Stages glorious path. More than 50 years T-62 are in service with about two dozen countries

32
The last Soviet medium tank T-62 was created, as they would say today, in a competitive environment. At least the command of the main departments of the Ministry of Defense - armored and rocket-artillery perceived it as a hindrance to another Kharkov development (“Difficult way to recognition”). However, the further combat fate of this armored vehicle confirmed the correctness of the choice of the leadership of the defense department and justified the decisions of the designers.

Mass production

The T-62 tank, whose mass production began on July 1 1962, compared to its predecessor, the T-55 had a number of design features.

This machine was equipped with a U-115TS smoothbore gun with a two-plane stabilizer Meteor, a solid turret with an epaulet diameter of 5 millimeters (T-2245 - 55 mm), and a mechanism for ejecting spent cartridges through the hatch in the aft of the turret. Changed the mount of the gun, sight and coaxial machine gun in the tower. They increased the length of the case by 1816 millimeters, and the height - by 386 millimeters. The slope of the feed sheet was reduced from 27 to two degrees. To ensure the desired angle of reduction of the gun, the roof of the hull from the turret towards the stern had a slope of 17 ° 3 ', and towards the bow - 15 ° 0'. To protect the epaulettes of the tower and the commander’s hatch from direct hits of bullets, armor rings were welded with a cross section of 30x10 millimeters. The machine gun was eliminated, the turret rotation mechanism was structurally changed. The TPKUB monitoring device was replaced by the TKN-30 “Karmin” combined command device, a small-sized nozzle heater with increased heating capacity was installed, a 2-disk friction clutch with a hydropneumatic control drive that eliminated excessive slipping of the disks during operation and reduced the pedal effort, plastic brake pads on the belts turn brakes. To increase smoothness tank the dynamic course of the track rollers was increased from 142 to 162 millimeters. Due to the lengthening of the supporting surface of the tracks, the specific ground pressure was reduced to 0,75 kg / cm2, as well as a number of other smaller improvements.


The serial production of T-62 was carried out by Uralvagonzavod up to 1973, when it was replaced on the assembly line by T-72.

The only serial modification was the Commander T-62K, which differed from the linear machine by installing an additional radio station Р-112, tank navigation equipment THA-2 and charging unit АБ-1-П / 30-У. Ammunition decreased by four art-shots and three boxes with ribbons for a coaxial machine gun. Another set of four-meter whip antenna was added, the mount of the loader's seat was changed, and some changes were made to the layout of electrical equipment, to the placement of ammunition and spare parts and to the layout of TPU devices.

As for the linear T-62, then during serial production, they have changed little. All improvements were reduced mainly to the installation of more modern equipment and weapons. So, from August 1964, the twin machine gun SGMT was replaced with PKT, and the commander's observation device TKN-2 with TKN-3. With 1965, instead of the radio station P-113 and TPU P-120, they began to install the radio station P-123 and TPU P-124. In the same year, the TPR-1-41-11 night sight scope was introduced. Since May, the 1966 of the Gyropolupompas GIC-48 was replaced with the GPC-59, and in 1967, the hatches in the roof of the MTO were closed. With the 1972-th anti-aircraft gun began to be installed DShKM. Starting from 1975, some of the tanks released were equipped with KDT-1 laser rangefinders.

Discover Europe

After appearing in the army T-62 attracted the attention of Western experts. However, for a long time they could not even get photos of the new secret armored combat vehicle (BBM). The tank was officially demonstrated to the general public only in 1967: on November 7 twenty T-62 4 Guards Kantemirovsky tank division passed through Red Square. The European public was able to familiarize themselves with these tanks a year later: on the night of 21 August 1968, Operation Danube began - the troops of the Warsaw Pact countries entered Czechoslovakia. A number of tank units of the Soviet army that took part in this operation were armed with T-62.

