Fight of Panfilov's men near the Dubosekovo crossing
In my opinion, the main problem of most authors of articles on this topic is that they jump into “November 16th”, as if into a pool, so they first plunge headlong, and then, having drunk on pseudo-historical water, begin to actively flounder, clinging to old logs floating in it like “according to Vasiliev’s recollections it was so and so”; “and Kaprov said that in fact, it was not 28 people who fought heroically near Dubosekovo, but the entire 4th company”; “and the head of the political department of the 316th Infantry Division said in his report that, according to unspecified data, in the area of 1075th Infantry Division at least 9 Germans were shot down tanks"; “but Malik Gabdulin remembered how...” etc., etc.
I think that in order to find the correct answer to the question “Was there really a time. Dubosekovo battle, during which the Germans lost 18 tanks?”, first you need to step back in time - to the very first battle of the 1075th rifle regiment near Volokolamsk, which also took place on the 16th, but only a month earlier (before that there were only minor skirmishes between the reconnaissance units of the regiments).
In the documents of the 1075th Rifle Division and 316th Infantry Division dated October 16–17, it is described extremely sparingly and contradictorily, although on October 16 it was the only battle of the division’s units.
First battle of the 316th Infantry Division
According to the operational report of the headquarters of the 316th Infantry Division, on October 16.10.41, 1075, on the left flank of the 06th Infantry Division near the Bolychevo state farm, a heavy battle broke out from 00:75 - the advancing enemy in the amount of 6 tanks and a motorized infantry regiment tried to break through this line, and the XNUMXth Infantry Company, which was holding the defense, did this to him didn't allow it.
But the most remarkable thing is that, according to one of the operational reports of the headquarters of the 316th rifle division, in this battle the enemy lost 17 tanks (there is no such data in the documents of the 1075th rifle division).
As a result, the Germans nevertheless took possession of the state farm by 16:00 (which is confirmed by their documents, but without reference to time).
Then the headquarters of the 1075th rifle regiment, in order to provide assistance to the 6th company encircled on the state farm, developed a plan for a small offensive operation. However, it never took place, because the company seemed to have left the encirclement at night (that is, from Bolychevo). But allegedly she did not leave completely - one platoon still remained on the state farm (apparently, it was he who was initially surrounded).
Thus, according to Soviet documents, it is not entirely clear who won the victory in the end: it seems that the Germans overcame the defensive line of Panfilov’s men and took the state farm, but it seems they didn’t take it, since there was a whole input there. And at night they either removed the encirclement themselves and left, or not themselves, but withdrew in the early morning of October 17, knocked out "concentrated fire from our artillery". That is, it turns out that in the end, each of the opponents seemed to remain to their own.
But the losses of the parties speak in favor of the Panfilov’s victory: according to Soviet documents, the Germans took them out of Bolychevo “4 cars killed and a large number of wounded”, and the losses of the 6th company were 1 killed, 8 wounded and 4 guns (two 45 mm and two 76 mm). Well, don’t forget about the main trophy of Panfilov’s men: 17 destroyed tanks.
In short, this one is confusing historical the question is still waiting for its researcher, who will thoroughly delve into the enemy’s documents to clarify it.
Judging by the combat reports of the 316th Infantry Division, on October 17, the Germans no longer tried to storm Bolychevo; they wisely bypassed it to the north and opened the division’s defense line at Fedosino, this time encircling the 2nd Infantry Division of the 1075th Infantry Division (apparently the 4th and 5th companies). But then Panfilov’s men were rescued by the tankmen of the 22nd Tank Brigade - already with the onset of darkness, as a result of their swift tank attack, the encirclement ring was broken, the rifle battalion was rescued from it, and the situation was restored. For what “Major General Panfilov expressed gratitude to the tankers, and the liberated infantrymen kissed them as their liberators”.
Fragment of a map with the operational situation developing on the left flank of the 316th Infantry Division on October 16–18, 1941.
Thus, we can conclude that the first two days of combat for the 1075th joint venture were, although not entirely successful, still with a successful ending.
The collapse of the regiment's defense occurred in the next two days. The main forces of the enemy arrived, and he dealt such a crushing blow that by the end of the day on October 19, the 1075th rifle regiment had actually lost its combat effectiveness. By that time, due to large losses of personnel, the 2nd and 3rd battalions had turned into small detachments, and therefore were no longer considered as serious combat units.
Only the 1st battalion retained relative combat effectiveness. And only thanks to this circumstance (and also because of the impossibility of replacement) subsequently 1075 joint venture continued to appear as one of the scattered links of the mobile defense of 16 A, participated in battles, was partially replenished, retreated, and in the end (most likely) on October 28 found itself in its the main historical place at times. Dubosekovo.
But this is a topic for another study, so I return to the original question.
The origins of the birth of the myth about the battle near Dubosekovo
It can be assumed that since the battle for the Bolychevo storage warehouse was the very first battle of the 316th Infantry Division in the Western Fleet (the first milestone on the glorious military path of the division), it was somehow awkward to admit that in fact it ended extremely unsuccessfully - the 6th company of the 1075th Infantry Division On October 16, it retreated from the occupied line near the Bolychevo storage farm, without orders. Although she retreated for only a short time, she returned back early the next morning. Yes, and they retreated partially - one platoon on the state farm (according to the operational report) still remained to hold the defense.
