Military Review

Chinese ejection seats

28
Chinese ejection seats


China has developed and put into service ejection seats of local production of the third generation, designed for jet fighters. Such seats are equipped with sensors and microprocessors that regulate the thrust of rocket engines ejecting the seat (and pilot) from the aircraft, taking into account the speed and direction of the aircraft. Most ejection seats in use belong to the third generation. Fourth-generation armchairs allow the pilot to control the movement of the chair during ejection.

Ejection seats cost from $ 200000 to $ 300000. Most of the seats weigh about halftones and are rather complex technically. They have a lot to break, but failures are rare and, as a rule, due to poor maintenance. The ejection seats became an integral part of military aircraft when the speed of the aircraft became so high that the pilots could not safely get out of the cockpit and jump out with a parachute. At high speed there is a risk of the pilot hitting the tail. In addition, pilots trying to escape from a damaged aircraft are often injured or stunned and unable to leave the aircraft quickly enough.



For the first time, ejection seats were developed in Germany and installed on He-219 night fighters in the 1943 year. Compressed air was used to shoot the seats from the plane. A year later, ejection seats with a jet engine were installed on a He-162 jet fighter. By the end of the war, all German jets were equipped with ejection seats. Meanwhile, the Swedish company SAAB also developed a jet-fired ejection seat, and after the Second World War, the British firm Martin-Baker created the design of the seats that quickly filled the needs of most Western air forces, including the British Royal Air Force.



The US Air Force traditionally insists on using exclusively American-made ejection seats, while the US Navy still uses Martin-Baker ejection seats because American chairs do not function well at very low altitudes (where many sea pilots are forced to leave aircraft during takeoffs and boarding aircraft carriers). Martin-Baker supplies about two-thirds of the ejection seats for Western fighters. Another major supplier of such seats was the Soviet Union. Soviet-era manufacturers continue to supply good ejection seats for Russian aircraft and some foreign customers. China is becoming a major player in this area, usually exporting Chinese-made seats installed on Chinese aircraft. The Czech Republic and Romania produce low-tech ejection seats. Western manufacturers produce about a thousand ejection seats a year, while Russia and China produce less than half, and almost all of these seats are designed to equip local aircraft.

More than ten thousand pilots successfully left the aircraft taking advantage of ejection seats since the Second World War. Only a very small number of victims were associated with the ejection itself.
Originator:
http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htairfo/articles/20130109.aspx
28 comments
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  1. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 15 January 2013 08: 43
    +9
    "Fourth generation seats allow the pilot to control the seat movement during ejection."
    And thanks to the eight nodes of the suspension mount guided missiles for conducting close air combat. laughing
    1. Alexander Romanov
      Alexander Romanov 15 January 2013 08: 50
      +5
      I read the title of the article and the first lines, it became funny laughing

      In China, locally-made ejection seats have been developed and adopted.
      laughing laughing laughing
      1. YARY
        YARY 15 January 2013 09: 48
        0


        Their response to "Global Hawk" is "Soaring Dragon"

        And what did our valiant military-industrial complex create ?? The answer is obvious!
        1. During
          During 15 January 2013 09: 56
          +1
          Is it necessary? So far, the Ministry of Defense is only formulating its requirements for UAVs and whose strategy is not there ... you can stupidly copy them in the shed in Oymyakon, but no one needs this ...
        2. Hon
          Hon 15 January 2013 10: 42
          +2
          Our valiant military-industrial complex is in second place in the world, and China is in the tail of dozens. By the way, China imports our weapons.
          1. borisst64
            borisst64 15 January 2013 13: 48
            +1
            Quote: Hon
            By the way, China imports our weapons.

            I won’t be surprised if we start buying catapults from them, they will obviously be cheaper.
        3. pidluts
          pidluts 15 January 2013 13: 29
          +2
          "Soaring Dragon" resembles the development in 2000 of one of the American institutes (I don't remember already) But then the students did something similar (fuselage and wing)
          (recently the article was)
        4. 11 black
          11 black 15 January 2013 16: 36
          0
          Quote: Ardent
          Their response to "Global Hawk" is "Soaring Dragon"

          Is he standing on garbage bags?
      2. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 15 January 2013 16: 09
        -1
        Alexander Romanov
        good

        At the launch of the first Chinese spacecraft, a booster rocket exploded. Three astronauts and ten thousand stokers died.
      3. rolik
        rolik 15 January 2013 19: 53
        +2
        Quote: Alexander Romanov
        Alexander Romanov