Damansky Island

Sixty-two warriors had to go to a real battle in just six months, but at the very other end of the country. On the night of 2 in March, 1969 of the year around 300 Chinese soldiers captured the island of Damansky on the Ussuri River, equipped with firing positions on it. The attempt of the Soviet border guards, led by the head of the frontier guard unit Nizhnemikhaylovka senior lieutenant Ivan Strelnikov to remove the violators from the Soviet territory ended tragically - the outfit was shot by the Chinese at close range. In the ensuing battle with the help of the approached reserves, the border guards beat off the island and took up defense. As the Chinese side's attempts to take possession of the island continued, the 12 of March in the battle area came from units of the 135 th Pacific Red Banner Motorized Rifle Division of the Far Eastern Military District - a motorized rifle and artillery regiment, a separate tank battalion and a division of BM-21 “Grad” rocket launchers. Nevertheless, the border guards stayed in the trenches until March 14, when an unexpected order followed: “Leave the damansky!”. The Chinese again occupied the island, though not for long. Less than a day later, a new order arrived: “Damanskiy rebuff!”, Which was done. On the morning of March 15, Chinese troops, supported by artillery and tanks, began to attack the Soviet positions. At the same time, our border guards were left with virtually no artillery support, since the enemy’s guns were on the Chinese coast. While the command of the Far Eastern Military District requested permission from Moscow to open fire on the territory of China, the head of the frontier detachment, Colonel Democrat Leonov, decided to strike the rear of the Chinese with a T-62 platoon (according to other sources, to reconnoiter). Three tanks went to the Ussuri ice and turned around Damansky Island, substituting the enemy for the enemy. Taking advantage of this, the Chinese shot down the head T-62 from an RPG-7 anti-tank grenade launcher. The crew, including Colonel Leonov, died. The other two tanks and border guards retreated. By evening, the commander of the Far Eastern Military District, Lieutenant-General Oleg Losik, without waiting for the command from Moscow, ordered the firing on the Chinese coast. The regiment 122-mm howitzers and the division of installations "Grad" dealt a powerful blow to the island and the territory of China to a depth of seven kilometers. Following this, the 2 Battalion of the 199 5th Verkhneudinsk Motorized Rifle Regiment went to the attack with the support of the T-62 company. After a fierce battle, the island was cleared from the enemy. However, the wrecked tank remained on the Ussuri ice between Damansky Island and the Chinese coast. Despite repeated attempts, it was not possible to evacuate him. In order to prevent the Chinese from seizing the car, there was a constant shelling from our side. As a result, the ice meter thickness burst and the tank sank. Formal secrecy measures have been taken. True, the Soviet command did not know that the Chinese scouts penetrated the wrecked tank on the very first night, removed the 2B-41 TS and removed several projectiles, including armor-piercing. In May, after the ice had gone down, the Chinese managed to pull this car to their shore.

Afghanistan

The next time T-62 went into battle after 10 years - in Afghanistan. The tank units of the 40 Army were represented by the regular regiments of the three motorized rifle divisions introduced into this country - the 24 Guards Tank Regiment of the 5 Guards Migration Service, the 285 Tank Regiment of the 108 MMS, and the 234 Tank Regiment of the 201 MTS as well as tank battalions of motorized rifle regiments and brigades, in the absolute majority of cases armed with T-62. The 285 th regiment entered Afghanistan, as well as other units and subunits of the 108 MRD, on a pontoon bridge over the Amu Darya near the Uzbek city of Termez, the 24 th Guards crossed the land border at Kushka, and the 234 th went through the Pamirs along a narrow mountain snow-covered serpentines. For this truly "Suvorov transition" the regimental commander was subsequently awarded a state award.

Tankers in Afghanistan had to conduct combat operations on a terrain that was absolutely unsuitable for the use of these BBMs, and to perform tasks for which they had never prepared. The tanks were mainly used as mobile firing points at roadblocks. In addition, they were attracted to accompany the columns. At the same time, one or two vehicles with mine trawls operated as part of the movement support unit, while the rest were evenly distributed throughout the column. When the enemy attacked, the tanks drove off the road and covered the cars with fire, which skipped the dangerous area at high speed. They were also used when blocking and mopping up the terrain: armor covered motorized infantry and paratroopers and destroyed the most important targets with fire and caterpillars. Considering the absence of the enemy’s means of night vision, especially in the initial period, tanks were used to capture important objects with a sudden night strike.

