Expedition to the ancestors. "Migrant Boulders"

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Expedition to the ancestors. "Migrant Boulders"
This is what they are - “migrant boulders”. Photo krasivoe-foto.ru


There is no movement, said the bearded sage.
Another was silent and began to walk before him.
He could not have objected more strongly;
All praised the convoluted answer.
But, gentlemen, this is a funny case
Another example comes to mind:
After all, every day the sun walks before us,
However, stubborn Galileo is right.

AS Pushkin

Migrants and migrations. Not long ago, in his commentary to the next article in the “Expedition to the Ancestors” series, one of our readers did not understand an error made in the text and asked for clarification - “is it not from the flood” that the given dating was given. They say that different faiths define the “global flood,” as well as the “creation of the world,” in different ways, so it is advisable to clarify the dates! Moreover, the flood itself is “denied by science altogether.”



I explained to the interested person that I was mistaken, they say, it happens. Even in reputable publications published in the USSR, after their publication, errors were found and... special leaflets were printed indicating the pages and “how to do it correctly.” Well, then I thought: what exactly does science deny, which science and at what specific time? Because it was science that put forward the most, let’s say, “funny hypotheses” and then defended them with great motivation. And then new knowledge was found that changed everything. And since "story science" is interesting in the same way as any other "history", we will now talk about these views on the very recent past.

Ah, boulders, you are my boulders...


Other mysteries of nature and society are so cunningly disguised that they are never immediately visible. While others - here they lie on the surface right under your nose. Here, let's say, huge, smoothly polished boulders. There are many of them among the steppes of the Russian Plain, where there are no other stones at all; they are found, in abundance, in the north of continental Europe, and even in the north of Canada, far from the mountains, also huge boulders - one larger than the other.

In the past, people could not give a logically consistent explanation for such a strange phenomenon and attributed the appearance of these boulders to the machinations of evil spirits. And only towards the end of the 10th century it was finally established that more than 000 years ago, namely during the Great Glaciation, these stones were brought with them and scattered across the area by an ancient glacier of incredible thickness!


Glaciation 27 years ago. Photo: icemap.no

A riddle for the inquisitive mind


How often do people talk about how we need to trust our common sense. But how far can this “meaning” go in relation to the case of boulders? Do they meet in an open field? Yes, they are dating! And at the top of the hill? And there are... If you take a closer look, you will notice that the soil under the block is loose, grass is even growing. That is, common sense will tell us that the stone here is foreign, that it came from... “out of nowhere.”

But how did he get here? What force brought him here and from what distant places? Common sense can say that he did not fall from the sky (otherwise he would have sunk very deeply!), and, of course, he did not grow up on the spot either.

If there was only one boulder, it would be possible to assume that people brought it here, say, for ritual purposes. But there are millions of these boulders! And here that same common sense comes to the rescue, because in this case you should not think, but... know!


Glaciation 27 years ago. Photo: icemap.no

Traces of the Flood!


For a long time no one paid any attention to these boulders. But the Age of Enlightenment came, sailors visited different lands and countries, seas, oceans, and it was then that European scientists began to think: where did these stones come from in their native lands? What if these stones are nothing more than traces of the Great Flood, when the waves that rushed onto the shore hit them with force one against the other and thus smoothed them out?

A scientific society was created in Germany, which set as its goal to find the homeland of these boulders, which were scientifically called erratic, that is, “wandering.” But in vain the members of this society went to the mountains, scoured the hills, trying to find rocks identical to the rocks of local boulders. It was not possible to find such rocks nearby!


Glaciation 18 years ago. Photo: icemap.no

By the end of the XNUMXth century, it was finally discovered that most boulders were made of granite. But how and why are these “primordial stones” located above loose sedimentary rocks, what force extracted them from the bowels of the earth? The science of that time could not give an answer to these questions.

Migrant stones


And here the German scientists Leopold von Buch and Johann Friedrich Gausmann found in Scandinavia the very rocks that made up the boulders in their homeland. And Russian travelers and geologists Pyotr Pallas, Ivan Lepekhin, Vasily Severgin and Grigory Razumovsky also found the place from where the “migrant stones” came to the Russian Plain.

