Austria between the world wars

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Austria between the world wars
Solemn meeting of the right Fatherland Front


The defeat of Austria-Hungary in the First World War and the aggravation of the long-standing and acute national question against the backdrop of this defeat, as well as the increasing popularity of leftist ideas among the majority of the population, in the fall of 1918 led to the revolution and the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy. After four years of the First World War, the Emperor of Austria-Hungary, Charles I, stepped aside (not abdicated!) from the throne and left his Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna on November 11, and the next day a new state was proclaimed - the Republic of German Austria (Deutsch-Österreich).



I have not renounced and will never renounce... I view my November 11th manifesto as the equivalent of a check that a street thug forced me to write at gunpoint... I do not feel bound by it in any way.

This is what he said privately and never left any doubt that he considered himself the rightful emperor.


The last Emperor of Austria-Hungary, Charles I

Note. The Parliament of Republican Austria decided not only to expel the imperial family from the country, but also to confiscate everything that once belonged to the Habsburg family. In exile, Charles and his family's first stop was neighboring Switzerland, and after two unsuccessful attempts to regain power over Hungary, the Entente finally exiled him to the Portuguese island of Madeira, where he died in 1922 at the age of 35 from pneumonia. His eldest son, Otto von Habsburg, renounced his claims to the Austrian and Hungarian thrones, and in 2004, former Emperor Charles I was beatified by Pope John Paul II.

Brilliant stories about these historical events can be found in the Austrian writer Stefan Zweig when he described the departure of Emperor Charles I and his family from Eckartsau Castle near Vienna in his book "Yesterday's World" (Die Welt von Gestern).


Charles I with his family during his first stop in Switzerland. In his arms is his son - Otto

Karl Renner* (1870–1950), Austrian politician and Social Democrat, became the first Chancellor of the new Republic, and his famous quote reflects the shock of the loss of large areas of the once strong Austro-Hungarian Empire after its collapse:

“Overnight we turned into a people without a state” and...
“We are a wreck after a big shipwreck.”

And the Viennese newspaper Arbeiter Zeitung wrote that:

“All nations rejoiced at their acquired independence, but not the Austrians.”

This was a time when other peoples who were once part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire greeted their independence with great enthusiasm, while the Austrians, once the dominant ethnic group, on the contrary, perceived their new statehood far from unequivocally. According to many, the country did not have the proper economic potential, and some contemporaries considered it unviable without Hungary and the Czech Republic.


Soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian army after the dissolution of the personal union between Austria and Hungary on October 31, 1918

So, for the first time in more than 650 years, Austrians began to live without Habsburg rule, and November 12, 1918 began to be celebrated as the first day of republican Austria...


Germany and Austria after the end of the First World War

First republic


In 1918, World War I ended with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. After more than 650 years of the Habsburg Empire, the former imperial city of Vienna was reduced to the capital of a tiny political entity, and the population of Austria itself, like shagreen, was reduced to about 6,5 million people against 50 million of the former empire's population, turning from a powerful power to a small one. Central European country.

And if you look at the chronological sequence, then the first page in the chronicle of Republican Austria is the very history of its appearance on the ruins of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


Map of post-war Europe. The red line marks the border of the former Austria-Hungary

From the very first day of its existence, the young Austrian Republic faced the disastrous legacy of war - four years of hostilities and the collapse of the Habsburg Empire brought economic exhaustion and chaos, and the resulting social upheaval and poverty inspired revolutionary activity, making creeping Bolshevism the greatest danger to the country, especially after the revolution broke out in Germany in November 1918 and the Soviet Republic was briefly established in Hungary in March 1919.


After the end of the First World War, the poor of Vienna collect firewood in the Vienna Woods

This is how the British general Tom Bridges described, shortly before his appointment as governor of South Australia, the new states that arose from the ruins of the Habsburg empire:

“These new republics and budding democracies through which I pass are a depressing and unpleasant place. Austria is especially sad. It’s like a beautiful and courteous mother who died giving birth to a monstrous child.”

This new republic, which had previously played an important role in all European and international affairs, quickly found itself on the margins of European politics and no longer took any part in European affairs. It should be noted here that the role of a leading European power influencing all world affairs was so familiar and natural to the Austrians that they immediately encountered difficulties in building their small national state...


Post-war Vienna

In addition, the government was overwhelmed by a huge number of war veterans, including more than 100 thousand wounded soldiers and officers returning from the front, and the unfair redrawing of Austrian borders led to the loss of German ethnicity and serious demographic shifts. The Austrians, who no longer dominated their once vast empire, were unsure of their position and saw their future very, very vaguely.


Post-war Vienna

With the collapse of the monarchy, the new Austrian state lost rich sources of raw materials - iron ore in the Sudetes, seafood products from the Adriatic and important agricultural crops in Hungary, and the loss of Hungarian agricultural land in Austria was felt especially acutely, since large forests were located on its territory, while At that time, only 21% of the total agricultural area was used for arable land.


American Quakers help those in need in Vienna. Still from the film

A rather serious economic problem faced by the young Austrian republic was its budget deficit (the excess of budget expenditures over its revenues), which was also complicated by the post-war reparations imposed on the country, however, due to the collapse of the Austrian Bank, the country never paid any reparations .


Post-war Vienna

The main task of the post-war government was to restore financial and economic stability. Until 1921, the population of Austria lived mainly due to financial assistance from the United States and Great Britain, and although the national economy began to gradually recover, the plight of the citizens was aggravated by inflation, which could lead to financial collapse.


American children's charity distributes food in Vienna

In October 1922, Federal Chancellor Ignaz Seipel (1876–1932) obtained a significant loan through the League of Nations, which stabilized Austrian finances, as a result of which Austria had to commit to remaining independent (from Germany) for at least 20 years. The Inspector General appointed by the League of Nations to monitor the use of the issued loan reported already in December 1925 that the Austrian budget was balanced satisfactorily, and in March 1926 the financial supervision of the League of Nations was removed from Austria.


Austrian Federal Chancellor Ignaz Seipel

Seipel's success on the financial front gave Austria several years of stability and made possible post-war reconstruction and relative economic prosperity. In Social Democratic-controlled Vienna under the leadership of Karl Seitz (1869–1950,)*, Hugo Breitner (1873–1946)* and Julius Tandler (1869–1936)* an ambitious housing program for the working class was implemented, as well as a health and education program for adults.


From left to right: Carl Seitz, Hugo Breitner and Julius Tandler

For the first time in the world, the Social Democrats laid the foundation for the mass construction of social housing in Vienna, and signs with the inscription Erbaut aus den Mitteln der Wohnbausteuer ("Built with housing tax funds") can still be read today on some of the buildings erected from that period. Thus, "Red Vienna", as the capital of Austria was sometimes called, acquired a unique reputation in Europe.