More modern armored vehicles did not go to Afghanistan - the command reasonably decided that in the absence of the enemy’s armored vehicles and “sixty-two times” it would be quite enough. However, the senselessness of the presence in Afghanistan of a significant number of tanks became evident quite soon. In 1986, part of the tank regiments was introduced into the USSR. However, a number of T-62 continued to be used in the 40 Army up to the 1989 year. It should be noted that during the fighting in Afghanistan, the tanks suffered relatively low combat losses. In the army as a whole, the ratio of the failure of armored vehicles for technical reasons and combat damage was 20: 1. Combat casualties occurred mainly from the detonation of mines and land mines. At the same time, more than 50 percent of damaged cars required major repairs or were not recoverable at all.

Still in service

By the time of the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, the Vienna talks on the conclusion of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty) were already in full swing. According to the information that the Soviet Union submitted for signing, as of November 1990, the USSR had on its European part 2021 a T-62 tank of various modifications. The dynamics of reducing the number of T-62 tanks on Russian territory can be traced, according to the data of the Commission, for compliance with the provisions of the CFE Treaty. So, in 1990 and 1991, their number did not change (2021 unit), in 1992-m it was reduced to 948 (some of the tanks turned out to be abroad - in Ukraine, in Belarus and Moldova). In 1993, their number still remained unchanged, but already in 1994, it began to decline rapidly and amounted to 688 units. In 1995, the number of tanks in the European part even increased slightly - to 761, apparently due to the transfer of some parts from the Siberian military district to the North Caucasus. However, by the 1997 year, it amounted to all 97 combat vehicles.