It turned out that this was Finland and, again, Scandinavia.

Just what kind of force tore these boulders from the pristine mountains, rolled them smoothly, and even transported them many hundreds of miles from their original native places?


Glaciation 15 years ago. Photo: icemap.no

And it was then that the Swiss Horace Saussure discovered blocks of granites and gneisses in the Jura Mountains on the border of France and Switzerland. Moreover, it was known that such rocks occur in the central part of the Alpine ridge. And how then could they end up in the Jura Mountains, overcoming mountain valleys and passes?

So he suggested that glaciers in the Alps once upon a time were larger than modern ones, and it was they who moved these boulders over a distance of many tens of kilometers.

Plutonists vs Neptunists


But he was immediately asked the question, where did the “stray stones” on the plains come from?

Moreover, both the Plutonists, who gave preference to the influence of internal forces on the relief of the planet, and the Neptunists, who advocated the Great Flood, undertook to answer it. It is interesting that our Mikhailo Lomonosov also belonged to the plutonists, who believed that they created it the way it became - volcanoes. The Plutonists came up with a witty proposal, again, at the level of common sense. Since the Alps are young mountains, and were raised to the surface from the bowels of the earth relatively recently, these boulders allegedly simply rolled down from their peaks. Moreover, the rise was accompanied by volcanic eruptions and explosions, which threw stones over long distances.


Glaciation 11600 years ago. Photo: icemap.no

Yes, but how did these boulders end up “thrown” across the Baltic from Scandinavia to the Russian Plain?

And Horace Saussure found a solution from the standpoint of Neptunism. They say there were large glacial lakes in the mountains. Earthquakes destroyed their lintels, and water from them rushed into the valleys and carried stones with it. This happens in the mountains, but how strong did the flow have to be for it to reach from the Baltic to the Russian Plain without weakening?

Therefore, the Neptunists declared that the “migrant boulders” are real witnesses of the Flood. They say that the waters of the northern seas and the Arctic Ocean rushed to the south and brought them with them from Scandinavia.


Glaciation and caves where people lived

True, it was no longer a worldwide flood, but a kind of northern great flood.

And then the French zoologist Georges Cuvier, having studied the remains of a number of extinct animals, including mammoths, concluded that in the past in the Northern Hemisphere it was much colder than now. So the waters of the flood did not need to be so turbulent. The sea could gradually flood the plains, icebergs floated on the water, but migrating boulders lay on them.

We just had an ice age...


Jean-Pierre Perrodin, a hunter from the Southern Alps, offered a different explanation, not only for the boulders, but also for the ramparts of loose rock on the plains. In his opinion, they were formed by huge ancient glaciers, and it was they who brought these boulders with them.

It is interesting that geographers did not support this idea of ​​his at first. But our Russian mineralogist Vasily Severgin spoke in favor of it, writing:

“As for the Finnish mountains in particular, it is likely that they were covered with ancient ice... that the ice rolled along with it the torn off masses; that some of them were left separately in the swamps; melted ice in the depths produced lakes.”

This hypothesis seemed incredible to many scientists, but how else could it be possible to explain the presence of loose sediments, very similar to marine sediments, but completely devoid of any remains of marine life?

Well, then the Swiss-American scientist Jean Louis Agassiz, in his essay “Research on Glaciers,” moved on to global generalizations:

“The Earth became covered with an icy crust that stretched from the North Pole to most of the Northern Hemisphere.”

The great glaciation of the planet, in his opinion, was sudden in the spirit of Cuvier. And this hypothesis made such a strong impression on the scientific world that the popularizer of science, a certain Wilhelm Belsche, even spoke about it like this:

“The picture of the ice sheet is so monstrous that fantasy is barely able to follow it... We are forced to imagine such a mass of ice that at first glance it becomes scary even for the theory itself.”


P. A. Kropotkin in the 1880s

To science from the dungeon!


