writes ... there was no other asset!
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 22 January 2013 13: 14
      +2
      FIMUK "With all due respect, but everything that is described in the article is just far-fetched facts of the successful use of cavalry corps."
      And what do they write about this in your American history? There is no other in your reality?
  • survivor
    survivor 22 January 2013 13: 06
    0
    article +. the experience of using cavalry in the Second World War clearly shows that it is not necessary to write off it from the account.
  • 955535
    955535 22 January 2013 13: 21
    +8
    My grandfather served in the 5th Guards Don Cossack Corps. He took part in the defense of Stalingrad. There they had to fight on foot, horses, due to lack of forage and food shortages, had to be eaten. But in the Korsun-Shevchenko operation, the corps fought, as befits the cavalry, leaked inside the cauldron and carried out raid operations in the German rear, causing terror and panic. My grandfather said that he had a chance to "chop meat" there. The Korsun-Shevchenko operation was the last battle for my grandfather - he was seriously wounded. They found him by accident a few days later, covered with earth when the dead were buried.
    1. max73
      max73 22 January 2013 18: 02
      +1
      the Germans, according to their recollections, were shocked by the attacks of cavalrymen in the Korsun-Shevchenkovsky operation. this is mentioned a lot
    2. ikrut
      ikrut 22 January 2013 22: 27
      +1
      Quote: 955535
      Grandfather said that he had a chance to "chop meat" there

      My father also passed Stalingrad and was near Korsun. The truth is not in the cavalry, but in the infantry. He also said that he had not seen such "meat" as near Korsun during the entire war.
  • Evgeny_Lev
    Evgeny_Lev 22 January 2013 13: 36
    0
    I think the exoskeleton should be done on horses, hang bulletproof armor on it (on the skeleton) and mount the warrior with the appropriate weapons.
    1. zadorin1974
      zadorin1974 22 January 2013 13: 53
      +2
      Dear eugene lion, there is an old phrase - I DON'T KNOW WHICH WEAPONS WILL BE FIGHTED IN THE THIRD WORLD WAR, BUT I EXACTLY KNOW THAT FOURTH STICKS AND STONES. So it’s still unknown, maybe you’ll be the first to jump onto the horse - you personally went hunting on a horse (specially trained) above all praise
      1. Evgeny_Lev
        Evgeny_Lev 22 January 2013 14: 26
        0
        Do not so categorically reject my option.
        If you look with an open mind, you can find a bunch of + in this solution.
        Whatever the case, the horse is more enduring and stronger than a person. The energy consumption for a skeleton with an increase in size from a person to a horse is unlikely to change much. 4 horse legs as a fulcrum are better than two human legs, this can give greater freedom in the layout of the skeleton. A horse makes fewer types of body movement. Etc.
        Why come up with armor for a man if the cavalry in armor was much stronger?
        1. WhiteBear
          WhiteBear 9 March 2013 02: 23
          0
          A horse is much less hardy than a man. And just do not the most effective animal. Just the only one so tamed. The energy efficiency of horses is much lower since there is much less energy-intensive nutrition. The daily crossing rate for an equestrian unit does not exceed 30km. If it is exceeded, then every few days you need to do 1-2 days of rest. In general, the most effective is a cyclist.
      2. Alex
        Alex 24 October 2013 12: 51
        +2
        Quote: zadorin1974
        Dear eugene lion, there is an old phrase - I DON'T KNOW WHICH WEAPONS WILL BE FIGHTED IN THE THIRD WORLD WAR, BUT I EXACTLY KNOW THAT FOURTH STICKS AND STONES.

        Attributed to Einstein, but something is not very trusted. Most likely, a walking product of the collective work of nuclear physicists.
  • wax
    wax 22 January 2013 14: 09
    +4
    The truth is concrete. The fact of the use of horses until the end of the war suggests that there were undeniable arguments for equestrian traction and as a means of transportation for significant masses of fighters. You can’t put an infantryman on a horse, cannot sit in a saddle, and you can always rush a cavalryman. Therefore - CAVALERY! After the war, many horses, having fought, went to plow gardens, haul logs, went to sausage. A horse, a horse - is there really a more devoted, patient and clever assistant in labor to a person. The destruction of horses will become a great sin of man.
    1. Skavron
      Skavron 22 January 2013 14: 38
      +2
      Quote: Wax
      Is there a more dedicated, patient and clever helper

