Platon Zubov. The last favorite of Catherine II

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Platon Zubov. The last favorite of Catherine II
Platon Zubov in the portrait of A. Naumov from the original by Gau and Catherine II in the portrait of V. Eriksen

In her youth, Catherine II knew how to “work with personnel.” At the beginning of her reign, she was surrounded entirely by bright and strong people. About the same Orlovs, she told the French ambassador Louis Auguste de Breteuil in 1763 that she owed them “for what I am.” This is truly a unique case in stories, when it was the monarch who was more favored by the favorite’s family, and not vice versa.


Orlovs and Catherine II, collage

The favorite of the new empress was the handsome Grigory, but Alexei, of course, especially stood out among all five Orlov brothers. It was him who Evgeniy Tarle called “a dangerous, formidable, ambitious person, capable of anything, and determined to do anything.” And he wrote about him:



“No moral, physical, or political obstacles existed for him, and he could not even understand why they existed for others.”


Unknown artist. Portrait of A. Orlov against the background of the Battle of Chesme, Hermitage

Count F. Golovkin, the Russian envoy in Naples, said about Alexei Orlov:

“I would not entrust him with a wife or a daughter, but I could do great things with him.”

And one of the French diplomatic dispatches sent to Paris from St. Petersburg in 1770 contains a message that Catherine “reveres, fears and loves” Alexei Orlov.

She feared him, of course, much more than she loved and respected him. And therefore, having sent to burn the Ottoman fleet, she forbade the hero of Chesma to return to Russia. But he still returned - after the abduction of the mysterious “Princess Tarakanova”.

Unfortunately, Catherine did not keep such a high bar. Subsequently, in her immediate circle there were more and more flatterers and sycophants, and the new favorites, with the sole exception of Grigory Potemkin, were people who were not outstanding and absolutely insignificant.

However, the aging empress took each of these sugary handsome men seriously and at first fell in love with them, like a girl. She tried to tie them to her with unheard of gifts.

The English envoy James Harris, in one of his reports to London, reports on the expenses of Catherine II on the maintenance of some of her lovers (modern researchers consider Harris’s data to be quite reliable).

So, A. S. Vasilchikov, for example, for less than two years of “service” in the personal chambers of the empress received 100 thousand rubles in silver, 50 thousand rubles in gold “trinkets”, a fully furnished house worth 100 thousand rubles, an annual pension of 20 thousand rubles and 7 thousand souls of peasants.

For a year and a half, P.V. Zavadovsky was granted 6 thousand souls of peasants in Little Russia, 2 thousand in Poland, 1 in Russian provinces, 800 thousand rubles in cash, jewelry worth 150 thousand rubles, a service worth 80 thousand and a pension of 30 thousand rubles

In the one year that he was “in the case,” S. G. Zorich received estates in Poland and Livonia, the command of the Order of Malta in Poland, 500 thousand rubles in cash and 200 thousand rubles in jewelry.

Over sixteen months, Catherine paid I. N. Korsakov 370 thousand rubles from the treasury and donated 4 thousand peasants in Poland.

But this empress considered Field Marshal Mikhail Kamensky, whom his contemporaries called Suvorov’s rival, and Derzhavin “the last (remaining) sword of Catherine,” “the most boring person in the world.” And as a gift for one of his victories, she sent him 5 thousand rubles. Kamensky was very offended, because he knew what sums the insignificant lovers of this queen received. The same Platon Zubov, after three days of “service” in the bedroom, received 10 thousand rubles and a precious ring with a portrait of Catherine.

Here is another example of the inadequacy of Catherine II’s rewards for her favorites. It is estimated that out of 3 officers and generals of the Russian army who participated in the Battle of Borodino, only 952 had serfs. About 150 more were heirs to very modest estates. Others lived only on their salaries and many were, as they say, “in debt, like silk.” But under Alexander I, they at least received this salary on time. Under Catherine II, who was terribly afraid of not paying extra to her favorites, army officers received their salaries with huge delays - like state employees under Yeltsin. It is known that Peter Bagration, who was mortally wounded in the Battle of Borodino, left behind huge debts. And Barclay de Tolly, for lack of free funds, could not pay for the application of the order seal to the imperial letters for the Order of St. Vladimir of the 700st degree - 1 rubles and 60nd degree - 2 rubles - just ridiculous money by the standards of any of Catherine’s favorites . His total debt to the Chapter was 30 rubles, later this money was withheld from the pension “St. George” money. Compare the merits of these people with the dubious “feats” that Vasilchikov, Zorich, Zavadovsky and other favorites performed in the bedroom of the aging Catherine II.

The Empress's bed pleasures were paid for by the Russian people, primarily by the peasants. It was under Catherine II that “wild landowners” appeared in Russia, and patriarchal serfdom turned into classical slavery. Before the revolution, by the way, all researchers assessed the reign of this empress very soberly, and often even critically. A.V. Stepanov, for example, wrote in 1903:

“Neither the people nor the government cared about each other. The first completely ignored the opinion of its people, and the latter, being downtrodden morally and physically, and burdened with unbearable taxes and taxes, represented a silent mass, standing outside all laws.”

But the negative traits of Catherine II became especially noticeable in the last years of her life. A. Herzen, by the way, recalled how the accession of Paul I was perceived in society:

“The heavy, old-woman, suffocating atmosphere of the last time of Catherine’s time was cleared by Paul.”

And here is how Elizaveta Alekseevna, the wife of Alexander I, assessed the reign of Catherine II:

“This country is tired of being ruled by a fat old German woman.”