But the most interesting from all points of view was the “Research on the Ice Age”, written nowhere else, but in the harsh dungeons of the Peter and Paul Fortress, by the famous geographer, anarchist and representative of the princely family of the Kropotkins - Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin. In prison, many prisoners went crazy, but he worked, wrote, occupied his mind, in general, he had no time for “that.”

And here’s what’s interesting: the theory of the ice age was proposed almost simultaneously by the Swiss Jean Louis Agassiz, the Scotsman John Geikie, the Swede Otto Thorell and our compatriot Peter Kropotkin!

Throughout the XNUMXth century, this theory developed and has now reached the level of awareness of “well, who didn’t know this.”


This is how they studied ancient stones and mountains. The drawing was made by P. A. Kropotkin during a Siberian expedition between 1862 and 1865.

However, several years ago there lived in Penza a fireman who wrote in the local newspaper that the Great Flood happened, that the ancient Egyptians knew about it and built the Great Pyramids - “breakwaters from the flood.”

But, it is clear that this is nothing more than a “burp” from some overabundance of knowledge, which our society today is so guilty of, confusing “weak minds”...
52 comments
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  1. +3
    12 November 2023 04: 17
    Glaciation 27 years ago. Photo icemap.no
    photo ! 27 t.l...!!! Having laughed, I read on... about Kropotkin, it’s interesting to write scientific papers while in captivity... this requires a remarkable imagination.
    1. +12
      12 November 2023 06: 15
      Quote: Aerodrome
      Glaciation 27 years ago. Photo icemap.no
      photo ! 27 t.l...!!! Having laughed, I read on... about Kropotkin, it’s interesting to write scientific papers while in captivity... this requires a remarkable imagination.

      Why not, if only the library was available!
      Look, William Chester in a maximum security mental hospital compiled the Oxford Dictionary!
      1. +12
        12 November 2023 11: 09
        Look, William Chester in a maximum security mental hospital compiled the Oxford Dictionary!
        And the German mathematician E. Kamke, while serving 10 years as a Nazi criminal, wrote a handbook on differential equations in prison.
    2. +4
      12 November 2023 10: 11
      It is strange that there is no conclusion about the threat of a new glaciation. I came across a publication with calculations that glaciation begins suddenly, in contrast to centuries-long melting.
      Quote: Aerodrome
      photo 27 t.l.

      So what's wrong? :) Ancient Egyptian women wore dresses based on Coco Chanel's designs, which is confirmed by frescoes, including those in the pyramids.
    3. +6
      12 November 2023 11: 07
      It’s interesting to write scientific papers while in captivity... this requires a remarkable imagination.
      This is not a fantasy, this is a way to avoid going crazy in solitary.
      1. 0
        12 November 2023 11: 20
        Quote: Aviator_
        It’s interesting to write scientific papers while in captivity... this requires a remarkable imagination.
        This is not a fantasy, this is a way to avoid going crazy in solitary.

        And for a crazy person? wassat
        1. +3
          12 November 2023 13: 48
          And for a crazy person?
          And he has nowhere to go, he is already there. I remember in “Monday” the Strugatskys mentioned the book “Creativity of the Mentally Ill”, there was a poem about a sparrow.
    4. +4
      12 November 2023 16: 25
      Prisoners of the Peter and Paul Fortress had access to a library and could order books. This is the basis for any scientific work.
      1. 0
        12 November 2023 17: 33
        Quote from cpls22
        Prisoners of the Peter and Paul Fortress had access to a library and could order books. This is the basis for any scientific work.

        First of all, they need to order mineral samples and rock samples, since this is the fundamental basis of the work.
        1. 0
          12 November 2023 20: 18
          Quote: ycuce234-san
          first of all, you need to order mineral samples and samples

          or get acquainted with the already published results of geological expeditions
          1. 0
            19 November 2023 16: 14
            Only partially. In fact, if you want to substantiate something, you need to do the sampling yourself in relation to the most significant parts of the study. On the other hand, if those sitting in the fortress had money, then it could be ordered from an outside specialist or received by mail from collections.
  2. +5
    12 November 2023 05: 45
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

    There is a glacial theory. Quite satisfied.