A children's institution operating under a social program. Photo from the Vienna Museum

Note. On January 20, 1923, after the initial use of loan funds and the collection of a targeted housing tax, the construction of social housing in Vienna was put on a new financial basis, and in the same year the city government adopted a municipal housing program for the construction of 25 thousand apartments, and implemented this program as follows: quickly, that by 1926 an additional program was adopted for the construction of another 5 thousand apartments. This program was followed in 1927 by another program for the construction of 30 thousand apartments, and by the beginning of 1934 the Viennese magistrate had rented out more than 60 units of social housing!


Building in the Karl-Marx-Hof area. After World War I, Vienna was a city gripped by poverty and hunger. First of all, there was too little living space. In the suburbs, people lived in settlements built from illegal shacks. A few years later, workers lived in real palaces of the proletariat - with heating, gardens and plenty of space

The first beginnings of the Anschluss


After the formation of the Austrian Republic in 1918, some former German subjects of the Austro-Hungarian Empire preferred to consider their native fatherland not the collapsed multinational and heterogeneous Habsburg Empire, but neighboring Germany, so the feeling of their own inferiority of the still young republic was widespread, both among the Austrians themselves and and among their neighbors - the Germans, which led to the desire of the population of both states for the need to unite them.


In February 1919, a border guard service was created under the command of Colonel Georg Ornauer. Source: ÖNB-Bildarchiv

However, the post-war Treaty of Saint-Germain expressly prohibited the Anschluss of Austria with Germany.


Dr. Karl Renner, the first Chancellor of Austria, leaves the palace after signing the Austrian Peace Treaty. Palace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Note. The Treaty of Saint-Germain (1919) was a treaty that ended the First World War, signed in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. This treaty formalized the collapse of the Habsburg Empire, recognizing the independence of the states formed from the ruins of Austria-Hungary - Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia), and ceding eastern Galicia to Poland, and South Tyrol and Trieste to Italy. The military clauses of the treaty limited Austria's volunteer army to no more than 30 men, and Austria itself was charged with paying reparations, which it never actually paid.

One of the articles of the Treaty of Saint-Germain directly required Austria to refrain from harming its independence, which in practice meant a complete ban on Austria entering into a political or economic union with Germany without the consent of the Council of the League of Nations.

Another article required Austria to change the name of the republic from "German Austria" (Deutsch-Österreich) to simply "Republic of Austria" (Republik Österreich). It should also be noted that in the Treaty of Versailles, which established peace with Germany, there was also a clause banning unification with Austria.

In addition, it must be said here that the Italian dictator B. Mussolini was wary that the unification of the German lands would not be limited to the annexation of Austria to Germany, but would call into question Italy’s ownership of South Tyrol, seized from Austria after the First World War.



Proclamation of German Austria (Deutsch-Österreich). 1918

The very next day after the removal of Charles I, November 12, 1918, the National Assembly (Parliament) of Austria decided to declare German Austria a republic and at the same time an integral part of Germany, and the next day Otto Bauer (1881–1938)*, Minister of Foreign Affairs, proposed to begin negotiations on the terms of the unification of the two states, without waiting for the signing of a peace treaty with the Entente.


Otto Bauer – leader of the Austrian Social Democratic Party and Foreign Minister of the First Republic

To develop a definite plan for the Anschluss, the Austrian Foreign Minister Otto Bauer held secret negotiations in Berlin from February to March 1919 with the influential politician of the German Reichstag Gustav Stresemann (1878–1929)*, during which insurmountable contradictions emerged in the discussion of political and economic problems. Being a supporter of the Anschluss, Stresemann stated:

“If we get the Austrians to join us, we will partially compensate for what we have lost, on the other hand, then we will have a large bloc of 70 million Germans in the heart of Europe that no one can ignore...”

But the further development of activities for unification with Germany encountered serious resistance from the victorious powers. However, even despite the ban dictated by the Entente by the Treaties of Versailles and Saint-Germain, the possibility of unification remained relevant. And this possibility was a clear consequence of the idea of ​​unifying all German lands that existed at that time.

The victorious countries did not want to upset the established balance in Europe, which they had established after the war with the help of the Treaties of Versailles and Saint-Germain; in addition, the Entente was afraid of a defeated Germany, which could restore its former power through the Anschluss. Therefore, the victorious powers vetoed the Anschluss...


On the streets of Vienna

After the defeat in the war, the issue of unification of the two states was central to the programs of the Social Democratic parties in Germany and Austria, but in the field of practical application, the Social Democrats of both countries, for various reasons, began to gradually move away from this idea.


Distributing food to those in need. Source: ÖNB-Bildarchiv

Already by the mid-20s, the idea of ​​​​the Anschluss gradually began to lose attractiveness among the population, who feared that Austrian production would not be able to compete with large German corporations; moreover, the Austrians, most of whom professed Catholicism, were not entirely enthusiastic about the acceptable prospect of living in the same state with Protestants.


Free distribution of soup to those in need in the First Republic. Source: ÖNB-Bildarchiv

But closer to the 30s, the idea of ​​the Anschluss became dominant in right-wing nationalist and national socialist parties and organizations in Germany and Austria.

So, the first attempt at Anschluss failed...


On the streets of Vienna

July 1927 uprising


After the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy and the establishment of a republic in Austria, its political life turned into a fierce confrontation between two irreconcilable political forces - the Social Democrats and the bloc of right-wing parties (Christian Socialists, who later became the Fatherland Front).


Escalation of violence, intransigence between political camps in Vienna. Violent riots, clashes between Heimwehr and Schutzbund, mounted police - these are the defining images of everyday political life of the First Republic. 1920s

In addition to seats in the National Council (parliament), these political movements also had their own military organizations, consisting mainly of several thousand former front-line soldiers of the First World War, between whom clashes constantly occurred.


March of the militant wing of the Social Democrats - the Schutzbund. Source: ÖNB-Bildarchiv

From the very first day of its founding, the Austrian Republic was a battleground between the Social Democrats and a coalition of right-wing Christian and nationalist parties. These two irreconcilable political camps engulfed the newly created Austrian Republic in their ideological struggle to influence the populace through social unrest, anti-Semitism and class conflict.


March of the Heimwehr - a paramilitary formation of right-wing forces. In the center (salutes) the leader of the Heimwehr Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg, 4th from the right Emil Fey. Source: ÖNB-Bildarchiv

As a result, this confrontation between two opposing forces on January 30, 1927 led to the death in the city of Schattendorf at the hands of a nationalist World War I veteran and an eight-year-old teenager. This nationalist was acquitted by the court, which led to a general strike, the purpose of which was to overthrow the government led by Chancellor Ignaz Seipel.


Torchlight procession of the militant wing of the Social Democrats - Schutzbund

The militant wing of the Social Democrats - the Schutzbund - demanded immediate distribution weapons from military warehouses, and the crowd, outraged by the unfair court decision, set fire to the Vienna Palace of Justice (Justizpalast), a police station and the building of the newspaper of the Christian Social Party Reichspost. Chief of the Federal Police Johann Schober (1874–1932)* tried to suppress the protests by force, as a result of which his actions led to the death of just under a hundred people who took part in street riots in Vienna and five police officers.