It was only later that Catherine’s son, according to V. Khodasevich, “was condemned by his murderers, who, by condemning him, justified themselves.” And Leo Tolstoy will write that Paul I “was considered half-mad because he was killed”: if the conspiracy had ended in failure, no one would have declared Paul a crazy tyrant.

The apotheosis of the senile degradation of Catherine’s personality was the approach of her last favorite - the completely worthless and insignificant Platon Zubov, whom she herself called “Child”, “Playful”, “Child”, “Little dark-haired”, “Gypsy Boy” and “Written Boy”. In a letter to Potemkin she writes about Plato:

"That's a pretty sweet baby."

And Catherine’s cabinet secretary Alexander Khrapovitsky even called Zubov “Duraleyushka.” Can you imagine that someone would dare to use any of these nicknames, addressing not only the super-passionate and formidable Alexei Orlov, but even his brother, the “very handsome man” Grigory?

But even her secret husband, Grigory Potemkin, could not cope with the infantile lover of the aged empress. He never managed to “pull out his bad teeth,” but he directly promised to do this not to anyone, but to his favorite’s brother, Valerian. In the summer of 1791, a conversation that was very unpleasant for the Most Serene Prince took place between Potemkin and Catherine, after which he left St. Petersburg and soon died at the age of only 53 years - in the Moldavian village of Starye Radeni between Nikolev and Iasi. Of course, there were silent rumors that Potemkin was poisoned by the Zubovs.


Grigory Potemkin in an engraving by Kharitonov from a drawing by Ivanov. 1788 Possessed outstanding administrative abilities, which were partly offset by long periods of depression, during which he abandoned all his affairs and literally “turned into a vegetable”

It must be said that Catherine was saddened by the death of Potemkin, they even “opened her veins” (bloodletting). She wrote to Baron Friedrich Grimm in Germany:

“My student, my friend, one might say, an idol, Prince Potemkin-Tauride died... Again I need to train people for myself!”

"Train"! What can I say? Catherine II could never be accused of excessive modesty - even with a very strong desire.

Platon Zubov (together with his brothers Valerian and Nikolai and sister Olga) later “thanked” his benefactor by taking part in a conspiracy against her son, Paul, which ended in the murder of this emperor.

So, Platon Zubov, his brothers and sister Olga did not shine with talent, but they played a big and bad role in the history of our country. In today's article we will talk about this family.

Noble family of Zubovs


If we open the “General armorial of the noble families of the All-Russian Empire”, we will see the following entry:

“The nobles of the Zubovs, counts of the Roman Empire, come from the ancient noble family of Amragat, and by baptism named Zacharias, who in 1237 was the governor of the city of Vladimir.”

The said Amragat is supposedly the Khan’s baskak. That is, the Zubovs claimed Mongolian origin - very honorable in the Russian Empire, where the Genghisids were considered more noble than both the Rurikovichs and the Gediminovichs. The Mongolian Baskak, of course, is not a Genghisid, but he is also quite a noble person. Moreover, this Amragat was allegedly almost the second person in Rus' after the Grand Duke of Vladimir. The Zubov family handwritten genealogy states:

“Amragat was the governor of Vladimir and, after the assassination of Prince Georgy Vsevolodovich by Batu-Tsar, he went to gather the forces of the Nizovs against the Germans and made peace with them, taking their land to the Narva River, then he was baptized and named Zachary.”

This information does not stand up to criticism, since Vladimir was taken by the Mongols only in 1238. And Amragat could not have been the deputy of Prince George, who had already died on the City River. And there were no Baskaks in Rus' at that time. The so-called Great Vladimir Baskak appears on the pages of chronicles in 1269:

“Great Prince Yaroslav Yaroslavich... sent a brother army to Volodymer, although the Germans had gathered a lot of strength, and the great Baskak of Volodimer, and Agarman, and his son-in-law Aidar came with many Tatars; and then the Germans who heard it were afraid and trembling, sending their ambassadors with great petition and with many gifts, and finishing off with their foreheads all his will, and all the Izdarish, and the great Baskak, and all the Princes of the Tatars and Tatars; ...and Narova (Narva) retreated and returned completely.”

It follows from the text that Agarman is not the Great Baskak of Vladimir, but a subordinate of this Horde official. And it is unlikely that this is the same Amragat who was baptized 32 years ago, receiving the Christian name Zachary.

The next time Argaman is mentioned is in the chronicle for 1273:

“Great Prince Vasily Yaroslavich... with the great Baskak of Volodymer, and Argaman, and with Prince Andar, and with many Tatar Tsars, he fought the Novgorod authorities, and returned with many people to Vladimer.”

And, again, Argaman and the Great Vladimir Bask are presented as completely different people.

A. Khalikov, in his book “1992 Russian surnames of Bulgaro-Tatar origin” published in 500, suggested that the alleged founder of the Zubov family could not be a Tatar, but a representative of one of the noble families of Volga Bulgaria, who fled from the Mongols to Rus' in 1236. In particular, V. Tatishchev wrote about the arrival of such fugitives, using sources that have not reached our time:

“That same year (1236), many Bulgarians escaped Tatar captivity, came to Rus' and asked to be given a place. The Great Prince Yuri was very happy about this and ordered them to be taken to cities near the Volga and others.”

According to Khalikov, the name Amragat is a distorted version of Amir Gata or Amir Gataullah. This “Volga-Bulgar” Amragat could really be in Vladimir and baptized in 1237.