        Well, yes, yes, China has something to be proud of. The 3rd generation armchair was invented, here are the geniuses. And what about today? just a 3.5th generation chair. That's just it is considered the best in the world in terms of its characteristics. this chair is marked as K-36DM, this system has no analogs yet. Fourth-generation seats should provide full control of the trajectory, with stabilization using engines and variable traction. Experiments in this direction are underway, but it is still far from production models. The deep modernization of the base K-36D did not allow it to fit into the framework of the third generation, but it does not reach the fourth. Therefore, with the light hand of Guy Severin (head of the settlement and theoretical department of NPP Zvezda), a new class appeared - “Generation 3,5”. K-36D-3,5 is equipped with a firing mechanism with adjustment according to the mass of the pilot and a rocket engine with a thrust variable depending on the mass of the pilot and flight mode. The basic model K-36D receives three parameters from the aircraft (speed, altitude and to enter / not enter the deflector), and K-36D-3,5 - as many as seven: height, speed, high-speed head, overload, roll, angular and vertical speed . Processing these parameters, the chair computer selects the optimal program, the engine can change traction (or turn off altogether - for example, when bailout "upside down"). There is also an autonomous mode (when the data bus is broken), but since the chair itself has only an overload sensor, the optimal effect cannot be achieved. After conducting experiments, American experts admitted that K-36D-3,5 has no analogues in the world.
    2. Bashkaus
      Bashkaus 15 January 2013 16: 16
      +2
      "allow the pilot to control seat movement during ejection."
      Yeah, I’ve never heard such nonsense (((
      That everyone would understand I will explain:
      Departure from the cockpit takes a fraction of a second, the pilot instantly experiences overloads of 10 or more G. The pilot does not realize at this moment, at best, he has an incomprehensible sensation that he is attracted to the seat somewhere, pressed in somewhere, that he is carrying noise somewhere, and this if he managed to take the right pose, prepare to leave. What the hell .. manual control, a person is simply not able to do anything at this moment.
      Well, it crashed out, the main engine turned on, how much did the pilot fly in the seat? again, a few seconds before separating from the chair ...
      I don’t know how they are, but on K36 everything is automatic, everything is determined by the computer, including seat direction after departure from the cab ...
      Did they just want to say that these complete suckers weren’t able to create a good computer for a chair or did they have termination pilots who were overloaded with 10G nonsense for a snack, and their brains were working at terrible speed?
      I do not understand...
      1. merkel1961
        merkel1961 15 January 2013 17: 10
        +2
        Bashkaus, Basically, everything is true, but as far as I know, there were no computers on the KM-1, KS-4, and K-36D, all seat automation was powered by speed and height sensors with an automatic time switch. So, for example, when ejecting to take-off-run (according to the Instructions for the pilot = 140,140 and 70 km / h.) after the seat was released, stabilizing devices did not come into operation, immediately-uncoupling from the seat and putting the main parachute into operation (as in A.Kvochur on the MiG-29 with K- 36D). At high altitudes and speeds, there was a decrease along with a chair with one or two small stabilizers on the K-36 parachutes to a safe height set on the device, taking into account the terrain and upon reaching it, uncoupling and entering the main parachute. The K-36D (Su-17m3) had a deflector for protection at speeds of more than 900 km / h and there was no possibility of a manual separation method from the chair, unlike the KM-1 (MiG-21) and KS-4 (Su-7,17), which at first was unpleasantly perceived somehow, but there was a duplication of the mechanical method of putting the firing mechanism into action by the electric one.
        1. VAF
          VAF 15 January 2013 17: 57
          +3
          Quote: merkel1961
          So, for example, when bailout on take-off run (according to the instructions to the pilot = 140,140 and 70 km / h.)


          That's right ++++++! Only in terms of speed ... everywhere in different ways .. for example, in combat and UBK at 29 speeds 120 and 149.t. different weight of the lamp. and in terms of speed, there are restrictions from 70 to 150, depending on the type!
          I also forgot to calculate the minimum safe coefficient for N. from the vertical rate of decline, otherwise forum users get the impression. that if 0 on 0 then a year it’s possible at least .... but at least it just .. doesn’t come out.
          A typical example that you gave with Kvochur .... Anatoly went to V vert. -10 m / s and ..... saved the explosion. which filled the dome, but Averyanov and Shendrik on the Su-30 "came out" at vertical 0 m / s and the system worked properly. although they came out practically from the same height of about 80 meters.!
          And on K-36DM there is already a manual separation system, as on KM-1, KT-1 and so on.
          ++++++! drinks
  2. UPStoyan
    UPStoyan 15 January 2013 08: 47
    0
    Interestingly, they work as reliable as Chinese phones?
    1. Professor
      15 January 2013 09: 21
      +2
      Have you met non-Chinese phones? wink
      1. Alexander Romanov
        Alexander Romanov 15 January 2013 10: 05
        +2
        Quote: Professor

        Have you met non-Chinese phones?