As part of the 93 th mechanized regiment of the internal troops of the "sixty-two" repelled the attack of Dudayev militants in Dagestan. Subsequently, T-62 from the 42 Guards Motor Rifle Division and the 160 Guards Tank Regiment (SibMD) took part in the counter-terrorist operation in the North Caucasus. The last fact of the combat use of T-62 tanks took place quite recently - in August 2008, in the course of repelling Georgian aggression against South Ossetia. They were part of the tactical group 42-th Guards Motorized Rifle Division.
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32 comments
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  1. +2
    11 January 2013 08: 59
    ABOUT! we have such a stand on the "Arch of Glory", seemingly unprepossessing, but as soon as you climb on it, you immediately feel the POWER !!!!
    1. +1
      11 January 2013 17: 51
      cth; fyn, and we have a T-34 at the PEDINSTITUTE, good A NEAR THE KOSOGORSK FACTORY - IS-3 !!!!! Yes good ALSO impressive, especially the kids !!!!! POWER OF OUR COUNTRY !!!
      1. swat2238
        +2
        12 January 2013 19: 37
        Not so long ago I went to take a picture of the IS-3 near a sloping mountain, everything was sketched with a swastika. I would see reptiles - beheaded.
  2. 8 company
    -5
    11 January 2013 09: 54
    I don’t know how a tank with a snail's speed can be praised? For 40 tons, the engine of 580 "horses" is just sabotage. In fact, in Afghanistan, he was more of a bunker at the outposts. The "72" is already a very decent tank.
    1. +6
      11 January 2013 10: 10
      Well fifty dollars on the highway squeezed, and at that time it was Cool! not many tanks could have such speed with such a reservation. at that time, European tanks generally had cardboard armor, and only with the help of the L-7 gun could they fight Soviet tanks. If not for this gun and the T-62 would not have appeared.
    2. +3
      11 January 2013 10: 21
      Well, here you are a specialist! To understand all the charms of 62 matches, it was necessary to complete the Tank School and serve on these machines.
      1. +4
        11 January 2013 15: 46
        My father served on the T-62 in Poland, when he was for the first time in a museum in Cuba, he approached him and began to stroke and cried. What can I add here.
        1. Odessa16
          +1
          11 January 2013 17: 46
          whom wararmy to whom mother is dear.
    3. +1
      11 January 2013 17: 56
      8 company, Yes, NATO super fortresses belay - it's flyers - whack the hell out of you !!! laughing
    4. 0
      11 January 2013 21: 23
      But a tank on the Armata platform in 2015 will also be more decent smile
      In the title of the article words "more than 50 years in service" but.
    5. 0
      12 January 2013 02: 56
      shozh you definitely need to cheat, at least a little but an injection. smile already. he himself probably didn’t create anything worthwhile in life, he only learned to crap
  3. +5
    11 January 2013 10: 42
    Indeed, the car is good. In some ways I like it even more than the T-72. However, I would like to express my opinion about the major design changes compared to the T-55. Actually, all the peculiarities are caused by the installation of a 115-mm cannon on the tank, more powerful than the 100-mm on the T-55. Hence, the increase in the diameter of the turret shoulder strap, which in turn led to the lengthening of the hull. The change in the slope of the rear armor plate is again caused by the need to increase the volume of the engine compartment, since the increased size of the fighting compartment "pushed" it towards the stern. The increase in the support surface of the tracks also happened "automatically" due to the lengthening of the hull. Similarly, the increase in the number of discs of the main clutch was a consequence of the increase in the mass of the tank. The 115-mm GSP had significant advantages over the 100-mm T-55 rifled gun in power, but it also had a number of disadvantages: less accuracy, shorter firing range. In general, in my opinion, the T-62 tank, compared to the T-55, was not a newer tank, but only had design features (not counting the main armament), due to the development of new components and assemblies (such as a turret turning mechanism), as well as devices (sights, radio stations, etc.), improvement of armor protection. In addition, with the remaining engine power and increased weight, the power density decreased, and with an increase in the body length with the transmission retained, the machine's agility. However, with certain driving skills, these shortcomings were smoothed out. There was such a case. I transferred the vehicles from my company to the training course, which trained specialists for the T-55. The company commander, who came to receive the tanks, after checking the cars by the mileage, said that the engines were tarred, overheated, the cars "did not pull." I myself sat down on the levers and rolled it, demonstrating the good driving performance of the car. At the same time, he explained the peculiarities of driving a car. After that, acts of prima transfer were signed and appropriately "washed"))). In conclusion, I would like to once again pay tribute to this car, in which I served for 4 years in the Trans-Baikal Military District in the first half of the 1980s.
  4. borisst64
    0