Now let's talk about Platon Zubov, and then about his brothers and sister Olga.

The last favorite of Catherine II


Platon Zubov was born in November 1767 and, like many nobles of Catherine’s Golden Age, he began “military service” at a very “tender” age (at 8 years old), without even appearing in the regiment to which he was assigned. And this regiment was the Semenovsky Life Guards, and Catherine II herself was listed as its colonel.

He soon “promoted” to the rank of sergeant, and in 1779 (at the age of 12) he was transferred as a sergeant to the Horse Guards. In 1784, Platon Zubov was already a cornet, and in 1787 he was promoted to lieutenant. In 1788, the Horse Guards were sent to Finland to fight against Sweden, but never entered into battle.

In 1789, 22-year-old Plato became a second captain, and the patron of the Zubov family, Count N.I. Saltykov, vice-president of the Military Collegium, decided to strengthen his influence at court by slipping him to Catherine as a new lover. At this time, the previous favorite, Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov, deeply upset the empress, who still considered herself sexually attractive, by choosing her maid of honor Daria Shcherbatova over her.

A. Dmitriev-Mamonov in the portrait of N. Argunov:


Daria Shcherbatova in Rokotov’s portrait:


And this is how Catherine II looked 16 years earlier, in 1773 (in an engraved portrait by Dickinson) - as they say, “feel the difference”:


Having given her consent to this marriage, Catherine ordered the newlyweds to leave St. Petersburg. And she drew attention to the new commander of the imperial convoy, who received this position under the patronage of Saltykov.

At the time of this fateful meeting, the empress was 60 years old, Platon Zubov was 22 years old. And, it seems, the tender feelings that Catherine experienced for this insignificant person were close to maternal ones. At least in terms of masculinity, he was clearly inferior to her previous lovers.


Platon Zubov in the portrait of I. Lampi, 1793

And this is what Ekaterina looked like when she met Platon Zubov:


Jean-Urbain Guerin. Portrait of Catherine the Great. 1789

All contemporaries write with some surprise about Zubov as a rather nondescript, slight, even frail and not very handsome person - and even with a long nose. Count Sternberg gives the following description of his appearance:

“He is of average height, very thin, has a rather large nose, black hair and the same eyes. His appearance does not represent anything majestic.”

In the “Secret Notes” of the secretary of Count N.I. Saltykov, Charles Masson, it says about Plato:

“Of all the darlings of happiness during the reign of Catherine II, not one, except Zubov, was frail both externally and internally.”

We remember that Catherine called Plato “Child”, “Child”, “Frolic”, “Little Boy” and so on - nicknames that were quite offensive for an adult man. Zubov’s behavior was quite consistent with these nicknames: he was openly infantile and behaved like a big child, which did not irritate Catherine, but, on the contrary, brought her to tenderness. By the way, in one of G. Derzhavin’s odes he addresses Plato, who loved to fly kites, with the following words:

“Don’t just let the golden snakes down from the tower
And, looking at the sky, don’t fall.”

Many at the Court were sure that the Empress would quickly get tired of “Stupid” Plato - and they were wrong. He held the “position” of favorite for 7 years, remaining until the death of Catherine II.

Everything was in order with the potency of the “written boy”: on June 21, 1789, “Rezvusha” visited the Empress’s personal chambers for the first time, and already on June 24 he received a ring with a portrait of Catherine and 10 thousand rubles as a gift, and on July 4 he became a colonel and an outhouse. adjutant, taking over the chambers of his former favorite, Mamonov. By the way, the wing of the Catherine Palace is still called Zubovsky.

Plato became General on October 3, 1789. A few years later, Count Rostopchin would write to the Russian envoy in England, Vorontsov:

“There are all teeth here.”

Just think: for 7 years the domestic and foreign policy of our country was greatly influenced by a stupid infantile who put forward fantastic projects for annexing not only Constantinople and large areas of Asia, but even Berlin and Vienna to the empire, and creating new territorial entities in Europe - “Austrasia” and "Neustria". Count A. Bezborodko, who actually headed the foreign policy department, said about himself:

“I am a goldsmith: I cleanse what dirty Teeth.”

One involuntarily recalls the words of Ernst von Minich, the son of the famous field marshal, contemporary of Catherine II and Platon Zubov:

“The Russian Empire has the advantage over the others that it is controlled directly by God. Otherwise its preservation would be incomprehensible.”

But Catherine II doted on her “Foolish” soul and in 7 years only “looked to the left” twice.

One day, her attention was attracted by Valerian Zubov, who, by all accounts, was much more handsome than his brother. But Plato immediately sent him to the army - we’ll talk about this later.

More trouble was caused by another contender for a place in Catherine's bed - the brilliant gentleman Chevalier Joseph de Sax, the morganatic son of the Saxon prince Franz Xaver. His appearance at court caused great alarm among both Zubov and the people who stood behind him, using the influence of the favorite for their own purposes. They managed to provoke a quarrel between Sax and the young prince Nikolai Shcherbatov, which ended not even in a duel, but in a banal fight in which the Russian aristocrat used either a cane or a stick. Indeed, why stand on ceremony with this foreign chevalier? Tea did not come to Paris.

As a result, both were expelled from St. Petersburg: Sax - abroad, Shcherbatov - to one of their villages.