        I have NOKIA Hungarian, but Ericsson Chinese, so there is a professor in Russia who has no Chinese phones. But according to your words, I realized that in Israel you won’t find a Chinese phone with no fire laughing
        1. Professor
          15 January 2013 10: 14
          +3
          I have NOKIA Hungarian, and Ericsson is Chinese, so there is a professor in Russia not Chinese phones

          I hasten to disappoint you, it is assembled in Hungary from Chinese components. I worked with Nikia in Ulm near Stuttgart until they shut it down (we could not stand the competition with Samsung and Apple) and I dare to assure you that all the filling, and the packaging on 99% are Chinese, Malaysia and Indonesia come across, but very rarely. sad

          PS
          There are rumors in the industry that Americans are going to transfer iPhone production to America ...
          1. Akim
            Akim 15 January 2013 11: 13
            +2
            I have a Chinese smartphone "Tiger", a copy of the 4th iPhone. Price 120 bucks. Compared with the original, which costs 2,5 times more - it does not lag behind in functions and speed. Works for almost a year without problems.
          2. Alexander Romanov
            Alexander Romanov 15 January 2013 12: 05
            +2
            Quote: Professor

            There are rumors in the industry that Americans are planning to transfer iPhone production to America.

            Has it really become, but I'm afraid it's too late hi
            1. Professor
              15 January 2013 12: 52
              +3
              Salaries in China are not so low, and you yourself will not transfer to Africa.

              Samsung produces screens and processors in Korea, the rest is the same as China.
      2. Hon
        Hon 15 January 2013 10: 44
        0
        Quote: Professor
        Have you met non-Chinese phones?

        I have a Samsung Korean assembly.
        1. Alexander Romanov
          Alexander Romanov 15 January 2013 12: 06
          +2
          Quote: Hon
          I have a Samsung Korean assembly

          This is such a Samsung battery which is written-made in China for Samsung laughing
      3. Geokingxnumx
        Geokingxnumx 15 January 2013 14: 27
        0
        Quote: Professor
        Have you met non-Chinese phones?

        yes!
        I have a Nokia N95! Made in Finland! old but very reliable mobile!
        from the 7-th floor fell intact!
        swam in the sea with her, and 1 dried day earned no damage!
        and he lost the path in Gory, after 2 of a month someone found in the snow and returned my mobile phone to me! êàî for Nokia it would be a good advertisement!

        Japanese batteries! but there is something and Chinese in it!

        why do the Kitaits need a catapult? Yes, they are good with axes call Europe!
    2. ughhh
      ughhh 15 January 2013 14: 56
      +1
      Quote: UPStoyan
      Interestingly, they work as reliable as Chinese phones?

      work, in general, reliably, but one in ten catapults upside down)
  3. Gur
    Gur 15 January 2013 09: 34
    +1
    Well, the powerful and hardworking Chinese people chew everything from our tanks with airplanes to high-tech electronics. Now we should learn from them, but laziness and pride interfere.
    1. Hon
      Hon 15 January 2013 10: 48
      0
      Quote: GUR
      Well, the powerful and hardworking Chinese people chew everything from our tanks with airplanes to high-tech electronics. Now we should learn from them, but laziness and pride interfere.