      How can you not recall the words of Rosenbaum: "... peace at home, where dogs and horses are loved ..."
  • knn54
    knn54 22 January 2013 18: 14
    +1
    Of the Cossacks, 262 cavalry received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, 7 cavalry corps and 17 cavalry divisions received guards. A large contribution to the victory over Japan was made by the horse-mechanized group under the command of General Pliev. The general himself was awarded the 2nd Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. He is also a Hero of the MPR and commander of the Order of the Legion of Honor (USA).
  • max73
    max73 22 January 2013 18: 50
    +4
    to the author - thanks and + definitely !. I did not go to the original source, but I saw a few nuances, not noted in any way: 1. in the 41st near Moscow and Kalinin, the cavalry divisions were in business: 44th (from Iran), 46th, 54th, 17 -I. in the defense of the capital and the counter-offensive, they showed themselves great ... 2. it is a pity that the vicious practice of forming the so-called. "light" cavalry divisions, which were disbanded in 42-43, and the l / s were sent to the cadre divisions ... 3. The war showed that the successful use of cavalry corps very much depends on the area in which the operation is being carried out ... steppe south and forest north - nothing! examples: the 11th Cavalry Corps almost reached Vyazma, but how many came back? or the 13th Cavalry Corps in the Luban-Chudov operation?
    this is where the forests were ... in the steppes the enemy aircraft also made a rustle ... Pliev's memoirs, an example ... but about the corps surrounded by Voroshilovgrad in the winter of the 43rd - not a word ... 4. KMG-horse-mechanized groups are not mentioned at all ... but in Belarus and near Odessa, and in Romania and Hungary they showed themselves great
  • Volozhanin
    Volozhanin 22 January 2013 19: 11
    0
    Maybe a little off topic, but about 8-9 years ago, it seems that I saw a cool picture in the Russian reporter, it was written by American special forces in Afghanistan: brutal, bearded men on HORSES !!!!!!
  • Edgar
    Edgar 22 January 2013 19: 28
    +2
    with the presence of cars that was in the Red Army (and the complete absence of armored personnel carriers), the presence of dragoon cavalry, which served as motorized rifles, was the only right decision.
  • redcod
    redcod 22 January 2013 21: 03
    +2
    By the way, under the USSR, somewhere in Osh (Kyrgyzstan) there was a squadron of mountain cavalry. They belonged to the GB troops, but on the day-to-day epaulettes were red. Only on a demobilization cornflower-blue epaulets were dressed. The emblems were interesting: a horseshoe and two crossed checkers. I had such an emblem, but then it disappeared somewhere.
    1. knn54
      knn54 23 January 2013 17: 59
      0
      In Osh, a motorized rifle regiment was disbanded in 1982, a tank battalion was transferred to Kazakhstan. In exchange, 2 (3?) Cavalry divisions were added and a mountain rifle brigade was created. After the collapse of the Union, only local soldiers were called up - soldiers often spent the night at home.
  • Alf
    Alf 22 January 2013 22: 39
    +1
    Do not forget the fact that during the war it turned out that the operational speed of the cavalry units was almost equal to the speed of the armored units.
    It should also be taken into account that the cavalry units at a certain time, unlike the infantry, can sharply increase their speed, which is very significant when operating behind enemy lines.
    I must also note that a comrade from a certain unit praises everything `` Busurmanskoe '' and, without looking, pours everything Soviet, which cannot but arouse suspicion. Although if he was taught this in a political school, then one should not be surprised at the collapse of our country.
  • Jah
    Jah 22 January 2013 23: 21
    0
    http://militera.lib.ru/research/isaev_av2/05.html
  • makarich26
    makarich26 23 January 2013 00: 00
    0
    Quote: survivor
    article +. the experience of using cavalry in the Second World War clearly shows that it is not necessary to write off it from the account.

    Of course, another 300 years horses will fight. And it’s too early to write off carts.
    You are strange people, the so-called "military historians" ...
    1. Edgar
      Edgar 23 January 2013 15: 34
      0
      do not tell! already at the time described in the article, all the same, the use of cavalry was specific and quite limited. the wider use of cavalry in the Red Army / SA due to limited mechanization. now cavalry is not used at all, even nomadic tribes prefer pickups.
  • uncle gosh
    uncle gosh 23 January 2013 00: 06
    +1
    My grandfather fought in the 2nd cavalry corps. In November 1941, their gender, in the echelon, stood on the Moscow District. They were in reserve and were waiting for a breakthrough either from Podolsk or from Klin. Then the heavy raid which the author described truthfully and sincerely. Thank you very much. No wonder the 2nd cavalry corps became 1 Guards Cavalry Corps. Glory to General Belov, who managed to bring, with battles, a corps from the Southern Front.
    1. 77bor1973
      77bor1973 23 January 2013 08: 25
      +2
      I would like to say about the breakthrough of the 1st Guards. cavalry corps from the boiler near Rzhev, by the time of the breakthrough, most of the horses had fallen, and during the encirclement Belov formed an almost entire tank brigade of abandoned and wrecked tanks during the retreat, which he used during the breakthrough.
  • Dikremnij
    Dikremnij 25 January 2013 13: 01
    0
    Yes, indeed, the cavalry proved to be very good at the beginning of the war, but this was the reason for the lack of armored vehicles in the mechanized corps and then, with an increase in the number of armored vehicles produced, it lost its position, but it found a new and exclusive destination - raids on enemy rear lines, especially in Belarus. Not in vain, after all, in a reconnaissance company of a rifle regiment, one platoon was cavalry.
  • Alex
    Alex 24 October 2013 12: 58
    +1
    A good review article, but the discussion led to the thought: maybe someone has the information and the ability to analytical thinking, sufficient to write a larger article with all the nuances missed by the author? It would be interesting to read sober assessments (with pluses and minuses) of the use of cavalry in WWII by all warring armies.
    Article honored "+"