Military Review

Experienced tank T-34-85 model 1960, "Object 135"

History create

The T-34-85 tank of the 1960 model is an advanced model tank T-34-85 model 1944. T-34-85 period of the Great Patriotic War, developed in the design bureau of the Gorky factory number 112 "Red Sormovo". The development was led by the chief designer of the plant V.V. Krylov Subsequently, the technical documentation for the machine was approved by the parent plant No. 183 in Nizhny Tagil (chief designer - A. Morozov). January 23, 1944 by the decree of GKO No. 5020, the tank was adopted by the Red Army. Production of these tanks was carried out at factories No. 112 Krasnoye Sormovo, No. 174 (Omsk) and No. 183 between March 1944 and December 1946. In the post-war period, factories produced 5742 tanks.

In 1947, the car was given the factory designation "Object 135". In 1950's, it has been repeatedly upgraded. Modernization activities were carried out at the overhaul plants of the USSR Ministry of Defense. These activities (the purpose of which was to improve the technical and combat characteristics, increase the reliability of the units and units of the tank, ease of maintenance) developed VNII-100 and CEZ No. 1 on the instructions of the GBTU. The final development of the technical design documentation for the modernization, approved in 1960, was carried out under the supervision of the chief designer L. Kartsev. Design Bureau of the plant number XXUMX (Nizhny Tagil). The T-183-34 tank of the 85 model of the year had a classic general layout, the crew was five people. The internal equipment was located in the 1960-x compartments: transmission, engine, combat and control. Armored hull, turret, armament, undercarriage, transmission and power plant compared to the T-4-34 of the 85 model, did not undergo significant changes.

Experienced tank T-34-85 model 1960, "Object 135"

Layout and equipment

The control unit housed a machine gunner (right) and a driver (left), a DTM machine gun mounted in a ball mount, tank controls, test equipment, two hand-held fire extinguishers, two compressed air cylinders, a TPU machine, and spare parts and accessories. ammunition. The driver entered the car through the hatch, which was located in the upper front plate of the armored hull and was closed with an armor cover. The driver's hatch cover was equipped with two viewing devices that served to increase the horizontal viewing angle (they were turned towards the sides of the hull). To monitor the terrain and the road in the dark, the driver had a night vision device BVN. The BVN kit consisted of the device itself, a high-voltage power supply unit, a FG-100 headlamp having an infrared filter and spare parts. The BVN device and spare parts to it in a non-working position were stored in the packing box, located behind the driver's seat on the first box of the ammo pack. In the forward part of the body an additional optical element with an infrared filter was attached to the bracket.

The BVN device, when used, was mounted in a removable bracket that was mounted on the beams welded to the upper front sheet on the right side of the hatch (the hatch cover was open). The power supply unit of the device was mounted on a bracket, inside the tank on the left side, on the right side of the hull - headlight FG-100 with an infrared filter. An optical element and a blackout nozzle were removed from the left FG-102, and instead of them, an optical element having an infrared filter was used. In front of the machine gunner’s seat, there was a spare hatch in the bottom of the control compartment, which was closed by folding down the armor cover (one loop was used).

In the fighting compartment, which occupied the middle part of the hull and the internal volume of the turret, were tank armament with aiming mechanisms and aiming devices, observation devices, communications equipment and part of the ammunition, as well as jobs, the tank commander and gunner - to the left of the gun, the loader - to the right . On the roof of the tower above the commander's seat was a non-rotating commander's turret. The side walls of the turret had five viewing slots (protected by glass), which provided the commander with a circular view. In the turret roof there was an access hatch that was closed with an armored cover. In the rotary base of the hatch was installed viewing device TPKU-2B or TPK-1. In the roof of the tower above the workplaces of the gunner and loader, one periscopic rotary device MK-4 was installed. In addition to the access hatch in the commander’s turret, a crew hatch was used to land the crew, which was made above the work area of ​​the loader in the right side of the tower’s roof. The hatch was closed with a hinged armor cover on one loop.

At the left side in the fighting compartment of the tank was mounted boiler nozzle heater, which was included in the engine cooling system. Behind the fighting compartment was located the engine compartment. They were separated by a removable partition. The engine compartment housed the engine, four batteries and two radiators. In the left fixed and upper removable sheets made a cut to access the heater supercharger, closed the casing. In the door of the side sheet there was a window for heater tubes. At the rear of the hull there was a transmission compartment, separated by a partition from the engine compartment. The main friction clutch with a centrifugal fan, transmission units, air cleaners, fuel tanks and electric starter were installed in it.

