20 November 1685 the Russian government decided to send “a great and plenipotentiary embassy” to the Amur region to conclude a peace treaty with the Qing Empire, open trade and establish a state border.
January 20 1686 was issued a royal decree, which ordered the "courtiers and governor of Bryansk Fedor Alekseevich Golovin to go to the great and plenipotentiary in the Siberian city of Selenge in jail for contracts and calming quarrels with the Chinese bugdyhana had been sent to the ambassadors and envoys into oblivion the initial regimental commander, who will be sent for that ”. The embassy was accompanied by a retinue of 20 people, and 1400 of Moscow archers and service people.
29 August 1689 in 50 fathoms from the strengthening of Nerchinsk, after lengthy and complex negotiations, a congress of embassies was held, at which negotiations were completed and they signed an agreement on territorial demarcation and the establishment of peaceful relations between Russia and the Qing Empire. However, the non-identity of the names of rivers and mountains in the Russian and Manchurian copies of the contract, the non-demarcation of a number of sections and the absence of maps allowed for different interpretations of the provisions of the agreement.
The basis of the delimitation of the following, Kyakhta 1727 Treaty, laid down the principle of "actual ownership", i.e., on existing guards, where they were not - in settlements, ridges and rivers.
The Aigun Treaty of 1858 established the border along the banks of the border rivers Amur and Ussuri, while the space from Ussuri to the Sea of Japan remained unallocated.
The 1860 (Additional) Treaty of Beijing concluded the distinction between China and Russia in the Far East, confirming the provisions of the Aigun Treaty and defining a new Russian-Chinese border from the Ussuri River to the coast of the Sea of Japan. However, the Beijing Treaty, securing the eastern part of the border, only outlined its western part.
In 1864, the Chuguchag Protocol was concluded, according to which the western part of the border was demarcated, but due to the occupation of the Ili Territory by Russia and the annexation of the Kokand Khanate, the border problems again came to the fore.
The St. Petersburg Treaty of 1881 returned to China the Iliysky Territory, confirming the description of the border under the Chuguchag Protocol.
The Qiqihar Treaty of 1911 clarified the border between the two countries on the land and the Argun River. However, joint demarcation work was not carried out.
At the end of 20, the beginning of 30's. The basis of the distinction was adopted by the so-called. The “red line” on the change card is an appendix to the Beijing Treaty and is laid mainly along the Chinese coast. As a result, on the Amur River from the 1040 islands, the 794 islands were declared Soviet .
At the beginning of the 60s, Soviet-Chinese contradictions in the political and ideological nature were exacerbated.
In 1964, at a meeting with the Japanese delegation, Mao Zedong said: “There are too many places occupied by the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union covers an area of 22 million km2, and its population is only 200 million people ”. Almost immediately, the Chinese leadership presented its rights to 1,5 million km2 (22 disputed areas, of which 16 - in the western and 6 - in the eastern part of the Soviet-Chinese border). The Chinese government said that a number of territories in the Primorye, Tuva, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and Central Asian republics were ceded to Russia as a result of the unequal treaties imposed on China.
25 February 1964 began consultations in Beijing to clarify the Soviet-Chinese border. The Soviet delegation was headed by the plenipotentiary representative in the rank of Deputy Minister PI. Zyryanov (Head of the Main Directorate of the KGB Border Troops under the USSR Council of Ministers), the Chinese - Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China Zeng Yong-chuan.
During the six-month work, the boundary was clarified. The questions that arose regarding the ownership of a number of islands on the Argun River were decided to be put out of the box in order to consider this issue separately. However, N.S. Khrushchev, saying: “Either all or nothing” .
Meanwhile, the situation on the Soviet-Chinese border exacerbated. Violations have become demonstrative in nature. If from October 1964 to April 1965 there were 36 cases of Chinese citizens and military personnel entering 150 Soviet territory, only for 15 days of April 1965 the border was broken 12 times involving more than 500 people, including military personnel. In the middle of April, 1965 was about 200 Chinese, under the guise of military personnel, crossed over to Soviet territory and plowed 80 hectares of land, citing the fact that they occupy their territory. In 1967, anti-Soviet provocations were organized by 40. In the same year, the Chinese side attempted to unilaterally change the border line in a number of areas .
The situation is especially difficult in the areas of the Pacific and Far Eastern border districts. According to the memoirs of Hero of the Soviet Union, Major-General V. Bubenin, who was the head of the 1967 border post of the Iman (Dalnerechensky) border detachment in 1, a Chinese radio station operated in the fall of 1967 on all border areas of the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories. In her programs, she fiercely criticized the CPSU and the Soviet government for breaking with the CCP, for revisionist policies, for colluding with world imperialism led by the United States against China .