On July 15, 1927, workers set fire to the Palace of Justice in Vienna

For the First Republic, this uprising would be a fateful day, a prelude to what would eventually lead to the civil war in February 1934, which would ultimately end the First Republic and be its fatal consequence for Austrian democracy...

Prelude to Civil War


The civil war (sometimes called the February Uprising) began with a parliamentary crisis that erupted in February 1933, when the leading political parties in the Austrian parliament were unable to agree on a law regulating the minimum wage. On March 4, 1933, after the hearings reached a deadlock, Christian Social Party Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss suspended the Austrian parliament and blocked all attempts to reconvene it.


Federal Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss

Of course, the Schutzbund (the paramilitary organization of the Social Democratic Party) was also banned, and many of its members ended up in prison. Continuing to attack civil rights and freedoms, the government canceled all elections, both municipal and federal, banned the Communist Party and the NSDAP, while the Social Democrats still remained a fairly influential force.

After the parliament was dissolved, the government of Engelbert Dollfuss began to completely cleanse all executive bodies of representatives of leftist views, etc. unreliable elements, and right-wing conservatives began to significantly predominate in all branches of the current government, who completely shared the position of the ruling party.


Federal Chancellor E. Dollfuss with Pope Pius XI

Note. Engelbert Dollfuss/1892–1934. Austrian politician, leader of the Christian Social Party, who created the Fatherland Front (Vaterländische Front) from right-wing parties, and served as Chancellor of Austria in 1932–1934. After the outbreak of the First World War, Dollfuss wanted to enlist as a volunteer for the front, but he was refused due to his short stature (148 cm), for which he received the nickname “Millimeternich”, i.e. a combination of a millimeter and Clemens von Metternich - Austrian Foreign Minister in 1809 –1848 Established an authoritarian regime in Austria known as Austrofascism, suspending the constitution.


Dissolution of parliament and lowering of the flag in front of parliament on the instructions of the police. Vein

The result was a situation where the Social Democratic Party lost its main platform for political action, and the current chancellor began to govern the country on the basis of articles of the military-economic law of 1917, granting the government emergency powers without restrictions on its power.

Now, after the complete destruction of the parliamentary system and the remnants of democracy, Dollfuss's supporters completely controlled the situation in the country. The activities of left-wing functionaries were reduced to a minimum, and they were forced to go underground. But even despite all the actions of the established regime, Social Democracy still continued to occupy a high position in Austrian politics and had significant weight.


Vein. 20–30s

Civil war


The starting point of the civil war was the day of February 12, 1934, when a Heimwehr detachment led by its commander Emil Fey, in search of weapons hidden by the Schutzbund, searched the Schiff Hotel in the city of Linz in Upper Austria, owned by the Social Democratic Party.


Joint search of the army, Heimwehr and police at the Schiff Hotel in Linz

Commander of the Schutzbund detachment Richard Bernaszek became the first to offer armed resistance, initiating a conflict between Heimwehr militants* and by the police against the banned but still secretly existing socialist Schutzbund. Clashes between these two irreconcilable camps spread to other settlements in Austria, with particular intensity of fighting taking place in Vienna, where members of the Schutzbund barricaded themselves in residential areas, in particular in Karl-Marx-Hof, where municipal housing predominated.


Army on the streets of Vienna. Source: Bundesarchiv

On the same day, February 12, at 11:46 am, in response to searches in Linz, the Viennese Social Democrats declared a general strike - trams in Vienna stopped, which marked the beginning of an uprising of active members of the Schutzbund - the paramilitary wing of the Social Democratic Party, against the authoritarian corporate regime of Engelbert Dollfus, but the workers, demoralized by years of unemployment and extreme poverty, could not maintain it for long, and the strike was called off after just a few hours...


Police forces blocked the street near the Palais Auersperg. Vein. Source: ÖNB-Bildarchiv

The turning point in this confrontation came with the entry of the Austrian military into the conflict - Chancellor Dollfuss ordered the army to strike the Karl-Marx-Hof area, where the Schutzbund fighters had taken refuge, with light artillery, which seriously endangered the safety of thousands of civilians and destroyed many houses. . After the surrender of the Schutzbund members at Karl-Marx-Hof, the fighting gradually began to fade, and by February 16, 1934, the armed confrontation in Austria was completely over.


The guns are aimed at the Karl-Marx-Hof in Vienna. 19th district

Note. The reasons for the defeat of the February Uprising were many: the Schutzbund fighters were in the minority, and their military leader Alexander Eifler and several other active district commanders had been arrested a few weeks earlier. But the most difficult thing was that the proletariat was unable to come out in significant numbers - the onset of the Great Depression of 1929 and the subsequent mass unemployment weakened the social and political power of the workers and the political organizations behind them.

Part of the federal government's policy to resolve the economic crisis was to reduce the political power of left-wing organizations and gain influence over trade unions, coupled with huge cuts in social spending imposed by the Social Democrats.



Army on the streets of Vienna. Source: Bundesarchiv

After the February fighting, the Schutzbund was suppressed and 21 pro-democracy leaders were sentenced to death. Thousands of arrested members of the Schutzbund and the Social Democratic Party were interned in concentration camps, and those who were not arrested had to urgently leave the country.


Opponents in the Civil War

After the wave of quick military tribunals died down on February 21, 1934, and another 140 members of the Schutzbund were convicted, the fully politically controlled courts concentrated their efforts on holding a large show trial against the leaders of the Austrian Social Democrats. The Social Democrats were to be publicly condemned as the ideological leaders directly behind the February Uprising.

Austrofascism


The prerequisites for the establishment of a right-wing dictatorial regime in Austria were the very quickly spreading views of the ruling Christian Social Party, which implied the creation of a one-party state under the banner of the Catholic Church, therefore, immediately after Dollfuss dissolved the parliament, the “Fatherland Front” (Vaterlandische Front) was organized, uniting the citizens of the country on a national and religious platform. The ideological foundations of this corporate state under construction were, as in other fascist countries of that time, a complete rejection of class struggle and the desire for “class harmony” in one authoritarian state.


Fatherland Front rally

In economics, the Austrian fascists set a course for “all-class reconciliation”, and instead of the trade unions controlled by the Social Democrats, new and “independent” trade unions were created.

Note. It is interesting to note that the small workshops were rebuilt according to the medieval model, where the main worker was a craftsman, and he was also the owner of the workshop with all its equipment and tools. The medieval rule applied to hired workers: “If an apprentice comes to a master and asks for more than normal wages, no master should take him into the workshop.

The very name of Dollfuss's corporate regime - "Austrofascism" - shows its closeness to the already existing fascist regimes in neighboring Italy and Germany. Austrofascism was a political movement in the First Republic between 1933 and 1938 and was based in its content on Italian fascism.