    True, there is also a drift theory, in which boulders were carried away like icebergs, floating across the sea.
    1. +5
      12 November 2023 07: 29
      I join Sergei’s kind words. I liked the article!
    2. +1
      12 November 2023 16: 29
      it remains to explain how these stones turned out upstairs iceberg
  3. +5
    12 November 2023 06: 27
    There was also a flood; at the end of the Ice Age, the level of the world's oceans rose by 130 m, not all at once, of course, but there could have been individual floods when the water rose irrevocably by several meters.
    1. +4
      12 November 2023 07: 33
      Quote: Andobor
      There was a flood too

      And not just one, but several!
      1. +2
        12 November 2023 10: 37
        Only a humanist (and not everyone) can believe that ice can lift a stone and drag it for thousands of kilometers while rolling it along the way. It’s better to believe in simple teleportation.
        1. +2
          12 November 2023 10: 53
          Quote: agond
          Only a humanist (and not everyone) can believe that ice can lift a stone and drag it for thousands of kilometers while rolling it along the way. It’s better to believe in simple teleportation.

          The stone is sharpened by a wave on the seashore. And only then the ice carries him
          1. +1
            12 November 2023 11: 32
            Ice - do you mean floating ice floe?
        2. +5
          12 November 2023 11: 26
          As snow pollution grows, it compacts to ice, then the snowdrift begins to settle and spread to the sides, pushing everything. And if a snowdrift is the size of a third of the planet, then the harm from it is proportional. Now all this is observed in the mountains - glaciers creep into the valleys and move stones.
        3. +5
          12 November 2023 11: 51
          Quote: agond
          can lift a stone

          Raise? No, he can’t lift it. But move as much as you like. And today glaciers “crawl” along the valleys and move masses of stones. And, by the way, Kropotkin was not a humanitarian. He was a geologist and spent many years on expeditions. He suggested a lot of things, which were later confirmed in practice.
          1. +5
            12 November 2023 12: 48
            No, he can’t lift it.
            Maybe. The finer fraction squeezes out larger samples of denser rock.
        4. +6
          12 November 2023 17: 43
          Just go to the mountains; there, on the edge of the glacier moraine, there are always giant melting blocks lying on the ice.
          Therefore, it was easy for scientists of the past to understand - just sit on a gelding and ride with an intractable opponent to the nearest glacier.
      2. 0
        14 November 2023 15: 38
        Quote: kalibr
        Quote: Andobor
        There was a flood too

        And not just one, but several!

        If you believe the ancient Greeks, there were 3 floods. According to Hinduism, there was an Early Sangha (i.e. a community), there was a Middle Sangha, and a Later Sangha --- present-day India. The previous 2 sank to the bottom of the ocean. According to the mythology of the Mexican Indians, there were 4 disasters - from the flood, from the wind, from the earthquake, and from jaguars. Moreover, the date, moment in time, and cause of the disasters, different tribes believed differently about this.
        And I am more impressed by Plato’s opinion! The one who introduced the whole World to Atlantis, undeservedly forgotten. In general, not only Plato, and not only the Greeks, mentioned Atlantis. Island of the Seven Cities, Hesperia, Antilia, Brazil, Atlandia, White Heron Island, Aztlan, and more, more, more
        What did Plato himself write??? In Timaeus and Critias? Civilizations perished “from water, from fire,” and Atlantis is only one of many! This must be remembered by those who trace the history of Mankind exclusively to Atlantis! Plato then describes how numerous planets "deviate from their paths" and fall to the earth, causing devastation. That is, the ancient Hellenes knew about asteroids and in general about planets that were not visible to the naked eye! And official science talks about the slow but sure growth of scientific knowledge, that supposedly there were no civilizations that knew what modern science does not know.
        Igor Akimushkin in his “World of Animals” mentioned the open skeletons of people, or Pithecanthropus, dating back to the era of 3,5 --- 4 million years! And then not a word is heard about it! No confirmation, no denial! And Andrei Burovsky also says it right!
        But all these Floods were not worldwide! Otherwise, all land species, and most sea species, would collapse! And there simply wouldn’t be enough water on the entire planet, be it in glaciers or in the atmosphere.
    2. +5
      12 November 2023 12: 27
      The Sumerians could mistake a severe flood in their interfluve for a global flood.
      Also, the dam break in the Pas de Calais (white cliffs of Dover) draws attention to the title of the Great Flood.
      The emergence of the Mediterranean Sea due to the breakthrough of the Gibraltar bridge could also claim this title, but then, probably, there were no people yet.
      1. 0
        15 November 2023 14: 45
        Quote: bk0010
        The Sumerians could mistake a severe flood in their interfluve for a global flood.
        .......