    11 January 2013 10: 52
    The author uses the acronym BBM in the article, which is not accepted either in the military-technical sphere or in the civil language. Ask people on the street (or in a tank regiment) what is BBM, I can imagine what options will be!
    1. +1
      11 January 2013 10: 55
      BBM - armored fighting vehicles - a fairly widely used abbreviation in military circles, and not only)))
      1. bask
        0
        5 February 2013 23: 46
        Quote: Strategia
        a widely used abbreviation in military circles, and not only)))
  5. +2
    11 January 2013 11: 05
    "Combat losses occurred mainly from the detonation of mines and landmines. At the same time, more than 50 percent of the damaged vehicles required major repairs or could not be restored at all." ... this is about discussions about the degree of armoring of equipment. such protection cannot be done on wheeled vehicles. The enemy simply acts ... increases the mass of the warhead.
  6. Prohor
    +1
    11 January 2013 11: 12
    I’m still tormented by the question: if the shells of a 115 mm gun can be thrown out of the tank automatically, why this cannot be done for a 125 mm? After all, a metal sleeve, I think, would dramatically increase the survivability of the T-72/80/90.
    (Of course, with additional isolation of the BPS, the collixylin-trotyl case of which cannot be converted into a metal one ...)
    1. 0
      11 January 2013 11: 37
      The question is not clear: what cannot be done, ejection of shells for 125 mm or metal shells for shells?
      1. Prohor
        0
        11 January 2013 11: 41
        And this, and this, because the existing mechanism for ejecting the D-81 pallet is unlikely to throw away a sleeve, right?
        1. 0
          11 January 2013 12: 08
          Just like that, you won’t solve this question. Firstly, it will be necessary to change the size of the ejection shell of the spent cartridges, since the size of the cartridge is larger than the size of the pallet. Secondly, the mass of the charge with the sleeve will change, which will require changes in the power of electric motors and the mechanisms for feeding and loading. This, in turn, will entail an increase in energy consumption, and possibly the dimensions of components and assemblies, layout ... etc. But, most importantly, what does the existing charge not satisfy, for what critical indicators?
      2. bask
        0
        5 February 2013 23: 51
        Smoothbore gun must be changed to a rifled gun.
    2. GHG
      GHG
      +2
      11 January 2013 11: 51
      Can you imagine how long the shot will be? You’ll have to expand the tower’s shoulder strap, respectively, the tank body itself, and this will already be a new tank. Heavier, and he will need = a new engine, transmission, etc. It's easier to build a new one. Now ours cannot raise the power of a shot ... only because of the modest size of the tower.
      1. Prohor
        +1
        11 January 2013 16: 09
        The length of the shot will not change, it will remain so separate. And there is no need to change the AZ too - the OFS weighs about 25 kg, the 4Ж40 charge weighs 10 kg, in a metal sleeve it will weigh 13-14 kilograms, so the AZ will "pull" it.
        But the charge does not satisfy the fact that a burning body can be ignited with a match, it is colloxylin soaked in TNT. The terrifying result - the detonation of the BC - in the pictures from Iraq, Ossetia, Chechnya, Syria ....
        1. +2
          12 January 2013 01: 02
          Prokhor! Well, suppose a match can be set on fire, but it’s difficult. I tried it.
          As for the detonation of the BC, if you hit, then hit and I assure you that no cartridge case will save. And if it’s just a fire, then there’s enough time to jump out .....
          In general, from any adversity it would be better if the software system was of repeated action ..
          1. 0
            12 January 2013 16: 44
            The shell of the charge is sufficiently resistant to "ignition" from the outside, but the metal sleeve can become hot and also cause ignition. In general, from personal experience, the T-72 is no more fire hazardous than the T-62. The 72's are packed very tightly - both fuel and ammunition, so breaking through the armor in the event of a hit in most cases will lead to the defeat of the tank. And in the event of a fire, for example, in the area of ​​the heater, there are less chances to extinguish on the T-72, since the ammunition rack is closer, and not because the liners are not metal.
            1. Prohor
              0
              12 January 2013 20: 11
              To heat a sleeve is not so simple ...
              A metal sleeve is not a panacea, of course, but it would at least slightly increase survivability ... Our tanks, alas, in this regard are far behind the "enemy" ones. recourse
              1. bask
                0
                5 February 2013 23: 58
                Quote: Prokhor
                A metal sleeve is not a panacea, of course, but at least a little survivability would increase ... Our tanks, alas, are far behind in this regard
      2. bask
        0
        5 February 2013 23: 54
        Quote: GES
        Can you imagine how long the shot will be? It’s necessary to expand the shoulder strap of the tower, respectively, and the tank’s body itself, and this will be a new one