With the Korneuburg Oath in 1930, a program was adopted that emphasized the principle of leadership and provided for a dictatorial form of government. In addition, the state was to be structured according to estates, and the democratic system of the First Republic, which had existed in Austria since 1919, was completely replaced by an authoritarian system.

Note. Korneuburg program (oath). At a rally in Korneuburg, Heimwehr leader Richard Steidle read an oath in which Heimwehr paramilitaries rejected democratic parliamentarism and advocated patriotism, strong government, corporatism, and the seizure of power for the purpose of political and economic renewal. The Korneuburg program was developed in response to the Linz program of the Social Democratic Party.


Karl Schuschnigg among the leaders of the Fatherland Front

The Korneuburg program ended with these words:

“Every comrade feels and recognizes himself as a bearer of the new German state consciousness, he is ready to give his property and blood, he recognizes only three forces: faith in God, his own strong will and the word of his Leader!”

On a note. It should be noted here that the designation of Dollfuss’s corporate regime as “Austrofascism” (Austrofaschismus) is usually practiced by historians, writers and political figures of the left, while representatives of the parties of the opposite wing call the system that had developed by that time the “state of estates” (Standestaat). This refers to an authoritarian form of government, in which political parties are excluded from the political life of the country, and its population is positioned as a kind of single civil community, united by a number of common views (Catholicism and nationalism).


Federal Chancellor E. Dollfuss at a Fatherland Front rally

The established system of government called "Austrofascism" is the name of the system of government established in Austria in 1933/34, which was largely developed and fully supported by Heimwehr circles* and some Christian social politicians. Influenced by Mussolini's Italian fascism, reinforced by political Catholicism and the theories of Othmar Spann* (1878–1950) Austrofascism replaced the democratic constitution and parliamentarism with an authoritarian corporate state system. The ideology of Austrofascism was first formulated in the so-called “Korneuburg Program” of May 18, 1930.

Here is an interesting comparison of the two regimes given by Tambov State University historian O. V. Golovashina in one of her articles:

"If the motto is associated with National Socialism"One state, one people, one Fuhrer", then Dolphus owns the phrase "I am the Fuhrer myself».

Unlike fascist regimes, which are revolutionary in nature and reject the existing system, the corporate state was of a conservative nature - it was based on religion and sought to return people to Christian roots.

Prelude to the July Putsch


If we rewind the clock two years ago, in May 1932, Engelbert Dollfuss, President of the Federal Railways, was offered the post of Federal Chancellor and Minister of Foreign Affairs. Having headed the government against the backdrop of a growing political crisis, he faced serious problems caused by the global economic crisis, which led to mass unemployment and uncertainty among the population about the future, which led to the rapid militarization and radicalization of the entire Austrian society.

In his inaugural address, Dollfuss said:

"We want a social, Christian, German Austria with a strong and independent leadership."

The newly-minted chancellor hated the Social Democrats and looked at Italian fascism with admiration - during his tenure as federal chancellor, he focused not on Nazi Germany, but on fascist Italy, which is why his system of organizing the state was called “Austrofascism.” From the moment Dollfuss came to power, not only left-wing parties, such as the Social Democrats and Communists, but also the National Socialists were banned in Austria, and with Hitler coming to power in neighboring Germany, Dollfuss’s statements began to take on an even more anti-Nazi character:

“I appeal to all nationally minded groups of citizens and ask them a question: do you want to have anything in common with this criminal organization - NSDAP? I urge you to openly and completely disassociate yourself from their practices and from the worldview that gives rise to these practices.”


“National Socialism/Our Salvation”: trucks carrying election propaganda for the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), which has also been active in Austria since 1923

Engelbert Dollfuss, in all his speeches, always emphasized both the independent character of the Austrian Republic and the close connection between the two fraternal peoples - German and Austrian.

“The whole world must understand that we recognize ourselves as an independent German state, whose close connection and friendship with Germany is obliged and conditioned by the blood, history and geographical position of our homeland...
The centuries-old coexistence of Austrian Germans with other nations made them softer and more patient towards other cultures, but the Austrians retained the desire to preserve their own culture and species.”

And Engelbert Dollfuss, a categorical opponent of joining Nazi Germany, remained faithful to these convictions until his death...

July putsch and assassination of Dollfuss


On July 25, 1934, 154 Austrian SS men, dressed in the uniform of Austrian army soldiers and police officers, burst into the Chancellery and captured Chancellor Dollfuss, who was there, demanding that he resign in favor of Anton Rintelen, who was to head the pro-Nazi government. But even after receiving serious injuries from two bullets fired at him by a Nazi Otto Planetta, Dolphus categorically refused to do this. He, wounded and bleeding, was left for dead by the Nazis and, without medical assistance, he died a few hours later without breaking his oath.

The July putsch was finally suppressed by police and army loyal to the government.


Demonstration of the Fatherland Front against the Nazis in Vienna

Dollfuss's murder angered Mussolini and he ordered the transfer of Italian troops to the Austrian border, which immediately moved through the Brenner Pass. At the same time, he told Hitler that he would not tolerate the annexation of Austria to Germany.


Police and army fight National Socialist putschists at the state radio station RAVAG, Vienna, Johannesgasse, July 25, 1934.

After the end of the coup, the government organized military tribunals, where twenty-four death sentences were imposed, of which 13 were carried out.


Farewell to Engelbert Dollfuss

Among those executed were police and military personnel who actively collaborated with the putschists. Most of the Nazis involved in the putsch fled to Yugoslavia and Germany, and Justice Minister Kurt von Schuschnigg became the new Austrian Chancellor.


Memorial service for the murdered Dolphus. The speech is given by his political rival Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg

Kurt von Schuschnigg



Federal Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg, who replaced the murdered Engelbert Dollfuss in this post

Engelbert Dollfuss, upon becoming Chancellor of Austria, appointed Schuschnigg as Minister of Justice, which led to the government in general and Schuschnigg in particular being sharply criticized for the death sentences handed down to left-wing opponents of the regime who fought against
government troops on the streets during the civil war in February 1934. Even the seriously wounded Karl Münchreiter (an active member of the Schutzbund and one of the nine men sentenced to death) was carried on a stretcher to the gallows, which was considered particularly shocking. Schuschnigg refused to accept pleas for clemency for the convicts, who were executed immediately after the trial.

When Dollfuss was killed by the Nazis in an attempted coup in July 1934, Schuschnigg, who was the second chairman of the Fatherland Front, succeeded him as chancellor (not forgetting to grab the posts of Minister of Defense and Education for himself), as the dying Dollfuss himself allegedly ordered on his deathbed .

At 36 years old, Schuschnigg was and remains the youngest politician in Austrian history to hold this post. As he tried to realize his mentor's vision of a corporate state, he faced opposition not only from left-wing groups and the Austrian Nazis, but also from rivals within his own party.

Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg*, head of the paramilitary Heimwehr, was seen by many as a threat to Schuschnigg, who disbanded all paramilitary forces in October 1936.


Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg speaks at the unveiling of the Dollfuss monument in St. Pölten (Lower Austria). Source: ÖNB-Bildarchiv

In 1936, by removing von Starhemberg from office and dissolving the Heimwehr, Schuschnigg eliminated threats to his government posed by the national paramilitary defense forces led by his vice-chancellor Ernst Rüdiger Fürst von Starhemberg, in October of the same year Kurt von Schuschnigg became leader of the Fatherland Front - coalition of right-wing parties.

Note. Kurt von Schuschnigg was born in 1897 in the city of Trento (now Italy). His father, Arthur von Schuschnigg, was a career military man who rose to the rank of general. It is alleged that the family was of Slovenian origin, originally called Susnik, but Schuschnigg denied this report, explaining that his family had its roots in Klagenfurt (Austria), and his great-grandfather was the owner of a mill, and his grandfather was an officer who became the commandant of the provincial gendarmerie in Tyrol in 1901. Although Schuschnigg held the hereditary title of baronet, after the fall of the Habsburg monarchy the new Republic of Austria in 1919 completely abolished the use of titles, after which Kurt von Schuschnigg became simply Kurt Schuschnigg, removing the noble prefix "von" from his surname, but during his political career in As a member of the ruling Conservative Party, he often used the old style.


Kurt von Schuschnigg with his wife and daughter Sissi in the USA

He strengthened ties with the fascist regime in Italy and vigorously promoted the idea of ​​Austria as a second German state, but all subsequent concessions by Schuschnigg to Hitler regarding the status of the Austrian Nazis, beginning with the signing of the agreement in July 1936, represented the beginning of the end of Austrian independence.

After the Anschluss, Schuschnigg was forced to resign and was imprisoned by the Nazis shortly thereafter. He was released only after the end of World War II. He lived and taught in the United States post-war (1948–1967), after which he returned to Austria, where he wrote the book Im Kampf Gegen Hitler. Schuschnigg died on November 18, 1977 in the Tyrolean town of Mutters, near Innsbruck...

Kurt von Schuschnigg, who recently became chancellor, giving a speech in memory of Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, who died in his post, spoke approvingly of the Habsburg monarchy as a guarantee of Austrian independence, and one of his decrees even abolished the law that had existed since the first days of the fall of the monarchy, prohibiting the appearance of Habsburgs on the territory of Austria, and by the same decree all their property was returned to the former imperial family.

Note. In the 1930s, the issue of the return of the Habsburgs to Austria returned to the political arena and acquired a very active role in this arena. Some points in the biography of Otto von Habsburg of Lorraine (Otto Habsburg Lothringen / 1912–2011), a contender for the Austrian throne, are still controversial - his outstanding connection with Austrofascism. The young Otto positioned himself as the leading figure of an independent Catholic Austria, which saw itself as the antithesis of the National Socialist ideology of neighboring Germany. Kurt Schuschnigg, who held the post of Federal Chancellor in Austria, was not an opponent of the monarchical form of government, but he did not dare to accept the proposal of the young heir to the empire, since the return of the Habsburgs to the Austrian throne could be interpreted as a hostile act on the part of the Little Entente states and would give Hitler an opportunity reason for invasion.


Otto von Habsburg of Lorraine (Otto Habsburg-Lothringen). Pretender to the Austrian throne

Gaining more and more popularity, he made it clear that he was ready to return to Austria from exile and take over the government. Otto von Habsburg was not a supporter of the annexation of Austria to Germany and hated the Nazis and therefore was in constant contact with Schuschnigg all the time, trying in vain to achieve reconciliation with the socialists, whom he considered the most reliable allies in the fight against National Socialism. He warned the chancellor against rapprochement with Nazi Germany and considered the corporate state the lesser evil in the face of the threat from the National Socialists, so he tried to try himself as a kind of common denominator of hostile forces - socialists and conservatives.

After the Habsburg ban on entry into the country was lifted, restitution of the family's confiscated property began and Otto was allowed to enter the country. Looking ahead, it should be noted that after Hitler forced Schuschnigg to sign the humiliating treaty with Germany at Berchtesgaden, which meant the abolition of Austria's independence as a country, Otto von Habsburg advised him to resign and nominate himself as Federal Chancellor in an open letter. But after the forced Anschluss of Austria, he was forced to flee Austria, becoming the figurehead of the Austrian resistance in exile in the West. Hitler immediately declared him a traitor and put him on the wanted list.

In May 1940, in the face of the German invasion of Belgium and France, he was granted asylum in the United States, and with the support of his many august relatives, he became a lobbyist for the post-war restoration of Austria, but all his attempts to form an Austrian government in exile failed due to the objections of the Social Democrats. who refused to cooperate under the leadership of the son of the former emperor.

Immediately after the end of the war, Otto somehow tried to gain a foothold in Austria. In Innsbruck, where he was greeted enthusiastically, he began to campaign against the government of Karl Renner* in Vienna, which he considered a puppet of Stalin. However, all his political activities in Austria were blocked by the efforts of the Soviet Union, which forced him to leave the country in 1946. Meanwhile, not without pressure from the USSR, laws prohibiting the entry of the Habsburgs into Austria were restored.



Otto von Habsburg. Post-war photography

Once again in exile, Otto von Habsburg continued his political activities in Western Europe, where he advocated for a free Europe based on Western and Christian values, protesting the disappearance of Central and Eastern Europe behind the Iron Curtain.

Monarchical sentiments in Austria, like yeast, involved more and more representatives of right-wing political parties in the process of fermentation. For example, the above-mentioned Vice-Chancellor Ernst Rüdiger Fürst von Starhemberg* in one of the interviews he gave to journalists, he claimed that 95% of Austrians favor the restoration of the monarchy and the return of the Habsburgs, who act as the embodiment of a strong and independent country, to the throne!

Austrofascism, in the person of Chancellor Dollfuss, and then Schuschnigg, who replaced him in this post, significantly strengthened the authority of the Catholic Church in the country, thereby emphasizing the Catholic component of its political ideology as an important factor in maintaining the independence of Austria from neighboring National Socialist Germany. Church ministers were returned to their former position as mentors in youth organizations and gymnasiums, which seriously contributed to the growth of the influence of Catholicism in the national consciousness of the Austrians. The clergy, along with the leaders of the Fatherland Front, felt involved in governing the state.

As if confirming the increased influence of the church on Austrian society, Johannes Maria Gfellner (1867–1941), a Catholic bishop from Linz, said in one of his speeches:

“The ideology of socialism and communism - the forerunners of Bolshevism - is based on degenerating Judaism. It is not only the right, but also the duty of conscience of every Christian to overcome this harmful influence.”

According to Schuschnigg, promoting the ideas of Catholicism and imperial consciousness should have contributed to the formation of a distinctive Austrian nation; he believed that Austria is a more perfect form of Germany, and the Austrians are the best Germans, representing a distinctive nation!