        Or maybe the death of Lemuria?
  4. -1
    12 November 2023 10: 51
    Moreover, both the Plutonists, who gave preference to the influence of internal forces on the relief of the planet, and the Neptunists, who advocated the Great Flood, undertook to answer it.

    Serious scientists do not use terms such as “global flood”.
    The hypothesis about powerful continental glaciation in the Quaternary period in northern Europe, Asia and America and the formation of exaration relief by these glaciers (glacial theory) was put forward in the middle of the XNUMXth century (J. Charpentier, L. Agassitz, A. Penk, E. Brückner, etc.) .
    However, at the same time, other, no less authoritative scientists (C. Darwin, C. Lyell, R. Murchison, A. Keyserling) put forward the drift theory, according to which the formation of boulder accumulations in the Northern Hemisphere occurred due to the transport of boulders by floating ice during transgressions sea ​​basins.
    Since then, both these theories have coexisted.
    Throughout the XNUMXth century, this theory developed and has now reached the level of awareness “well, who didn’t know this”

    Now it has reached a level where serious doubts have arisen about its correctness and a new theory has emerged, summarized as follows:
    Before moving boulders from Fennoscandia thousands of kilometers away with a cover glacier, the question should be asked: are the bedrock rocks lying just tens or hundreds of meters below the root sources of these boulders? Are fragments of bedrock raised along deep faults in the form of near-fault blocks and wedges, which during their disintegration yielded the coarse material that is considered glacial?
  5. BAI
    +5
    12 November 2023 11: 17
    The most famous migrant stone of Russia is the Blue Stone near Pereslavl Zalessky. Hit the top of the hill - they threw it off. Drowned in Lake Pleshcheyevo - he crawled ashore.
  6. +3
    12 November 2023 11: 46
    Common sense tells me that it was the glacier that brought boulders of different sizes to our lands from the north.
    Here is one that is visible from my window

    But the author forgot or did not know about such a legacy of the glacier as eskers.
    A fortress was once built on the top of such a hill

    [/ Center]
    1. +5
      12 November 2023 11: 55
      Quote: ee2100
      Here is one that is visible from my window

      What an interesting place you live in. I didn’t know about the eskers, and even if I had known, I wouldn’t have written about the stones in the article. If you write, it will be great: the reader’s response to the material.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. +4
        12 November 2023 12: 24
        A specialist should write about eskers. This is not a story)))))
      3. +3
        12 November 2023 12: 27
        Here's another one, a little further
    2. +3
      12 November 2023 14: 25
      But the author forgot or did not know about such a legacy of the glacier as eskers.

      This is a completely different topic and, accordingly, a separate article. There are at least nine hypotheses for the formation of eskers.
      1. +2
        12 November 2023 20: 24
        There are at least nine hypotheses for the formation of eskers.

        I am not going to discuss all the hypotheses here. I’ll just quote a statement from a good friend of mine who is no longer with us.
        Regarding hypotheses.
        He said that there could be as many of them as you like, let’s take a simple example - pornographic multi-story photos, and this was 1981. “Have you seen them?” he asked. “yes” I answered. “Imagine that this structure begins to move. Either way, it will fall apart.”
        Same with theories. Can you really say how many of them will not fall apart during modeling?
        I do not insist that the formation of lakes is 100% the influence of a glacier, but give at least one convincing argument for their formation.
        Here's a shot of the hill from the other side
  7. +1
    12 November 2023 16: 37
    Thanks to the author for the article revealing the history of science.
    It’s funny that the earth drowns the houses that have grown on it, but spits out heavy boulders to the surface that arrived from afar, as if not recognizing them as their own matter.
    1. +3
      12 November 2023 17: 18
      O. Minus. Some people have a poor sense of humor and imaginative thinking.
      I accept the glacial theory, don’t worry so much.
      1. +2
        12 November 2023 19: 38
        Thanks to the author for the article revealing the history of science.