        I completely agree with you
    3. Beltar
      0
      11 January 2013 12: 19
      And what AZ on the T-72 forgot how to throw away sleeves ??
      1. +2
        11 January 2013 13: 35
        There are no liners, but pallets are thrown away.
  7. Algor73
    +2
    11 January 2013 11: 25
    For its time, the tank was good.
  8. Nechai
    +1
    11 January 2013 17: 31
    Quote: Prokhor
    if the shells of a 115-mm gun can be thrown out of the tank automatically, why cannot this be done for a 125-mm gun?

    Quote: Prokhor
    . And AZ will not have to be changed much (?!?!?!)

    Sergey, are you serious? The weight of the projectile and the charge, in general, nothing to do with. Although a 125mm unitary nursing at loading, unloading and maintenance will still be a pleasure! The transition to separate charging is primarily due to the design of both AZ and MZ since it was necessary to shove the necessary at least minimum shots of the first stage into the b / compartment, in vehicles starting with the T-64go.
    For me, the T-55y is best of all from the machines of that generation, in the AMV variant (if the memory doesn’t fail) - a TShS sight, a quantum range finder, a ballistic calculator, a latch, a tack, etc. And 62ka is, after all, a fixture of a GREAT MOBILE TVET in a tank. And not from a good life.
    1. Prohor
      +1
      11 January 2013 19: 48
      But where did I talk about unitary loading ?! Separate, separate, but only with a metal sleeve; sitting on a barrel with gunpowder is harmful, and inside it is even more so, and 72/80/90 - armored barrels with gunpowder.
      1. 0
        11 January 2013 21: 35
        A metal sleeve does not radically improve survivability, but it will slightly increase it. We must strive for this! Yes
        And why hadn’t you done such a charge for tank guns before?
        Yes, for the same reason that there were three MBTs in service, there were scanty surveillance devices - TKN and aiming - TPN, 5TDF engine and another row at ...
        , which reduced the fighting qualities of generally good cars.
        Industry shoved, the military accepted, did not show integrity, that’s the whole reason.
        1. +1
          12 January 2013 16: 46
          The controversial claim that survivability will increase, but the cost is unequivocal.
    2. bask
      0
      6 February 2013 00: 02
      Quote: Nechai
      b / compartment necessary at least a minimum of first-round shots, in vehicles starting with the T-64go. For me, the T-55y is best of all from the machines of that generation, in the AMV variant (if the memory doesn’t fail) - a TShS sight, a quantum range finder, a ballistic calculator, a latch, a tack, etc. And 62ka is, after all, a fixture of an EXCELLENT MOBILE TVET in a tank. And not from a good life
  9. 0
    17 January 2013 20: 09
    I saw the T-62 in Chechnya and asked, what are these old tanks? They say that they drove specially - they have a gun rises to a higher angle. It’s convenient in the mountains!
  10. T-90MS
    0
    17 January 2013 21: 35
    Good tank. It is not surprising that it is still in service with some countries.
    Only new equipment in it
  11. Prohor
    0
    20 January 2013 19: 47
    Russia: T-62 TANKS DISPOSE
    Sent: 07:45 - 04 Jan 2013
    ARMY
    print version

    The famous T-62 tanks, which constituted the main striking force of the Soviet army in the conflict on Damansky Island in 1968, finally went down in history. As reported in the Main Auto-Armored Directorate (GABTU) of the Ministry of Defense, a decision was made to begin the disposal of T-62

    “It is necessary to free up space at the storage bases for new tanks. A little more than 900 T-62s have been preserved, and all of them have been transferred to Spetsremont OJSC, which is part of the Oboronservis holding. They will be engaged in "cutting", - said a senior officer of the GABTU.

    Back in 2011, the Minister of Defense signed an order to withdraw from service non-core weapons and military equipment, as well as the transition to a unified caliber of main battle tank guns. According to this order, only relatively new modifications of the T-72/90 and T-80 remain in service and the contentment of the defense department. They, in turn, are actively changing to modern T-90.

    “Under current conditions, the value of the T-62 is very small. So it’s wiser to take them apart than spend money on storage. In addition, there are no ammunition for his gun in the warehouses, ”Damansky added.

    The T-62 cannon under the 2A20 index has a caliber of 115 mm and uses unitary shells in which the principle of firing is similar to the usual small arms cartridge: the striking element, the powder charge and the capsule are in a single shell. Modern Russian and many foreign tanks fire shells with separate loading, when the warhead and powder charge in the briquette are fed into the barrel separately.

    However, it is difficult to judge which principle is called modern and which is obsolete. For example, the American M1 Abrams and the Israeli Merkava use just a unitary shell, and these are the main tanks of their armies, the Izvestia newspaper writes.
    1. 0
      20 January 2013 20: 03
      Quote: Prokhor
      They will be engaged in "cutting", - said a senior officer of the State Academic Bolshoi Theater

      Bad business is not tricky. Yes, and profitable (for some involved in the butchering, but not the state)

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