This story had a continuation. Already during the reign of Alexander I, in 1802, Platon Zubov went abroad and in Vienna met de Sax, who already knew about his role in the St. Petersburg scandal. He challenged Plato to a duel, but even before the start of the fight he “stumbled upon Sax’s sword with his palm,” after which he declared that, being wounded, he could not fight. Then Nikolai Shcherbatov arrived in Vienna, who also remembered the old grudge and, as they say, having decided to take revenge, he practiced shooting with a pistol for 7 years. He sent de Sax a challenge to a duel, in which he shot him.

But let’s return to St. Petersburg during the “case” of Platon Zubov.

Catherine II was completely fascinated by “The Child,” calling the arrogant, arrogant and greedy temporary worker “modest,” “sweet,” and “kind,” and naively believing that she was “raising” a statesman of Potemkin’s level. She transferred to Zubov the most important positions that had previously been occupied by her secret husband: Platon became the head of the Black Sea fleet, Ekaterinoslav and Tauride governor-general, general-feldtsehmeister and director-general of fortifications, and so on. In addition, he received all possible orders and honorary titles, the listing of which took up an entire page in small handwriting.

This was his full title:

His Serene Highness, Chief General, Director General of fortifications, Commander-in-Chief of the Black Sea Fleet, Voznesensk Light Cavalry and Black Sea Cossack Army, Adjutant General of Her Imperial Majesty, Chief of the Cavalry Corps, Ekaterinoslav, Voznesensky and Tauride Governor-General, Member of the State Military Collegium , the Imperial Orphanage, an honorary benefactor, the Imperial Academy of Arts, an honorary lover and the Russian orders of St. Apostle Andrew, St. Alexander Nevsky, St. Equal-to-the-Apostles Prince Vladimir, XNUMXst degree, royal Prussian Black and Red Eagle, Polish White Eagle and St. Stanislaus and Grand Duke Holstein St. Anne's Knight.

After the death of Catherine, Paul I relieved him of 36 government posts.

By the way, not everyone knows that the statue of Zubov was located on the monument to the founders of Odessa - the same one that was demolished on the night of December 22, 2022 by Ukrainian mankurts who did not want to know the real history of their country:



How did Platon Zubov end up in the worthy company of de Ribas, de Volan and Grigory Potemkin?

The fact is that de Ribas proposed to build a new port city in Khadzhibey, and Vice Admiral Mordvinov - in Ochakov. But Ribas managed to attract the favorite of Catherine II to his side, and the Empress did not want to upset her “Child”.

It has been proven that Catherine II spent more public funds on the maintenance of Zubov in 6 years than on Potemkin in 18. She gave him more than 30 thousand peasant “serf souls” alone. The favorite’s brother, Valerian, also received more than a million rubles from the empress.

Money was diligently collected into the family pocket by their father, Alexander Zubov, a former manager of the estates of Count Saltykov, who in September 1792 was appointed chief prosecutor of the First Department of the Senate.


A. N. Zubov, reproduction from the book “Russian Portraits of the XNUMXth and XNUMXth Centuries.”

He was known for openly trading the patronage of his favorite son. Many, following I.M. Dolgorukov, called him the most dishonest person in Russia. Rostopchin wrote about the greed and corruption of the Zubov family:

“Crimes have never been as frequent as they are now. Their impunity and insolence have reached extreme limits. Three days ago, a certain Kovalinsky, who was the secretary of the military commission and was expelled by the empress for embezzlement and bribery, has now been appointed governor in Ryazan, because he has a brother, a scoundrel like him, who is friendly with Gribovsky, the head of the office of Platon Zubov. One Ribas steals up to 500 rubles a year.”

However, experts believe that Rostopchin somewhat exaggerated the scale of the theft of de Ribas.

In 1793, at the request of Catherine, Alexander Zubov received the title of count from the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, passing it on “descending” to his children. However, Plato was not content with this and shortly before the death of the Empress (in May 1796) he became the Most Serene Prince of the Holy Roman Empire.

The sincere desire of noble courtiers to curry favor and even grovel before this insignificant temporary worker causes sad bewilderment. The story of his monkey, which was called “the favorite of the favorite,” is indicative. In the palace, she unceremoniously jumped on the heads of the courtiers, tearing off their wigs. This amused the infantile temporary worker very much. And the highest aristocrats of the Russian Empire began to specially order much taller and “voluminous” wigs - in order to attract the attention of the monkey and thereby please Zubov.

Honored Lieutenant General M.I. Kutuzov, at that time the chief director of the Land Cadet Corps of Gentry, considered it an honor to brew coffee for Platon Zubov in the morning and personally served it to his favorite’s bed. And he was a participant in many battles and a holder of many orders, the former commandant of Izmail and the former commander of all the fortresses between the Prut, Dniester and Danube, and previously served as plenipotentiary ambassador in Constantinople. A.S. Pushkin will name “Kutuzov’s coffee pot” among the most indicative symbols of the humiliation of the noble spirit.

But Suvorov, whom Platon Zubov once insulted by accepting him in his underwear, later repaid him “in the same coin”, and, being dressed in uniform, undressed on purpose.

Our story is not over yet. In the next article we will talk about the brothers Platon Zubov and his sister Olga. And then - about the death of Catherine II, about how Zubov lived under Paul I (you can believe it, not bad at all). And also about the participation of Platon, Nikolai and Valerian Zubov and their sister Olga in the conspiracy against Paul I.
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  1. +9
    18 November 2023 04: 40
    Thank you, Valery!

    The phrase “Catherine, alas, could not keep such a high bar” charmed me.