        I put the minus.
        1.or you decided to suck up the author
        2.or you don’t know anything about boulders at all
        Anyway, minus
        1. 0
          12 November 2023 20: 11
          Quote: kalibr
          Raise? No, he can’t lift it. But move as much as you like. .

          If ice can move a stone, does this mean that the ice also moves, and not from top to bottom as in the mountains, but on a plain for a thousand kilometers, and then on the way the stone should have fallen into a hole, into a ravine, etc., but this In one word, there were many tensions in the glacial theory of stone transportation.
        2. 0
          12 November 2023 20: 12
          Quote: kalibr
          Raise? No, he can’t lift it. But move as much as you like. .

          If ice can move a stone, does this mean that the ice also moves, and not from top to bottom as in the mountains, but on a plain for a thousand kilometers, and then on the way the stone should have fallen into a hole, into a ravine, etc., but this In one word, there were many tensions in the glacial theory of stone transportation.
          1. +1
            17 November 2023 21: 27
            Quote: agond

            If ice can move a stone, does this mean that the ice also moves, and not from top to bottom as in the mountains, but on a plain for a thousand kilometers, and then on the way the stone should have fallen into a hole, into a ravine, etc., but this In one word, there were many tensions in the glacial theory of stone transportation.
            Mojave Desert - Death Valley...
            State of California, USA
            And there are many such “migrants” there...
            hi
        3. +1
          13 November 2023 08: 52
          Quote: ee2100
          Thanks to the author for the article revealing the history of science.

          I put the minus.
          1.or you decided to suck up the author
          2.or you don’t know anything about boulders at all
          Anyway, minus

          I was not aware of the train of thought of science before the recognition of the glacial theory.
          Gratitude for learning something new is not the worst feeling, believe me. Have you tried to write it yourself? How did you perceive gratitude? I don't give a minus. Because what's the point in it? Without a word he is nothing, but with a word he is not needed.
          1. +2
            13 November 2023 12: 59
            I gave you a + for not being offended. drinks
            Articles by Shpakovsky, who writes them on a commercial basis, are at best a reason to continue to be interested in the topic presented.
            To write about glacial boulders, it is necessary to touch upon the glacial topic in general.
            The eskers that I mentioned are also a consequence of the movement of the glacier.
            I tried to write and am neutral about praise. Most of all I like reasoned criticism or additions.
            1. +1
              13 November 2023 13: 32
              What grievances) In general, journalism on a scientific topic, in my opinion. requires not only a scrupulous knowledge of the subject, but also the ability to present it - to enrich it with an image, a metaphor, to introduce intrigue. All this makes reading not only fascinating, but also well-remembered, arousing interest in the subject. These are the requirements of the genre. There may not be a commercial basis. A simple desire to capture the reader's attention can sometimes be mistaken for commercial excitement, but this is not always the case. By the way, the opportunity to add something to the article also makes it attractive to the thinking reader. This is me speaking from the reader’s bell tower feel
  8. +1
    13 November 2023 11: 03
    Thanks to the Author for an interesting article.

    I want to tell you a little about small stones.
    Many years ago, for several weeks I worked as a “steering wheel” on a combine. My task was to go down to the reaper and pull out a stone from it if the reaper caught it. Usually the stones were small and did not cause any harm, but their impact could be heard, the combine would stop, and the helmsman would pick up the stone and place it near the cabin. These stones were then piled in the forest belt, at the edge of the field, there were plenty of them there.

    Sometimes the wooden connecting rod broke, they quickly replaced it and moved on (I was told that this is why the connecting rod is made of wood, so that the conveyor does not jam). One day, a stone nevertheless slipped through and the harvester left for daily repairs. But I'm not talking about the combine.