The Social Democrats had a completely different point of view on the identity of the Austrians, different from Schuschnigg. This is what the newspaper wrote Arbeiter-Zeitung:

“We do not intend to contrast the great common destiny and culture of the German people with the domestic variety of a certain Austrian man. We consider the German-Austrian tribe to be as much a part of the German nation as the Bavarians and Swabians, the Saxons and the Franks. We feel inextricably linked to the great German working class. Therefore, even in the days of the worst humiliation of the German people, our goal remains the Anschluss towards the free Germany of tomorrow.”

The reins of Austrofascist power in Austria finally began to be consolidated in 1936, when the so-called “June Agreement” was concluded, according to which Germany guaranteed the independence of Austria and declared Austrian rule.
National Socialism was an internal affair of Austria, but still demanded the release of Nazi prisoners. In addition, unhindered propaganda of the ideas of National Socialism should have been allowed on the territory of Austria, as a result of which all these concessions by Schuschnigg in the near future turned into defeat...

But nevertheless, during this period, the Nazis began to gain particular popularity in Austria - the right-wing government of the Fatherland Front began to lose popularity, against the background of which the proportion of Austrians supporting the Anschluss grew. Germany's economic successes amazed the Austrians and seemed undeniable to them, and already in February 1938, the famous meeting between Adolf Hitler and Kurt Schuschnigg took place in Bavarian Berchtesgaden, during which there were threats from Hitler about an imminent military invasion of Austria.

And as a result, Kurt Schuschnigg, having no alternative, was forced to yield to Hitler and introduce the Austrian National Socialist Arthur Seyss-Inquart into his government as Minister of Internal Affairs. The Austrian Chancellor signed this agreement with Hitler without any discussion, and in his memoirs he tried to justify himself, stating that he was the victim of massive blackmail on the part of Hitler.

The Anschluss was ahead...


Entry of German troops into Austria

Information


*Karl Renner (Karl Renner/1870–1950). Social Democrat, first Chancellor of Austria after the collapse of the Habsburg Empire. Leader of the Second International and one of the theorists Austro-Marxism. The first president of Austria after World War II. Supporter of the Anschluss.

*Karl Seitz (Karl Seitz/1869–1950). First Federal President of Austria (1919–1920), Mayor of Vienna (1923–1934) and head of the Social Democratic Party of Austria (1919–1934). During the First World War he was a pacifist. During the rule of the Social Democrats and because of the social reforms they carried out, Vienna was sometimes called "Red Vienna". During the Nazi regime he was imprisoned in a concentration camp, where he remained until the end of the war.

*Hugo Breitner (Hugo Breitner/1873–1946). Austrian politician, city financial adviser, son of a Jewish merchant. He laid the foundation for large-scale construction of social housing in Vienna, introduced taxes on luxury goods, entertainment and the hiring of servants. Emigrated to Italy and then to the USA.

*Julius Tandler (Julius Tandler/1869–1936). Austrian Social Democrat, professor and doctor who created a system of public health and social services in the municipality of Vienna during the interwar years. In 1934, during the rise of Austrofascism, he was forced to emigrate to China, and in 1936 he arrived in Moscow, where he became an adviser in the reform of hospitals in the USSR. He died in Moscow the same year.

*Otto Bauer (Otto Bauer/1881–1938). He comes from the family of a wealthy Jewish manufacturer and one of the founders of Austro-Marxism. General Secretary of the Austrian Social Democratic Party. From November 21, 1918 to July 26, 1919 - Minister of Foreign Affairs and supporter of the Anschluss with Germany. In 1938, after the Anschluss by Nazi Germany, Bauer emigrated to Belgium. In 1938, Otto Bauer died of a heart attack in Paris, and in 1950 he was reburied in an honorary grave in the Vienna Central Cemetery next to the grave of Karl Hare.

*Gustav Stresemann (Gustav Stresemann/1878–1929). Reich Chancellor and Foreign Minister during the Weimar Republic. Stresemann's political legacy became one of the foundations on which the foreign policy of today's Germany was built and is being built. While heading the government, he abandoned the policy of passive resistance in the Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr and introduced a new mark in an attempt to cope with the hyperinflation in the country. He was an active supporter of rapprochement with the Soviet Union. Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1926.

*Republican Schutzbund (Republikanischer Schutzbund) is a paramilitary organization of the Social Democratic Party of Austria, created in 1923 for defense against the armed units of the Heimwehr. After the dissolution of parliament, Federal Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss banned the Schutzbund, forcing it to go underground, and after the defeat of the February Uprising, many members of the Schutzbund arrived in Moscow, where they took part in a military parade on Red Square.

*Johann Schober (Johann Schober/1874–1932). He served in the Austrian police under the Habsburgs and continued his service during the First Republic. He was appointed three times to the post of Federal Chancellor of Austria (June 21, 1921 - January 26, 1922, January 27, 1922 - May 31, 1922 and September 26, 1929 - September 30, 1930). One of the founders of Interpol. Thanks to his efforts, Vienna became the location of Interpol's headquarters.

*Heimwehr (Heimwehr) - "Union for the Defense of the Homeland" - a paramilitary force that operated in Austria from 1919 to 1938. Formed from demobilized soldiers after World War I to defend the Austrian borders. Later converted into a fighting unit for far-right forces in Austria. He actively participated in the suppression of strikes and the July Uprising of 1927. After its unification with the Fatherland Front, it ceased to exist as an independent political force. In its methods and organizational structure it is somewhat reminiscent of the German Freikorps.

*Othmar Spann (Othmar Spann/1878–1950). Austrian economist, sociologist and ideologist of the corporate state, whose ideas influenced the political life of Austria, Germany, Italy, as well as the political thought of the Russian emigration in Western Europe. The main feature of his worldview was his rejection of the ideas of Marxism and the parliamentary-democratic system. In his writings, he pays special attention to the “national spirit”, “strong state” and the “myth of community”. He idealizes the class society of the medieval model, defends the advantages of diversity over centralization and unification, and dreams of the power of the spiritual elite.

*Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg (Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg/1899–1956). Austrian nationalist and politician, leader of the Heimwehr and later the Fatherland Front created by Dollfuss. Helped introduce Austrofascism and establish a dictatorship in Austria during the interwar period. He served as Minister of the Interior in 1930 and Vice-Chancellor in 1934. He was a fierce opponent of the Anschluss. Fled Austria when the Nazis invaded the country. Served in Free French and British forces during World War II.

References:
1. I. G. Zhiryakov “The Austrian State in 1918–1938.”
2. I. G. Zhiryakov “From the history of the Anschluss.”
3. Kurt Waldheim "The Austrian Way".
4. Kurt von Schuschnigg "Austrian requiem".
5. Kluge U. “Der österreichische Ständestaat 1934–1938.”
6. Talos E. “Das austrofaschistische Herrschaftssystem 1933–1938.”
42 comments
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  1. +5
    20 September 2023 07: 13
    “AustroFührer” did not want to share power with “Deutsche Führer” and died without breaking his oath...
    He probably loved his power very much.
    1. +3
      21 September 2023 06: 03
      Quote: hohol95
      “AustroFührer” did not want to share power with “Deutsche Führer” and died without breaking his oath...
      He probably loved his power very much..