    Do female monarchs really lose something with age?
    1. +7
      18 November 2023 05: 10
      Quote from Korsar4
      Do female monarchs really lose something with age?

      Leaders of any gender “lose something” over time. "Altitude sickness" is called...
      “This country is tired of being ruled by a fat old German woman.”

      Finally a breath of fresh air. And then at VO they only sing the praises of EII - what a real RUSSIAN ruler she is, even though she is German!
      1. +2
        18 November 2023 14: 15
        German by birth, then she became part of the Republic of Ingushetia, not the most beautiful, but significant... What is the question???
      2. 0
        22 November 2023 18: 44
        Well, a young German woman, Empress Elizaveta Alekseevna, that’s different...Then, it’s unlikely that under Catherine the Second’s successors, less was spent on the courtyard than under Catherine the Second. So the author’s pathos is not entirely appropriate. But many of Catherine the Great’s successors were of much less use than her: Catherine won, the population of the empire doubled, the lands of Western Rus' were reunited with Russia, i.e. a problem that could not be solved for almost 600 years was solved, the predatory Crimean Khanate was crushed and wide access to the Black Sea was provided. At the beginning of the 18th century, Russian diplomacy faced 3 tasks: access to the Baltic (this problem was solved by Peter the Great), access to the Black Sea and the annexation of Western Rus' (these problems were solved by Catherine). So her merits are undeniable. As for expenses for various kinds of whims, under Nicholas II, expenses for the court and the imperial family amounted to up to 35 million. Our fleet that perished at Tsushima cost no more than 100 million rubles (and these were the main forces of the Baltic Fleet).
      3. 0
        1 December 2023 14: 01
        Leaders of any gender “lose something” over time. "Altitude sickness" is called

        Like, “Chiefs who observe the nature of things only from above form a superficial impression of it” (C) Permitted thoughts of comrade. Barricadova.
    2. +2
      18 November 2023 06: 08
      Quote from Korsar4
      Do female monarchs really lose something with age?

      There's no place for a woman on the throne wink
      1. +5
        18 November 2023 07: 01
        Seriously? Do names like Theodora, Olga, Isabella mean anything to you?
        The list can be continued, both forward and backward.
        1. -1
          18 November 2023 07: 50
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Do names like Theodora, Olga, Isabella mean anything to you?

          I heard. But what contribution, other than the reproduction of offspring, did they make to the overall development of their states?
          1. +6
            18 November 2023 08: 15
            Theodora - Macha's rebellion - actually saved imperial power.
            Olga - burned Korsten, suppressed the uprising of the Drevlyans
            Isabella - after the Battle of Toro, actually created the Kingdom of Spain.
            1. +1
              18 November 2023 09: 18
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Theodora - the revolt of Macha. Olga - burned Korsten. Isabella - after the Battle of Toro, actually created the Kingdom of Spain.

              All this is done for the sake of destruction, their own well-being and power. And Isabella, she has nothing to do with it at all, simply became Ferdinand’s wife and gave birth to his children. If it weren't for Isabella, there would have been someone else.
              1. +3
                18 November 2023 09: 35
                All this is done for the sake of destruction, their own well-being and power.
                One might think that Julius Caesar acted from some other motive. What does the gender component have to do with this?
                1. -2
                  18 November 2023 12: 06
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  One might think that Julius Caesar acted from some other motives

                  Julius Caesar expanded and strengthened the Empire! Acted in the name of the Roman people. And, of course, I didn’t forget myself wink
              2. +5
                18 November 2023 09: 48
                Isabella, so she has nothing to do with it at all, simply became Ferdinand’s wife and gave birth to his children. If it weren't for Isabella, there would have been someone else.
                Colleague, you don’t even read Wikipedia carefully.
                Any other one would not have dragged through the Cortes its right to the Castilian crown.
                Some others did not have a personal confessor, Tomazzo Torquemada.
                Some other woman would have remained Queen of Aragon without becoming Queen of Spain.
                1. +1
                  18 November 2023 12: 03
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  You don't even read Wikipedia carefully

                  I don't read Wikipedia at all. And you?
                  1. +1
                    18 November 2023 20: 51
                    I'm a sinner, I read it. Because there, in the “basement” of the article, the “Literature” section. So I use it.
              3. +2
                18 November 2023 10: 32
                Quote: Dutchman Michel
                If it weren't for Isabella, there would have been someone else.

                Nope. If the Queen of Castile and Leon had not married the King of Aragon, there would have been no Spain.
                1. 0
                  18 November 2023 12: 11
                  Quote: Senior Sailor
                  If the Queen of Castile and Leon had not married the King of Aragon, there would have been no Spain.

                  This topic is slippery for me, but, in my opinion, Aragon “ruled” the Pyrenees at that time. He would have united Spain, with or without Isabella, it doesn’t matter at all
            2. AAK
              +2
              18 November 2023 13: 44
              Well, perhaps, Elizabeth 1st of England had a quite worthy result of her reign, and her grandmother Elizabeth 2nd was also far from a complete fool and, EMNIP, sat on the throne for 70 years. As for the place of our Catherine II in history, then, by definition, in one of the articles or miniatures by V.S. Pikulya - "... the 2th century in Russian history - “womanish” ... with a short break - 18 empresses - Catherine 4st, Anna Ioannovna, Elizaveta Petrovna and Catherine 1nd the Great. The ladies were at least very, very sinners, but, especially the last two, still made their mark in history; few Russian tsars or emperors can compete with them...
      2. +5
        18 November 2023 08: 15
        Quote: Dutchman Michel
        Quote from Korsar4
        Do female monarchs really lose something with age?