    These were mainly “pebbles”, the kind you find on river banks, rounded, as if ground by water. This is in the middle of Voronezh fields! I said that during these decades that the field has been cultivated, all the stones should have been removed. I was told that they are “born and squeezed out by the earth.”

    Maybe there was still a sea here, I don’t know.
    1. +2
      13 November 2023 12: 09
      Quote: S.Z.
      Maybe there was still a sea here, I don’t know.

      Pebbles do not form on the seabed, only in the surf. There should be accompanying fossils of marine organisms. Perhaps the answer lies in the fact that the movement of ice did not occur continuously, but seasonally, and the stones experienced the impact of a kind of ice “surf”, when a one-time movement of ice plowed the soil, then it all froze, and the next year this “arable land” was covered by the next one.” a wave of ice rubbing the stones together. At the same time, there is no need to think about any kind of life in such conditions.
    2. 0
      14 November 2023 09: 39
      Voronezh is the maximum that a glacier has ever reached; there was a glacier to the north of Voronezh, but there was never a glacier to the south, and the pebbles in the fields need to be specifically looked at, it could be anything.
    3. ANB
      0
      15 November 2023 02: 06
      . This is in the middle of Voronezh fields

      I don’t know where the stones come from. But the Voronezh and Belgorod regions are the land of the chalk mountains. This means there used to be a sea there. At school we wrote more often with wild chalk rather than with crayons, and sometimes traces of shells were visible on large pieces of it.
  9. +1
    13 November 2023 20: 03
    But it’s interesting - now there is a theory in science that at some period humanity passed through a “bottleneck” This is when there were catastrophically few intelligent erectus for procreation. Some unknown catastrophe occurred that brought humanity to the brink of extinction. Does this have anything to do with the ice age this article is about?
    1. 0
      14 November 2023 16: 18
      Stanislav Drobyshevsky says that this is unknown about Humanity, but for example, cheetahs we went through such a bottleneck! There is only 1 pair left - a boy and a girl. love They revived an almost extinct species
    2. 0
      2 February 2024 12: 34
      Only if the glacier is at the speed of a jeep. 80 kilometers per hour. If the glacier moved like a decent glacier, the process took centuries. People migrated further south, that's all.
  10. 0
    20 November 2023 06: 20
    Pole shift.
    A huge “tsunami” will wash away forests, stones, black soil, grind up animals and all this will fall out in new places, and the water will gradually simply flow back into the ocean

    Almost all over Russia, the age of forests does not exceed 250 years and a lot of old churches are oriented differently than they are now, but they are placed on the cardinal points
  11. 0
    2 February 2024 12: 30
    I have always been interested in the mechanics of the process. The boulder lies on the GROUND. That is, he ended up above, on her, on the ground! How exactly did he get higher? Was it carried by a glacier? OK. True, it is not clear how it formed so smooth in the glacier, because to roll a stone it must be rolled - it must roll over the stones, knocking off its edges. And for a very long time, in the sea surf, a brick turns into pebbles in about a year, and it rolls along the bottom continuously. Was it that the glacier was chasing these stones like a football player? In front of you, with enough speed to cut off all the bumps?! And then he somehow picked it up, picked it up, and carried it with him to lower it onto some hill.
    Stones flying in the ice. Fine. Then how did the HILL survive?! Why wasn't he embarrassed? But it was not cramped, don’t forget - the boulders lie on the surface of the soil. The soft soil survived. The glacier, which at first drove the cobblestone in front of it like Messi, then lifted it like a crane and carried it on itself, did not cut off the soil beneath it. Was he on wheels?! Since the glaciers were creeping, they had to work like irons, raking everything in front of them.
    Yes, its outer edge was supposed to chip off all the time. But still, the outer edge weighed as much as thousands of tractors, had to constantly break off, and in front of the glacier there had to be a line of ice debris all the time, passing through the soil like sandpaper.
    And where? Did the soil under the boulder appear under a layer of ice? Why are the stones not in stripes? There should have been stripes, entire walls in those places where the glacier “got tired” and stopped moving. Where are they? Lots of questions, no answers...