Armament and sighting devices

The basic one weapons The T-34-85 of the 1960 model of the year was a ZIS-C-53 tank gun of the 85 mm caliber with a semi-automatic mechanical (copy) type and a vertical wedge gate. The length of the barrel - 54,6 caliber, the height of the line of fire - 2,02 m. With a ZIS-C-53 cannon, a DTM machine gun of 7,62 mm caliber was paired. In the vertical plane, the aiming of the coupled unit was carried out in the range from -5 to + 22 degrees using a sector-type lifting mechanism. The unobtainable space when firing from a twin installation was 23 meters. To protect the lifting mechanism during the march from dynamic loads on the bracket, to the left of the gun, inside the turret there was a stopper of the stowed position of the gun, ensuring the fixation of the gun in two positions (elevation angles - 16 and 0 degrees). In the horizontal plane, the aiming of the coupled unit was carried out by the BCH, located on the left of the gunner's seat in the tower. The design of the rotation mechanism of the tower ensured rotation using an electromotive or manual drive. When using an electromotor drive (1,35-kilowatt motor MB-20B was used), the turret turned in both directions with two different speeds. The maximum speed of rotation of the tower in this case was 30 degrees per second.

On the part of the T-34-85 tanks of the last year of production, the two-speed electric turret rotation was replaced by the new KR-31 electric drive. This drive ensured the rotation of the tower from the gunner’s place or from the place of the commander. The turn of the tower by the gunner was carried out using the KR-31 controller-rheostat. The direction of rotation of the tower in this case corresponded to the deviation of the handle to the right or to the left from the initial position. The speed of rotation was set by the angle of inclination of the handle of the controller and varied within the limits - from 2 to 26 degrees per second. The tank commander turned the turret using the command and control system by pressing a button that was mounted in the left grip of the commander’s viewing instrument. The tower was moved along the shortest path until the axis of the bore and the line of sight of the viewing device were combined. Speed ​​- 20-24 degrees per second. In the stowed position, the tower was locked using a tower stopper mounted on the right side (near the loader's seat) in one of the grips of the ball bearing of the tower.

For observation of the battlefield, determination of the range to the targets, aimed fire from a cannon and a coaxial machine gun, fire correction, a tank hinged telescopic sight TS-16 was used. The maximum range of aimed fire from a cannon is 5,2 thousand m, from a twin machine gun - 1,5 thousand m. To prevent fogging of the glass of the sight, it was equipped with an electric heater. When firing from a cannon from closed firing positions, a side level was used, mounted on the left shield of the cannon fence, as well as a tower inclinometer (the pointer was attached to the left of the gunner’s seat on the upper chase of the tower support). The maximum firing range of the gun - 13,8 thousand meters. The trigger mechanism of the gun included electric trigger and manual (mechanical) trigger. The lever of the electric trigger was located on the handle of the handwheel of the lifting mechanism, the lever of manual descent - on the left guard of the fence. The fire from the coaxial machine gun was made with the help of the same electric trigger lever. Switching / switching on of the electric pulses was carried out by toggle switches on the gunner's electric pulses.

The second DTM machine gun, caliber 7,62 mm, was installed in a ball mount on the right side of the frontal top sheet of the hull of the T-34-85 tank. The machine-gun installation provided the corners of vertical pickup in the range from -6 to + 16 degrees, horizontal angles - in the sector 12 degrees. When firing from this machine gun, an optical telescopic sight PPU-8T was used. When firing from a frontal machine gun, the innocent space was 13 meters. Ammunition guns consisted of 55 - 60 shots, machine guns DTM - 1890 cartridges (30 discs). In addition, the fighting compartment was equipped with: AK-47 automatic rifle caliber 7,62 mm (ammunition 300 ammunition, 10 shops), 20 hand grenades F-1, 26-mm signal pistol (20 signal cartridges).


For firing from a cannon, unitary shots with the following shells were used: a stupid, armored-piercing tracer BR-365 with a ballistic tip; sharp-headed BR-365K; subcaliber armor-piercing tracer BR-365P; as well as with a reduced-charge and full charge one-piece 0-365K fragmentation grenade. The armor-piercing tracer had an initial speed of 895 m / s, a fragmentation grenade with a full charge - 900 m / s and with a reduced charge - 600 m / s. The range of a direct shot at a target with a height of 2 meters when using an armor-piercing projectile is 900-950 meters, and a sub-caliber armor-piercing tracer is 1100 meters.