      That he was an honest man and did not change his oath- no, not allowed?
      During the collapse of the USSR, in a situation that was much less terrible for them, our generals raised their paws - “Oath? What kind of oath? To which USSR?”
      1. +3
        21 September 2023 16: 32
        Quote: your1970
        The fact that he was an honest man and did not betray his oath is not allowed?

        Why is it not allowed? He was a man convinced of his views...
    2. +2
      21 September 2023 13: 47
      He probably loved his power very much.


      He was an idealistic dictator.
      And even with a strong religious flavor. For him, the oath on the Bible was really important.
      In my youth I wanted to become a priest.
      He volunteered to go to the WW1 front, although he was exempt from mobilization.

      He liked Mussolini as an example of fascism.
      But he supplemented his concept with a strong connection with Catholicism - he built “clerical fascism.”
      1. +3
        21 September 2023 16: 33
        Quote from: dump22
        He liked Mussolini as an example of fascism

        Not so much Mussolini himself, but the corporate state that he built in Italy...
        1. 0
          21 September 2023 20: 22
          Yes, they seemed to have some personal sympathy for each other. They even seemed to be family friends; Dollfuss’s wife, daughter and son were visiting Mussolini at the time of the rebellion.

          Which, of course, is somewhat paradoxical - in WW1, Mussolini fought at the front against Austria (which means he may have shot at Dollfuss), but Hitler was in the allied forces.
  2. +14
    20 September 2023 07: 28
    Building in the Karl-Marx-Hof area.

    In fact, this “building” is one of the longest residential buildings in the world - 1100 meters, four tram stops.



    The total area of ​​this residential complex is 156 sq. m. meters. Moreover, the building consists of 000 apartments ranging from 1382 to 30 square meters. meters, self-service laundries, baths, hairdressers, kindergartens, libraries, hospitals, business offices occupy only 60% of this area. The rest is parks and playgrounds for children.



    This is a self-service laundry. 1927, by the way.

    On a note. On January 20, 1923, after the initial use of loan funds and the levying of a targeted housing tax, the construction of social housing in Vienna was put on a new financial basis

    The targeted housing tax that the author of the article talks about deserves special attention. It is one of the eighteen "Breitner taxes" or "taxes on luxury and special expenses." The tax was progressive - the more expensive the rented housing, the higher the tax. Accordingly, the most expensive housing, which accounted for 0,5% of the total, provided 45% of all tax revenues.
    1. +12
      20 September 2023 07: 37
      Quote: Dekabrist
      The targeted housing tax that the author of the article talks about deserves special attention

      And post-war social democracy itself deserves special attention. Approximately the same processes were taking place in Sweden, where at the same time the Social Democrats were in charge, only the Swedes succeeded, but the Austrians, as it were, not quite. Well, except for the experiment with Red Vienna...
      1. +6
        20 September 2023 07: 43
        And post-war social democracy itself deserves special attention.

        Why not a topic for an article?
        1. +6
          20 September 2023 07: 45
          Quote: Dekabrist
          Why not a topic for an article?

          An article like this is very serious work. I can't handle this. Actually a good idea...
          1. +5
            20 September 2023 07: 53
            An article like this is very serious work. I can't handle this.

            Eyes are afraid, and hands do.

            It’s just worth breaking the topic, it seems to me, into several articles. It’s easier to write and better to read.
            1. +6
              20 September 2023 15: 46
              Thank you, Nikolay, a very interesting and informative presentation of the material. You grow as an author with every new article. Well done.
              1. +5
                20 September 2023 16: 27
                Quote: Richard
                You grow as an author with every new article.

                What kind of author am I? Just an amateur...
                Greetings!
      2. +3
        20 September 2023 12: 20
        Nikolay (Author) thank you for the article, once again a pleasant surprise!
        If it's not a secret, share your plans.
        Best regards, Vlad!
        1. +5
          20 September 2023 14: 54
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          If it's not a secret, share your plans.

          Yes, there are no special plans. Probably the next one will be J. Cabot.. wink
          1. +3
            20 September 2023 15: 53
            Yes, there are no special plans. Probably the next one will be J. Cabot.

            I hope in the article about Giovanni Caboto there will be a place about Sebastian, nicknamed “the famous son of a famous father.”
            I will wait with interest.
            1. +5
              20 September 2023 16: 29
              Quote: Richard
              I hope in the article about Giovanni Caboto there will be a place about Sebastian

              There was a little space for him too, but his work in the Moscow company was not covered...
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. +5
      20 September 2023 09: 40
      Curious: “Karl Marx Hof”, when did such a name appear and does it remain?
      1. +7
        20 September 2023 09: 45
        Quote: vladcub
        "Karl Marx Hof" when did such a name appear and does it remain?

        When Vienna was headed by the Social Democrats, then it appeared and exists to this day, albeit with a break for Hitler’s Anschluss...
      2. +5
        20 September 2023 10: 42
        Curious: “Karl Marx Hof”, when did such a name appear and does it remain?

        Appeared in 1927, during the Anschluss it was called Heiligenstädter Hof, after the name of one of the Viennese municipalities. In 1945 the name was returned, and this is how it remains to this day.
  3. +3
    20 September 2023 08: 14
    This is what he said privately and never left any doubt that he considered himself the rightful emperor.

    He didn't just talk. He also wrote. "Feldkirch Manifesto", which he sent to the heads of European states when leaving Austria via Feldkirch on March 24, 1919.
    An arbitrarily constituted representative body of a state without borders has assumed the power to decide on the form of government and its integration into the wider system of states for a state that does not yet exist under international law. What the German-Austrian government, the provisional and constituent national assembly has decided and decreed on these issues since November 11, 1918 and will decide in the future, is therefore invalid for me and my home.