At the same time, there were fierce clashes between border guards and provocateurs in the area of the Kirkinsky and Bolshoi Islands. This is how V. Bubenin recalled this time:
“Provocations followed one after another, three to four a week. People were exhausted and tired. According to 8 – 10, hours were served at the border, and 4 – 5 hours participated in the elimination of provocations. But everyone understood that it was necessary, because it was a real combat job. The biggest punishment was considered if someone was barred from participating in the elimination of provocations ...
In order to protect personnel and reduce the risk of injury during force contact, we began to use spears and clubs. The soldiers, with great pleasure and zeal, carried out my command to prepare the new and, at the same time, most ancient weapons primitive man. Each soldier had his own oak or black birch, lovingly planed and polished. And on the handle tied unmounted, so as not flew out of hands. They were kept in a pyramid with weapons. So, on alert, the soldiers took an automatic rifle and grabbed a cudgel. And as a group weapon used the ratchets ...
At first they helped us out great. When the Chinese pearls were on us with a wall, we just put the rattles forward ... avoiding contact, threw them back. The soldiers loved it. Well, if some daredevil did break through, then, excuse me, I voluntarily ran into a club.
... In such a simple way, we excluded direct contact with provocateurs. Moreover, it was noted more than once that some of them wore knives in their belts under their outer clothing and it was very easy to run into him ”.
In August, the Chinese managed to oust the Soviet border guards from the Kirkinsky and Bolshiy Islands and urgently set up crossings. In response, warning fire was opened, and then, with the help of mortar fire, the ferries were destroyed.
The head of the Pacific Border District, Lieutenant-General V. Lobanov, reported at the end of the year: “On the border passing along the Ussuri River, in 1968, more than 100 provocations, involving 2000 Chinese, were suppressed. Essentially, all of this happened in sections of two frontier posts on the right flank of the detachment ”.
Disturbing information came along the line of intelligence. Major General Y. Drozdov, a resident of the First Main Directorate of the KGB 9 in China in 1964 – 1968, recalls:
"Shortly before the assault on the Embassy of the Redweibin
and our employees managed to visit Heilongjiang and Harbin and meet with our elderly compatriots. One of them said that the Chinese authorities had evicted him from the apiary belonging to him, turned it into a huge sandbox like in the tactics classes of military academies. The terrain represented on it displays a plot of adjacent Soviet territory. The eighty-four-year-old Amur Cossack officer was very puzzled by this.
A spokesman for Krupp in Beijing, in a conversation with me, called the Russians fools who did not see what was going on under their nose. He expressed concern because he was there where the Soviet people had not been allowed in for a long time ...
My Western colleagues, who were observing the Soviet-Chinese border relations, cautiously made it clear that the Chinese were reinforcing the military grouping on the border with the USSR.
We have compiled this and other data and sent a message to the Center, stating a request to verify the information by means of space, radio, military and border intelligence .
The Soviet government tried to bring the situation on the border under control. 30 April 1965 adopted a resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR “On strengthening protection of the USSR state border in the sections of the Eastern, Far Eastern and Pacific border districts”, according to which the border zone was restored to the depth of the territories of rural (township) Soviets and cities adjacent to the border The borderline width has been increased to 1000 m.
14 maneuver groups, 3 divisions of river ships and boats were formed in the districts. The number of border troops was increased by 8200 people, including 950 officers. The Ministry of Defense assigned 100 officers as chiefs of outposts and their deputies. Border units received 8000 automata, 8 armored boats, 389 vehicles and 25 tractors.
According to the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers of February 4 1967 "On strengthening the protection of the state border of the USSR with the People's Republic of China" in 1967 - 1969. Trans-Baikal border district, 7 border detachments, 3 separate divisions of patrol ships and boats, 126 border posts, 8 maneuver groups were formed. The Ministry of Defense handed over 8 armored cars, 680 personnel officers, 3000 sergeants and soldiers to the border troops, and an additional 10500 man was called up. The density of the Chinese border was increased 5 times, from 0,8 people / km (1965) to 4 people / km (1969) .
In winter, 1968 – 1969. The first clashes with provocateurs began on Damanskiy Island, located in 12 km from the KNuByakiny Sopki 1 outpost and 6 km from the Nizhne-Mikhaylovka 2 outpost of the Imansky (Dalnerechensky) border detachment.
Opposite the 2 th outpost was the Chinese border post “Gunza” with a population of 30 – 40 people. The post of observation of the 2 th outpost monitored the movements of the Chinese and, as soon as they approached the island, the outpost rose by the command “To the gun!”, The head of the 2 outpost senior lieutenant I. Strelnikov informed the 1 st outpoint, which also alarmed and its reserve was being advanced to the island.