The main racking, consisting of 12 shots (O-365K), was located in a niche of the tower. Tightening styling, 8 shots, were placed: 4 shot (BR-365 or BR-365К) - on the right side of the corps in the fighting compartment; 2 shot (BR-365P) - at the corners of the partition in the fighting compartment; 2 shot (BR-365P) - in front of the crew compartment on the right. The remaining 35 shots (24 O-365K, 10 BR-365 or BR-365K and 1 BR-365P) were placed in six boxes in the fighting compartment at the bottom.

Disks for machine guns located in the spec. sockets: in front of the machine gunner’s seat on the front front plate - 15 pcs, on the starboard side of the case to the right of the machine gunner’s seat - 7 pcs, to the left of the driver’s seat on the bottom of the case - 5 pcs, in front of the seat charging on the right wall of the tower - 4 pcs. Hand grenades F-1 and fuses in bags were located on the left side in laying nests.

The cartridges for AK-47 (180 pieces), equipped in 6 stores, were located in: specials. bag on the starboard tower - 5 stores; On the cover of the machine in a special pocket - 1 store. The rest of the cartridges (120 pcs.) In the standard closure fit at the discretion of the crew. 6 signal cartridges were in spec. the bag, to the left of the TSh sight on the left side of the turret, the rest of the 14 cartridges were placed in the closure at the discretion of the crew in free places in the fighting compartment.

Shell and Tower

The armor protection of the tank - protivosnaryadnaya, differentiated. The design of the hull and tower compared with the T-34-85 model 1944, remained unchanged. The hull of the tank was welded from katana and cast armor with a thickness of 20 and 45 millimeters with separate bolted joints. The cast turret, which has a welded roof, was mounted on the tank hull using a ball bearing. The maximum thickness in the frontal part is 90 millimeters. On the T-34-85 tank of the 1960 model of the year, towers were installed with an improved ventilation system in the crew compartment. Installation of two exhaust fans smashed. In this case, one fan, installed above the cut of the breech of the gun in the front of the roof, served as an exhaust fan, and the second, installed in the aft part of the tower roof, was the discharge. This placement of the fans made it possible to increase the efficiency of blowing the fighting compartment and eliminate the passage of gases generated during the combustion of gunpowder through crew jobs. On the upper hull stern sheet for setting up a smoke screen, 2 smoke bays BDSH-5 with a reset mechanism and an electrical ignition system (from the commander’s place) were installed. In the stowed position (in the case of installation of two additional barrels of fuel mounted on special brackets on the upper stern plate) smoke bombs were mounted on the left upper side plate, in front of the additional oil tank (on some machines the third additional tank of 90 liters was installed) .

Engine and fuel system

The T-34-85 of the 1960 model of the year was fitted with an 500-strong (with a crankshaft speed of 1800 rpm) B2-34М or B34М-11 diesel engine. The engine was started using the 15-strong electric starter CT-700 (the main starting method) or compressed air (a spare method) stored in two air tanks of 10 liters. To facilitate start-up at low temperatures, a nozzle heater with a water-tube boiler, which is included in the cooling system, and a heater for heating the air, which enters the engine cylinders, are used. The heater was attached to the partition of the engine compartment on the bracket. In addition to the spray heater, the heating system included oil heating radiators in both oil tanks, electrical equipment (electrical cables and glow plugs) and pipelines. The heating system provided the diesel engine with preparation for starting up by heating the coolant, as well as some of the oil in the tanks. In addition, to facilitate engine start-up at low temperatures, a device was used to remove frozen oil from the oil pipe leading it to the injection part of the oil pump.

The fuel system had 8 fuel tanks located inside the hull and grouped into 3 groups: a group of stern tanks, a group of right and left side tanks. The total capacity of the internal tanks - 545 liters. On the right side of the tank were installed two external additional fuel tanks for 90 liters each. External fuel tanks were not included in the fuel system. On an inclined stern sheet fastened two barrels with a capacity of 200 liters each. The fuel system included a drain tank located on the partition of the engine compartment at the starboard side of the hull and used to drain the fuel pump through a special fuel pipe. The tank spare parts kit included a small-sized MZA-3 filling unit, placed in a transport position in a metal box mounted outside on the inclined left side of the hull. The power reserve of the T-34-85 tank model 1960 of the year on the highway on the internal (main) fuel tanks - 300-400 kilometers, along dirt roads - up to 320 kilometers.

Engine cooling system - forced, liquid, closed type. Each core of the radiator had a cooling surface 53 meter. The capacity of the cooling system after the installation of the heating system (with constant inclusion in the system) with a nozzle heater was equal to 95 liters. To reduce the time to prepare the engine for start-up at low temperatures, the cooling system has a filler neck. The hot liquid poured into this neck flowed directly into the heads and the notch space of the engine blocks, thereby accelerating its heating.