Therefore, it can be assumed that subsequently, when there was a lull in the fighting (early November), the actual course of events at the Bolychevo storage farm was already completely lost in the array of other combat events of the division, of which there were more than enough in October. As a result, in the division’s combat leaflets and when compiling a description of its combat path, the battle for the Bolychevo storage farm was slightly adjusted, and thanks to the work of political instructors in a “heroized” version, it was brought to the attention of all fighters and commanders of the division. That is, it was turned into a vivid example of the fearlessness and heroism of the people of the division, which later became the Guards, shown already in the first battles.
For example, in a brief outline of the military operations of the 8th Guards. The SD battle for Bolychevo had already lasted for two days - 16 and 17. And in the award documents of the political instructor of the 6th Wed P.B. Vikhrev, the company fought for the state farm starting on October 14. Moreover, for two days she defended herself surrounded, “...after which, under the leadership of Comrade Vikhrev, she broke through the ring of enemy encirclement and connected with 1075 joint ventures”.
And, apparently, the echoes of this particular battle, which took place on October 16, reached the capital’s correspondents through “second or third hands”, and eventually ended up on the pages of newspapers (the first publication in the Izvestia newspaper is dated November 18). Then, in each new article by each new author, the events began to acquire new fictitious details.
And when Krivitsky, who was the last to join this relay race, began to collect clarifying data for his second article (probably in January 1942), the political department either by mistake (confusing it with the old age) or deliberately informed him that this heroic battle, previously described in several articles, took place not on October 16, but on November 16. That is, on the day when events developed even worse than before at Bolychevo.
Dubosekovo surfaced in Krivitsky’s second article due to the fact that on October 16 and November 16 the Germans attacked the left flank of the regiment, and according to the division’s documents, on November 16 this flank ended at the Dubosekovo junction. Consequently, it was there that the heroic battle of a platoon of brave men took place with German tanks attacking their positions.
So from a real historical battle that took place on October 16 (the details of which are still poorly researched), due to the remoteness and abundance of events that took place, confusion with dates, and also thanks to the powerful efforts of the collective imagination of newspapermen and workers of the political department of the 8th Guards. SD, as a result, a fairy-tale battle was gradually born, supposedly taking place on November 16 at once. Dubosekovo.
Bolychevo was replaced by Dubosekovo, 17 destroyed tanks were transformed into 18, the platoon remaining in Bolychevo turned into 28 heroes killed at the junction, and the remaining details (about the large number of motorized infantry and enemy tanks) for the most part remained unchanged. And when it turned out that the positions at Dubosekovo were defended by the 4th company, Krivitsky only had to get from its commander P.M. Gundilovich the names of the people from his company who died that day, including political instructor Klochkov (who replaced the real Vikhrev and the newspaper Diev).
This is how the nameless heroic epic, previously wandering through the newspapers, composed according to the echoes of the first battle of the regiment, was mistakenly attached by Krivitsky to specific historical events (battles of the 1075th rifle regiment at the turn of “height 251,0, Petelino, Dubosekovo district”) and to specific people , further fantasized and published on January 22, 1942 in another newspaper publication.
Then Krivitsky did not miss the opportunity to periodically repeat the invented epic in his subsequent publications, thanks to which it quickly and thoroughly strengthened in Russian historiography in the form of an undoubted historical event.
In conclusion, I consider it useful to draw the reader’s attention to one more curious circumstance.
For some reason, Ivan Vasilyevich Panfilov always placed 1075 rifle regiments on the left flank of his division’s defensive line. And for some reason the Germans had a habit of starting the next stage of their offensive by striking precisely at the left flank of the 316th Infantry Division.
As a result, by a strange coincidence, the 1075th Regiment was the first of the division's regiments to take the blow of the attacking enemy on both October 16 and November 16.
The only difference was that on October 16 it was an almost fully equipped fresh regiment. But the enemy, on the contrary, acted with relatively small forward forces, therefore, with some reservations (until proven otherwise), we can conclude that the regiment withstood the first “October” blow.
On November 16, exactly the opposite happened: the 1075th rifle regiment was already small in composition and had too weak anti-tank defense means, i.e., it was actually conditionally combat-ready. And his enemy (2 TD), on the contrary, was strong - well equipped with tanks (about 100 units), artillery and motorized infantry.
Under the circumstances, it was not possible to resist his attack, so on November 16, the 1075th Regiment was defeated, the Germans quickly suppressed pockets of resistance, and by about 16:316 the fighting in the regiment’s defensive sector was over. Some of the people, along with the regimental headquarters, retreated to Shishkino (where the headquarters of the XNUMXth Infantry Division was located), the rest died, were captured, or, at best, made their way through the forests, escaping from encirclement.
There is no doubt that many heroic deeds were committed on November 16, but, alas, we will never know about them...
It can be assumed that, as usual, the exploits of people were not as vivid as they were usually presented in newspaper articles or films about the war. The heroes did not hit dozens of tanks and did not mow down fascists by hundreds. They simply fought until the last grenade and last cartridge, defending their positions or covering the retreat of their comrades. And by their death they deserved immortality, but, alas, the names of these true heroes have sunk into oblivion...
It is known that nature abhors a vacuum, and as a result, the resulting vacuum was filled by a fairy tale about 28 fictional heroes...
Is it correct?
The philosophical question ...
- Lev Tyurin
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