Here, for the first time, Soviet frontier guards encountered PLA soldiers. Initially, the Chinese soldiers did not remove weapons from the shoulder and rather quickly squeezed out of the island. However, in December, the Chinese for the first time used weapons, this time as batons. V. Bubenin recalled: “They removed the carbines, machine guns from the shoulder and, swinging them, rushed at us. Several of our soldiers immediately received a strong blow ... Strelnikov and I gave commands to our soldiers to use the butts ... A new ice battle began .
After this collision, both outposts were reinforced by detachment reserve, however, for almost a month, the Chinese did not appear on the border. The reserve departed back to the squadron and, literally in a couple of days, 23 January 1969, the Chinese again reached the island. And it all started in a new way.
In late January, a real hand-to-hand fight began on the island. The Chinese attacked with attached bayonets. After an hour of battle, the Chinese were slaughtered to their shore. The border guards seized five carbines, an automatic rifle, a TT pistol. Having examined the captured weapons, the border guards saw that almost everywhere the cartridge was sent to the chamber .
After a report on this fight, a detachment reserve and a commission checking weapons and ammunition arrived at the outposts. Before the departure of the commissions, the ammunition was removed from the armored personnel carriers of the outposts, on the orders of the head of the arttechnical equipment.
February was calm. Everything seemed to stop. However, in the 20-x numbers from China began to hear an incomprehensible rumble, the border guards were fixed bulldozers, clearing the road to Damansky.
The whole of February, the border guard was carried out according to a reinforced version. The outposts of the outposts were cleared of snow, regular trainings were conducted to enter these points. The trenches dug in the summer were also cleared at the places of service.
Border guard was carried out along the main shore. On the island outfits did not go.
At the end of February, deputy chiefs of outposts were called to the detachment for training. The reserves of the detachment, the maneuverable group and the school of non-commissioned officers, went to army exercises, more than 200 km from the outposts, where they worked out, together with the army units, the tasks of repelling the armed forces of a potential enemy.
1 March weather did not work out at night. A blizzard arose, and in the evening the snowfall intensified. On the night of March 2, on their own coast, against Damansky Island, using unfavorable weather, the Chinese concentrated up to an infantry battalion, two mortars and one artillery battery.
By forces of three infantry companies, up to three hundred people, they came to the island, the two remaining companies took up defensive positions on the shore. The command post of the battalion is located on the island, they established a wire connection with the coast. All personnel were wearing camouflage. On the island, the Chinese have dug up their cells and disguised themselves. The positions of mortar and artillery batteries, large-caliber machine guns were positioned so that armored personnel carriers and Soviet border guards could fire at direct fire.
In 10.40 (local time) on March 2, near 30, the soldiers of the Chinese “Gunty” frontier post began advancing towards Damansky.
Post observation 2-th outpost on the hill Kafila reported on the nomination of the Chinese. The chief of the outpost, senior lieutenant I. Strelnikov, raised the outpost “To the gun!”, Reported provocation on the 1th outpost and the operational duty detachment, and he himself, along with the officer of the special department of the detachment N. Buinevich and the 30 personnel, moved to the island .
The Strelnikov group (15 people) was put forward on an APC, Buinenevich with 5 – 6 border guards on a GAZ-69 car, the third group, commanded by junior sergeant Y. Babansky on a GAZ-66 technical assistance vehicle.
At the same time, the 1-i outpost was raised by the command “Shotgun!”. The chief of the outpost, senior lieutenant V. Bubenin, with the 22 border guards, moved to the aid of Strelnikov.
By the 11 watch, the Strelnikov and Buynevich groups arrived at the southern tip of the island. Having detached 13 people under the command of Sergeant V. Rabovich to pursue a group of Chinese marching along the eastern coast of the island, Strelnikov and Buinevich went to meet a group of Chinese who stopped on the canal. At this time, the Babansky group approached the island.
In response to Strelnikov’s demands to leave Soviet territory, the Chinese opened fire, shooting Strelnikov’s group. Rabovich's group, following along the coast, went beyond the earthen wall and was ambushed. Of the 13 border guards, only G. Serebrov survived. He later recalled: “Our chain stretched along the coast of the island. Pasha Akulov ran ahead, followed by Kolya Kolodkin, then the others. Egupov ran before me, and then Shusharin. We were chasing the Chinese, who were leaving along the shaft in the direction of the bushes. There was an ambush. Barely jumped onto the rampart, as they saw three Chinese soldiers in camouflage downstairs. They lay three meters from the shaft. At this time, shots rang out in the Strelnikov group. We fired back. Several Chinese ambushed were killed. Shot long bursts ”.