    It was this manifesto that became the main reason for the adoption of Gesetz vom 3. April 1919, betreffend die Landesverweisung und die Übernahme des Vermögens des Hauses Habsburg-Lothringen (Law of April 3, 1919 on expulsion from the country and confiscation of assets of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine).
    1. +6
      20 September 2023 08: 40
      Quote: Dekabrist
      Gesetz vom 3. April 1919

      Compared to the Romanov family, he got off easy... laughing
  4. +5
    20 September 2023 08: 47
    In general, nationalism in Austria between the wars created tension in the country and contributed to political conflicts. These conflicts ultimately led to the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria into Germany in 1938.
    1. +6
      20 September 2023 09: 48
      Quote: kor1vet1974
      In general, nationalism in Austria between the wars created a tense situation in the country

      And nationalism and the Austrians’ uncertainty about the future, and the collapse of the empire, which, figuratively speaking, left Austria without pants...
      1. +4
        20 September 2023 10: 07
        left Austria without pants...
        in the interwar period, metallurgical, chemical and other industries developed. Austria-Hungary got involved in WWI so that it could remain an empire; on the eve of the war, the national liberation movement grew in different regions of the empire..
        1. +4
          20 September 2023 11: 07
          Quote: kor1vet1974
          Austria-Hungary got involved in WWI so that it could remain an empire; on the eve of the war, the national liberation movement grew in different regions of the empire

          There is an opinion that if Charles I had been emperor at the beginning of WWI, then the collapse of the empire might not have happened. He was a supporter of, in addition to the Austrian and Hungarian, wearing the Czech crown, he looked towards federalism, in a word, he was a liberal, if such a thing is generally applicable to monarchs. But the war had gone too far and the collapse of the Habsburg state was already irreversible...
          1. +5
            20 September 2023 12: 30
            There is an opinion that if Charles I had been emperor at the beginning of WWI, then the collapse of the empire might not have happened. He was a supporter of, in addition to the Austrian and Hungarian, wearing the Czech crown, he looked towards federalism, in a word, he was a liberal, if such a thing is generally applicable to monarchs.

            The Empire had a chance to survive if it had avoided participation in WWI. However, this applies to 4 of the 5 empires that took a direct part in that war. Even Great Britain (which I excluded from the list) had to abandon Ireland as a result of WWII.
            1. +4
              20 September 2023 13: 35
              Even Great Britain (which I excluded from the list) had to abandon Ireland as a result of WWII

              Irish independence was not a result of the First World War.
            2. +1
              20 September 2023 15: 00
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              The Empire had a chance to survive if it had avoided participation in WWII

              The Adventures of Soldier Schweik - one of my favorite books. There, although with humor, in my opinion, it very accurately describes both the decrepit empire itself and the relations of the ethnic groups living in it, which stretched it in different directions. Most likely, by this time she was already doomed...

              Quote: Luminman
              Irish independence was not a result of World War I

              This is one of the results. Under the influence of WWI, the national liberation movement in Ireland intensified. Plus - German anti-British propaganda...
            3. 0
              21 September 2023 16: 22
              The Empire had a chance to survive if it had avoided participation in WWI.


              No, it wouldn't help. There is a negative example of the Spanish Empire in the 20th century.
          2. +2
            20 September 2023 13: 20
            There is an opinion that if Charles I had been emperor at the beginning of WWI, then the collapse of the empire might not have happened.
            This is all in the realm of guesswork; if there had been, then it wouldn’t have happened. But national movements were gaining strength on the outskirts, even the Hungarians weren’t particularly happy with the dual monarchy, but there weren’t many of them, I don’t mean ordinary Hungarians. Austria-Hungary, even in an alliance with Germany it was not destined to win, disintegration was inevitable. One strong link, Germany, was pulled by three weak links. The Entente had the opposite, and there were more links.
            1. +1
              20 September 2023 15: 03
              Quote: kor1vet1974
              But national movements were gaining strength on the outskirts, even the Hungarians were not particularly happy with the dual monarchy

              It seems that back in school, in the history textbook, there was a caricature of Austria-Hungary - an invalid covered in bandages, on two crutches. On one crutch it was written - Austria, on another - Hungary...
              1. +1
                20 September 2023 16: 26
                You see, what’s the matter, all the countries that participated in WWII all hoped for a short-lived victorious war. Yes, in such a case, Austria-Hungary might have survived for some time, but a short-lived, victorious war did not work out.
                1. +2
                  20 September 2023 16: 37
                  Quote: kor1vet1974
                  WWI participants, everyone hoped for a short, victorious war

                  It's like that. The Germans planned to be in Paris in 40 days, the Russian army was supposed to celebrate victory in Berlin by mid-autumn, and the Austrians were supposed to crush the Serbs with one light blow. But something went wrong...
                2. +1
                  21 September 2023 16: 20
                  Austria-Hungary, perhaps for some time, would have survived


                  In my opinion there was no chance.
                  Even a hypothetical victory would not have changed anything; the contradictions would not have disappeared.
                  The patient was doomed.

                  There is a good example of an empire that “luckily” avoided participation in WW1, but nevertheless collapsed. This is Spain.
                  1. +1
                    21 September 2023 16: 30
                    Quote from: dump22
                    In my opinion there was no chance.
                    Even a hypothetical victory wouldn't change anything

                    There would have been euphoria from the Victory and the Habsburgs would have held out for some time. And then, of course, ethnic conflicts would have driven the empire into its grave...

                    Quote from: dump22
                    There is a good example of an empire that “luckily” avoided participation in WW1, but nevertheless collapsed. This is Spain

                    By that time, Spain was no longer an empire...
                    1. +1
                      21 September 2023 19: 11
                      There would have been euphoria from the Victory and the Habsburgs would have held out for some time.


                      The euphoria of victory would very quickly lead to a military conspiracy against the top of the empire. Remember our Decembrists.

                      By that time, Spain was no longer an empire...


                      Of course, the war with the United States at the end of the 19th century almost completely destroyed them.
                      But it still had much more overseas colonies than Austria-Hungary. laughing
  5. +7
    20 September 2023 10: 03
    Comrades, I noticed: as soon as the established system is destroyed. Inflation begins in Germany, Austria, and inflation in Russia during the Great War is something. There was all kinds of quasi-money: “Nikolaev”, “Kerenki”, “bells” of Krasnov, “Denikin”
    After the collapse of the Union, inflation was also not bad
    PS, I repent that “creeping Bolshevism” could have been formulated differently, otherwise it causes unpleasant associations with some kind of reptile
    1. +4
      20 September 2023 11: 08
      Quote: vladcub
      I repent that “creeping Bolshevism” could have been formulated differently, otherwise it causes unpleasant associations

      Well, you can call it approaching or inevitable...
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. -1
      21 September 2023 19: 19
      Have you come up with?
      Three million percent inflation per year in the Weimar Republic, and this after the 19th year, when during the WWII it already raised prices 5 times for everything, and at least money surrogates, not only in every land - often in within one city - have you heard of this? In Austria it was better, there was only a thousand percent a year, and exactly the same, internal money.
      Inflation in the former Republic of Ingushetia during the Civil War, compared to what happened on the lands of the former German and Austro-Hungarian empires, are two different things. In an agrarian empire, where two-thirds of the population lives by subsistence farming, post-war devastation, in principle, cannot be as large-scale as in an industrial empire. This concerns Austria-Hungary and its fragments less; it was the Germans who suffered the most.

      You should at least deign to include some logic.
  6. +2
    20 September 2023 18: 27
    Great article. The Entente allies in vain put pressure on Czechoslovakia regarding the entry of the Sudetenland into Austria.
  7. ANB
    +1
    21 September 2023 23: 36
    Thank you for the article. The history of Austria somehow slipped through everywhere. The empire collapsed, the Anschluss and that's it.