        There's no place for a woman on the throne wink

        The gender approach to choosing a leader has serious flaws - more precisely, in all cases it is a lottery in which it is possible to take into account only a minimum number of factors.
        In my personal experience, I groomed women three times... general conclusion is difficult.
        1. +4
          18 November 2023 08: 38
          Does the choice of a leader in the system administration even take place?
          1. +1
            18 November 2023 15: 07
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Does the choice of a leader in the system administration even take place?

            Hello buddy - 28 years in the system allows for some concessions. I chose a boss three times - I was right only once. However, the best ones were appointed from the top (or rather, they chose me).
        2. +3
          18 November 2023 09: 13
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Gender approach in choosing a leader

          If we talk about the gender approach, then I immediately have a question for you: “Why do women never play chess on equal terms with men in competitions?” In my opinion the answer is obvious wink
          1. +5
            18 November 2023 10: 34
            Quote: Dutchman Michel
            “Why don’t women ever play chess on equal terms with men in competitions?”

            Show me a great chess player who became a great politician and I will agree Yes
            So far, only clowns like Kasparov have turned out feel
            1. +3
              18 November 2023 12: 00
              Quote: Senior Sailor
              Show me a great chess player

              I cited chess only as a tool to highlight the depth of an individual’s thinking. The ability to see several moves ahead is only for a man, but not for a woman. I played once and, believe me, I know what I'm talking about. And Kasparov is just a talker
          2. +2
            18 November 2023 12: 39
            I won't argue. Vera Menchik, Judit Polgar and Hou Yufan reached out. But these, of course, are only exceptions.
        3. +3
          18 November 2023 12: 37
          I also had an experience when the boss was a woman. Nothing good came of this.

          But this is purely personal experience.
  2. 0
    18 November 2023 06: 48
    It took a German woman to annex Crimea and liquidate the Zaporozhye Sich. It took Trotsky to take Kyiv, drive out the Denikinites and Poles and liquidate the UPR.

    To take away both Crimea and Ukraine from Russia, it took Khrushchev and Yeltsin..... However......
    1. +2
      18 November 2023 08: 12
      Yeah, is a zebra a black horse with white stripes or a white horse with black stripes?
  3. +3
    18 November 2023 07: 44
    Zubov is the darling of fate. “I was just indescribably lucky. I established myself in this apartment. I am completely sure that there is something unclean in my origin. There is a diver here. My grandmother was a slut, may the rest of heaven rest with her” (c).
    1. 0
      18 November 2023 17: 48
      Plato was lucky, but the problem is that old Catherine needed such a half-imbecile with good potency at that time. No longer a giant, not a man of the level of Alexei Orlov or Grigory Potemkin, but a teenager who has never matured - Child-Rezvusha, playing with a monkey.
  4. +2
    18 November 2023 09: 44
    Of course, Alexey stood out among all five Orlov brothers. It was Evgeniy Tarle who called him “a dangerous, formidable, ambitious person, capable of anything, a man who dared to do anything.”

    In the film "The Tsar's Hunt" he was played by N. Eremenko from "June 31" and "Pirates of the 20th Century"


    And Tarakanova is also a famous actress A. Samokhina:

    1. 0
      18 November 2023 11: 33
      Just by the way.
      Having watched a huge number of films with hand-to-hand combat (it was such a hobby!), I came to the conclusion that the fight performed by Eremenko was the best and most believable.
  5. +4
    18 November 2023 09: 51
    The Genghisids were considered more noble than both the Rurikovichs and the Gediminovichs.

    It would be extremely interesting to know on what basis the respected author came to such an extravagant conclusion?
    Just for reference. Of the sixteen most noble families of the Russian kingdom under Alexei Mikhailovich, there were three Gediminovichs (Golitsyns; Trubetskoys; Khovanskys) and seven Rurikovichs (Vorotynskys; Odoevskys; Pronskys; Repnins; Prozorovskys; Buinosovs and Khilkovs). There are three descendants of Mikhail Prushanin (Morozovs; Sheins; Saltykovs). There were also families belonging to the descendants of Prince Inal (Cherkasy), Murza Edigei (Urusov) and Andrei Kobyla (Sheremetev, (except, of course, the Tsar)))
    There are approximately zero Chingizids among them!
    Oh yes. There were princes of Siberia. But they weren’t allowed anywhere important. And under Peter Alekseevich they were equalized with the rest of the princes.
    Also Girey... I honestly can’t remember that at least one of them occupied any prominent position. So provincial nobles from foreigners.
    1. VLR
      +5
      18 November 2023 10: 41
      1477, Ivan III, having gone on a campaign against Novgorod, leaves the Tatar prince Murtaza as his governor in Moscow.
      1581 Vasily III, having learned about the approach of the Crimean troops, left Moscow, entrusting its defense to the Tatar prince Peter.
      1572-1575, heads the Boyar Zemstvo Duma
      Astrakhan Tsarevich Mikhail Kaibulovich.
      Former Kasimov Khan Simeon Bekbulatovich has been officially the Grand Duke of All Rus' for 11 months - and this surprised no one, no one said, why is a direct descendant of Genghis Khan - and suddenly on the Moscow throne? By what right? But he is a natural king, and not a descendant of princes, like the same Shuiskys or Romanovs - and nothing can be done about it. Mother of the “resurrected” Tsarevich Dmitry from the Nogai branch of the Chingizids. A number of Russian aristocratic families attributed their descent from Genghis, for example, the Chirikovs and Anichkovs. And from the Tatar Murzas - you can’t even count them.
      .
      1. VLR
        +2
        18 November 2023 10: 57
        Tatar origin was attributed to themselves, for example, by the Godunovs, who gave Russia two kings. Golitsyns - there were 22 separate boyar families in this family - a record; no other family had so many. Apraksins, Kurakins. And many others, for example the Turgenevs.
      2. VLR
        +2
        18 November 2023 11: 04
        1581 Vasily III,

        1481, of course, a typo
      3. +2
        18 November 2023 11: 27
        Vasily III, having learned about the approach of the Crimean troops, left Moscow...