Seeing this, Babansky ordered a return fire. The Chinese transferred artillery fire to the Babansky group, armored personnel carriers and vehicles. Both cars were destroyed, and the BTR was damaged.
In the 11.15 - 11.20 area, the reserve of the 1 th outpost arrived at the battlefield. Hearing the shooting, Bubenin ordered to dismount and began to move in the direction of the shooting. After about 50 meters, they were attacked by the Chinese.
The border guards lay down and fired back. Unable to withstand the fire, the Chinese began to retreat, but as soon as the last survivor reached the shelter in the Bubenin group, heavy automatic and machine-gun fire was opened. After 30 – 40 minutes, border guards came to the end of the ammunition, and the Chinese opened mortar fire. Bubenin was wounded and lost consciousness. Recovering, he ordered to retreat under the protection of the shore. He himself, having received the second wound, managed to reach the armored personnel carrier and take the place of the shooter. The armored personnel carrier went around the island along the channel from the north and collided with a Chinese company. For the Chinese, the appearance in the rear of the BTR was unexpected. Bubenin opened fire with machine guns. In response, the Chinese pulled out a gun at a direct lead. One projectile hit the engine compartment, disabling the right engine, the second in the tower, breaking machine guns and contusive Bubenia. By this time, the BTR had shot all its ammunition, stingrays had been punched through it, but he managed to withdraw to its shore.
Having recovered, Bubenin reported on the combat to the operational duty officer of the detachment. “-On the island, more than an hour of battle. There are dead and wounded. There are several hundreds of Chinese. Apply artillery and mortars.
Received a command to withdraw all from the battle and wait for the approach of the reserve.
-I can not withdraw, everyone will die. From my outpost is a reserve. I'm going to fight again now. ”
From the 1 th outpost on the GAZ-69, a reserve has arrived under the command of Sergeant outpost Sgt. P. Sikushenko. They delivered all the wearable and most of the outpost ammunition, all machine guns, PG-7 grenade launcher and shots for him.
Bubenin and the landing force sat in the armored personnel carrier of the 2 th outpost and again attacked the Chinese. This time he went through the positions of the Chinese on the island, defeating the defenders during 20 minutes and destroying the battalion command post. However, leaving the battlefield, the armored personnel carrier was hit and stopped. The Chinese immediately concentrated mortar fire on it, but the group was able to retreat to the island, and later to its shore. At this time, the reserve 2 of the outpost of the 16 approached the battlefield, and, having completed a kilometer-long march over 30, the reserve of the 3 of the outpost. The Chinese were knocked out of the island and the battle almost stopped .
According to official data, Chinese soldiers and officers were destroyed in this battle before 248, 32 soldiers and officers were killed by border guards, one border guard was captured .
The fight was the toughest. The Chinese finished off the wounded. The chief of the medical service of the detachment, the major of the medical service V. Kvitko, said: “The medical commission, which, besides me, included military doctors, senior lieutenants of the medical service B. Fotavenko and N. Kostyuchenko, carefully examined all the deceased border guards on Damansky Island and found that 19 the wounded would have survived, because in the course of the battle they were not fatally wounded. But they were then Hitlerically finished off with knives, bayonets and butts. This is irrefutable evidence of incised, stabbed bayonet and gunshot wounds. Shot at close range with 1 – 2 meters. At this distance, Strelnikov and Buinevich were finished off ”.
By order of the Chairman of the KGB under the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the frontier posts of the Imansky (Dalnerechensky) frontier detachment were reinforced with personnel and equipment. The detachment was assigned a link of Mi-4 helicopters, mangroups of the Grodekovsky and Kamen-Rybolovsky detachments on 13 armored personnel carriers. The command of the Far Eastern Military District allocated to the detachment command 2 motorized rifle companies, 2 tank platoon and 1 battery of 120-mm mortars of the 135th motorized rifle division. Reconstruction of troop advance routes and deployment lines of support detachments were carried out.
The Chinese were not far behind. By March 7, the grouping of Chinese troops was also significantly strengthened. On the Daman and Kirkinsky direction focused to the infantry regiment, reinforced by artillery, mortars, anti-tank weapons. In 10 – 15 km from the border, a large caliber long-range artillery batteries were deployed to 10. By March 15, on Guberovskiy direction was concentrated to the battalion, on the Imanskiy - to the infantry regiment with tanks, on the Panteleymonovskiy - to two battalions, on the Pavlo-Fedorovskiy - to the battalion with reinforcements. Thus, the Chinese concentrated an infantry division with reinforcements .