      It’s too early for us to learn how to create weapons from the Chinese, we need to learn from leaders, and not from those who are still learning. Our ejection seats have repeatedly demonstrated their effectiveness, while the Chinese in the real situation have not yet been seen.
      1. Gur
        Gur 15 January 2013 16: 11
        +1
        You don’t understand a damn ... Do not learn to do weapons, but desire and perseverance ... even in theft for the good of the state ..
  4. neri73-r
    neri73-r 15 January 2013 09: 36
    +2
    Chinese ejection seats


    And where is the article about them?
    1. Akim
      Akim 15 January 2013 11: 14
      +1
      In-in, and I wanted to ask.
      1. Professor
        15 January 2013 12: 53
        0
        Well, write, this is just a translation of the news. hi
  5. Nester
    Nester 15 January 2013 11: 33
    +1
    Answer the amateur, but why does the pilot need to operate the seat after bailout? In my opinion, after such a kick in the ass, to manage something is very problematic. In addition, the pilot may be injured and lose consciousness during bailouts.
    1. Akim
      Akim 15 January 2013 11: 45
      0
      Nester,
      As an amateur to an amateur. Management can occur without the participation of the pilot. The computer itself determines the direction. where will the separation of the pilot with the parachute.
      1. Bashkaus
        Bashkaus 15 January 2013 16: 22
        0
        Manual control of a chair is really complete nonsense, well, damn it, in fact))) shooting takes place in a split second, the computer is complicated in the armchair, the algorithm of operations is divided into a strict sequence of actions at intervals of a split second ... The pilot only pulls the handle, and the cable as it progresses, it closes certain contacts, everything is clear, everything is consistent. And it’s really physically impossible to control the chair while turning on the marching engine, the kick as you said still, then it makes no sense.
        1. Bashkaus
          Bashkaus 15 January 2013 17: 18
          0
          Minus please justify specifically technically and paint the principle of manual ejection seat control ...
    2. VAF
      VAF 15 January 2013 17: 25
      +3
      Quote: Nester
      Answer the amateur, but why does the pilot need to operate the seat after bailout?


      The answer is:
      1. Never listen to Amateurs.
      Well, for one thing, maybe other "experts" read ???? (well, like Arim'f and Bashkaus).
      The computer can only stand on the user's table!
      On the armchair are installed 2 gearbox and control gear, one temporary, the second barrometric.
      The time counter counts down the time and there is a phased actuation of all systems (deflectors, stabilization and calculation of the "bullet" mechanism - that is, you fly further on a stabilized parachute or the main dome is immediately introduced (that is, it cuts off the seat by the guillotine system).
      The response threshold of the PPKU is set at 1500 meters, if you "leave earlier", then up to this height you "roll with the chair, you can separate manually, but ... not recommended, because the oxygen device with the cylinder remains in the chair)!
      If you "go out" earlier, then almost everything is triggered instantly; the seat is ejected at (k-36) at 87 meters, no controlled flight (such as sensors that determine the position of the seat and the rotation of the nozzles - there were only developments. Did not go further) and take off strictly in a straight line ...
      You don't feel any overloads by sensations. everything is instantaneous, but at the same time you see the entire exit from the cockpit, and then "bang" and you get away under the dome.
      "Overloads" come out later during examination at the hospital, when you suddenly find displacement of the vertebral discs in all three departments (they found me already after 5 years)!
      On the simulator, the "kick" is felt, but there is no more than 5 overload, but in reality there is practically no, because. instantaneous, but can reach values ​​from 12 and above ... the testers brought it up to 20 (at the Research Institute of Space Medicine)!
      And I’ll repeat it again .. there’s no chair. There weren’t and never will be any computers !!! soldier

  6. i.xxx-1971
    i.xxx-1971 15 January 2013 12: 26
    +4
    The best ejection seats, as well as space suits, were designed in the Design Bureau of Guy Severin, unfortunately the deceased. In this area we have no equal. By the way, the RD-180 rocket engines, on which the Yankees launch their Martian programs, are also ours. So everything is stupidly arranged. As far as I know, Koptev sold everything.
  7. SA23WSGFG
    SA23WSGFG 15 January 2013 19: 21
    0
    Have you heard the news? The Russian authorities are already insolent in the end. They made this database
    http://guardlink.org/4wQyl1
    where you can find information about any resident of the Baltic countries.
    really was very surprised
    there are a lot of interesting things about me (addresses, phone numbers, even my photos are different
    character) - I wonder where they dug up this. In general, there are good sides - this
    Information can be deleted from the site.
    I advise you to hurry, you never know how to fumble there ...
  8. kk-64
    kk-64 16 January 2013 02: 20
    0
    there are many of them. why do they need catapults
  9. spok
    spok 16 January 2013 13: 03
    0
    only the one who does nothing is not mistaken
  10. jagdpanzer
    jagdpanzer 16 January 2013 13: 25
    0
    I wonder where the Chinese stole technology? on any snout in our soaked
  11. Akim
    Akim 16 January 2013 19: 36
    0
    stsuyapikyivapim