        Nothing lasts forever under the Moon, but in the light of the Sun everything is repeated.
      4. +2
        18 November 2023 11: 31
        Quote: VlR
        A number of Russian aristocratic families attributed their descent from Genghis, for example, the Chirikovs and Anichkovs.

        Yeah... now the Chirikovs and Anichkovs have become more noble than the Rurikovichs?))) What else can you “please”?
        Show me Chingizid, who was promoted to boyar without the rank of okolnichy, then we’ll talk)))
        Quote: VlR
        Tatar origin was attributed to themselves, for example, by the Godunovs, who gave Russia two kings

        Where did the descendants of Murza Chet become Genghisids? This is the first!
        The second is that their “nobility” has not the slightest relation to the Horde origin. The trick was that Solomonia Saburova (a representative of the senior branch of this family) married the Grand Duke. Then another one married Tsar Feodor. That is, they have a “kike relationship” with the ruling surname.
        Quote: VlR
        Apraksins, Kurakins. And many others, on

        The Apraksins actually come from the Tatars. But their kind is deeply third-rate. It was for their happiness that they rose to the rank of steward. The same applies to the Turgenevs.
        The Kurakins are a truly noble family, but they are Gediminovichs))))
        Quote: VlR
        Golitsyns - there were 22 separate boyar families in this family - a record, no other family had so many

        Right. And all of them are famous. Chingizids, too, by the way, are like uncut dogs. And everyone is thin request
        And the point is not even that the Golitsyns, like many other clans, descend from Gediminas. And the fact is that their ancestor Patrikey Zvenigorodsky transferred to Moscow service with his inheritance. Moreover, his son married the daughter of the Grand Duke. This is real nobility!
        Quote: VlR
        Mother of the “resurrected” Tsarevich Dmitry from the Nogai branch of the Chingizids.

        Is Maria Naked or what?
        No, I understand that you are a communist, but fear God!
        Or did your Nogai roam throughout Denmark?)))
        1. VLR
          +1
          18 November 2023 11: 46
          About the Godunovs - it is written separately - where about the Tatar origin, and not about the Chingizid. The ancestors of Maria Nagoya - from the Nogai Horde (that is, she is, in fact, NOGAYA), claimed descent from Genghis. It’s hard to say now how it really was, but they claimed it and were proud.
          The Gediminovichs you mentioned entered into marriages with the descendants of the Tatar Murzas and their children emphasized Tatar origin. Later, when the term “Tatar-Mongol yoke” was coined and became widely known, they began to again emphasize Lithuanian origin.
          By the way, I have never been a communist smile
          1. +2
            18 November 2023 12: 17
            Quote: VlR
            About the Godunovs - it is written separately - where about the Tatar origin, and not about the Chingizid.

            Then why is this an example if they wanted to prove the superiority of the Genghisids?
            Quote: VlR
            Ancestors of Maria Nagoya - from the Nogai Horde

            Quote: VlR
            Ancestors of Maria Nagoya - from the Nogai Horde

            Oh really!
            According to the genealogy book, the Nagikh family descends from Olgerd (Nemchin) Prega, nicknamed Harness[2][4][5][12][13][14], who left Denmark for Russia in 1294[15][16] , and entered the service of Grand Duke Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver, converted to Orthodoxy under the name of Dmitry
            Quote: VlR
            The Gediminovichs you indicated entered into marriages with the descendants of the Tatar Murzas

            But this didn’t make them Genghisids)
            Quote: VlR
            and their children emphasized their Tatar origin.

            Unproven!
            Completely forgot
            Quote: VlR
            1477 year

            That is, before standing on the Ugra?
            This is not about nobility.)
            Quote: VlR
            Vasily III, having learned about the approach of the Crimean troops, left Moscow, entrusting its defense to the Tatar prince Peter.

            How many times did the great princes entrust their capital to their boyars and how many times to Genghisid?
            In general, this cannot in any way indicate an alleged superiority.
            Quote: VlR
            By the way, I have never been a communist

            Especially
    2. 0
      2 December 2023 23: 19
      Staying in the Moscow state was the most financially secure. In addition, their status in relation to the rest of the service class was incomparably higher here compared, for example, with the Polish-Lithuanian state. The Genghisids stood above all the service Rurikovichs and Gediminovichs and were second only to the Kalitichs (representatives of the ruling Moscow dynasty - direct descendants of Ivan Kalita), and later the Romanovs. It remains unclear, however, when the Kalitiches began to be perceived in their status as higher than the serving Chingizids. We can definitely talk about this starting from 1557 (the seniority of the distribution of Genghisids and Kalitichs among regiments).
      https://ru-history.livejournal.com/4961049.html
  6. +3
    18 November 2023 10: 10
    It turned out to be impossible to ignore such an article. Brilliant, Valery! So connect the times...Read and re-read - thank you!
    good drinks hi )))
  7. +3
    18 November 2023 11: 52
    A. Herzen, by the way, recalled how the accession of Paul I was perceived in society
    “All this is very good” (Don Sera) (c), however, the one who was awakened by the Decembrists lived from 1812 to 1870. I am extremely wary of the opinion of this London resident, as a foreign agent.
    1. VLR
      0
      18 November 2023 12: 00
      He communicated with people who lived in that era and remembered how everything really was, and not according to the official version of the murderers of Paul I. But Olga Zherebtsova (Zubova), a liaison between the conspirators and the English Ambassador Whitworth, helped him leave Russia . But Herzen writes something that is unprofitable for both her and all the other conspirators. This, in my opinion, increases the value of his opinion. By the way, I also regard Herzen as a “foreign agent.”
  8. +2
    18 November 2023 12: 09
    Great article! I'm looking forward to the continuation.
  9. +1
    18 November 2023 16: 03
    In her youth, Catherine II knew how to “work with personnel.”


    I don’t see much difference at the beginning and end of the reign.
    Of the 5 Orlov brothers, only Alexey represented something of himself, although all the brothers were showered with royal favors.
    Of the 4 Zubov brothers, only Valerian is worthy of mention.
    About their “decisiveness” - Peter the 3rd was killed by Orlov, Paul the 1st was killed by Zubov.
    1. VLR
      +1
      18 November 2023 17: 19
      Not certainly in that way. Baryatinsky became the direct killer of Peter III - under the careful supervision of Alexei Orlov, of course. And Paul I was strangled by Skaryatin, Nikolai Zubov had previously stunned the intractable emperor: that same “apoplectic blow to the temple with a snuff box.” The murder of Paul will be discussed in the last article of this short series.
      1. 0
        18 November 2023 19: 40
        Baryatinsky became the direct killer of Peter III - under the careful supervision of Alexei Orlov


        Yes, judging by his letters to Catherine, Alexey Orlov was the main manager there - “... our son became very ill and was seized with unexpected colic, and I am afraid that he did not die tonight, but I am more afraid that he does not come to life... " laughing

        And Paul I was strangled by Skaryatin, Nikolai Zubov had previously stunned


        A more popular opinion is that General Yashvil struck the first blow. He knocked him down, and then almost everyone in the room joined in the strangulation, including Pavel and Nikolai Zubov.
        1. 0
          19 November 2023 01: 51
          [/quote] Yes, judging by his letters to Catherine, Alexey Orlov was the main manager there - “... our bastard was very ill [/quote]
          The letter you quote is a fake. N. Eidelman wrote about this back in the last century, and even the results of handwriting examinations were published in the works of O. Ivanov. By the way, the author of the fake has also been identified.
          [quote] Almost everyone in the room had already joined in the strangulation, including Pavel and Nikolai Zubov. [/quote]
          I hope this is a typo. I can’t believe that Pavel strangled himself. laughing
          1. VLR
            +1
            19 November 2023 07: 50
            The letter may be fake (but maybe not). However, in 1717 in Vienna, Alexey Orlov suddenly spoke at the dinner table about the death of Peter III, throwing everyone present into a state of shock. And he spoke specifically about the murder, calling F. Baryatinsky the murderer (as in the letter under discussion).
            1. VLR
              0
              19 November 2023 09: 46
              The year 1717 (not 1717) - these are the typos that happen when you write from your phone on the road.
              1. 0
                19 November 2023 09: 52
                Quote: VlR
                1717 (not 1717) - these are the typos

                Mdya
          2. 0
            19 November 2023 15: 27
            The letter you quote is a fake...The author of the fake, by the way, has also been identified


            Sorry, this is the first time I've heard this.
            As far as I know, the note I quoted from July 2 is known in the original and has not been disputed by any of the historians.
            And who is the author of this “fake”?

            I hope this is a typo. I can’t believe that Pavel strangled himself


            Yes, my mistake. Of course Plato, not Paul.
  10. 0
    19 November 2023 09: 39
    Quote: Dutchman Michel
    I cited chess only as a tool to highlight the depth of an individual’s thinking. The ability to see several moves ahead is only for a man, but not for a woman.

    And I pointed out that this example is not correct)
  11. -3
    19 November 2023 10: 07
    A. Herzen, by the way, recalled that

    Referring to Herzen, who threw mud at Russia for English money and was someone like the current Khodorkovsky, is obvious bad manners!
    ps V. Lenin, who himself lived on the money of the German General Staff, could admire this corrupt anti-Russian scribbler. These days they are called “foreign agents.” Maybe Mr. Ryzhov is also “one of these”?
  12. 0
    26 November 2023 10: 43
    Catherine II - I look at her image and don’t understand, how much do you have to drink to fuck her..... Unhappy “favorites”..
  13. 0
    1 January 2024 15: 52
    Our story is not over yet

    Valery, thanks for the article. This part of the history of the Republic of Ingushetia in relation to Zubov has been poorly studied by me. Therefore, I read it with great interest and look forward to the continuation.
  14. 0
    26 January 2024 23: 32
    What difference does it make with whom and how you met, but leaders have 3 characteristics - population size, economy and territory. All this has improved, the rest doesn’t matter.
  15. 0
    26 January 2024 23: 32
    What difference does it make with whom and how you met, but leaders have 3 characteristics - population size, economy and territory. All this has improved, the rest doesn’t matter.