Air cleaning system

In the air cleaning system, two combined-type VTI-3 air cleaners equipped with ejector automatic dust removal from the first stage of the dust collector were used. Ejectors connected to dust collectors were installed in the exhaust pipes of the engine. The air cleaner consisted of a casing, a cyclone apparatus with a dust collector, a cover and a casing with three cassettes of wire.
Lubrication system

The combined circulation (spray and under pressure) lubrication system of the engine with a dry crankcase (MT-16p oil was used) consisted of: three-section oil gear pump, two oil tanks, Kimaf oil wire-slot filter, equalizing tank, tubular oil radiator, oil pump pump MZN-2 with electric drive, thermometer, pressure gauge and pipelines. Between the engine and oil tanks on each side housed water radiators included in the cooling system. The oil radiator cooling the oil coming out of the engine was fastened with two bolts to the posts of the left water radiator. Under low temperature conditions, the oil radiator was disconnected from the lubrication system with the help of a special pipeline (used to be in a spare parts kit). In this case, oil flowed directly into the surge tank, and then into the tanks.

The total filling capacity of the entire T-34-85 lubrication system of the 1960 sample of the year was 100 liters. Each oil tank included 38 liters of oil. In the lubrication system there was a nozzle heater to heat the oil before starting the engine at low ambient temperatures and special radiators placed in oil tanks. On the left side of the T-34-85 of the 1960 model of the year, there was an external 90-liter oil tank that does not have a connection to the engine lubrication system.

Transmission and chassis

Components and units of the chassis and transmission are not significantly different from the T-34-85 model 1944 year. The mechanical transmission of the tank consists of: a multi-plate main friction clutch for dry friction (steel on steel), a four- or five-speed gearbox, two multidisk drive clutches with floating, band brakes with cast-iron linings, and two gear single-row bead reduction gears. The transmission in the lower half of the crankcase had a drain valve to drain the oil. Between the tapered roller bearing of the gearbox drive shaft and the adapter sleeve, in addition to the gland, there is an oil deflector. The leakage of grease through the main shaft supports was prevented by the oil deflector and the sealing rings.

In the undercarriage of the T-34-85 model 1960, an individual spring suspension was used, the nodes of which were located inside the tank hull. The suspension of the first road roller, located in the department of management, was protected by a special shield. The 2 - 4 track rollers suspended in special shafts obliquely. The crawler propulsion unit consisted of two large-caterpillar tracks, ten support rollers with external cushioning, two guide wheels equipped with caterpillar tension mechanisms, and two drive wheels of tongue-and-groove gearing. Two types of road wheels were installed on the machine: with cast or stamped discs with massive external rubber tires.

Electric equipment

The electrical equipment of the tank was performed using a single-wire circuit (in emergency lighting, a two-wire circuit was used). The onboard power supply voltage is 24-29 B (BCH and starter circuit with starting relay) and 12 B (other users). The main source of electricity was the X-NUMX-kilowatt G-1,5 generator with a relay regulator РРТ-731. Auxiliary - 30STEN-4М rechargeable batteries, which are interconnected in series with each other in parallel, with a total capacity of 6 and 140 Ah, respectively. The C-256 signal was mounted on the bracket in the front part of the inclined hull behind the outdoor lighting headlamp. On the right side slope of the sheet was mounted headlight outdoor lighting, having an infrared filter FG-280. The left headlight was equipped with a FG-58 blackout nozzle. In addition to the GTS-100 tail lamp, there was a similar marker lamp located on the turret, near which the headlight FG-102 was located. In order to connect the small MZN-64 filling unit and a portable lamp, an external receptacle was installed in the rear of the hull.

Communication devices

The P-123 radio station was used in the turret of the tank for external radio communication, and the P-124 tank intercom was used for intercom communications. For communication with the commander of the landing there was an outlet. On commander vehicles, the 9RS and RSB-F radio stations were installed, as well as the TPU-ZBis-F tank intercom. To power the radio stations were used regular batteries. The batteries were recharged using an autonomous charging unit, which included the L-3 / 2 engine.

Performance characteristics of the T-34-85 sample 1960 G .:
Combat weight - 32,5 - 33 tons;
Crew - 5 man;
Full length - 8100 mm;
Housing length - 6100 mm;
Width - 3000 mm;
Height - mm 2700;
Clearance - 400 mm;
- gun C-53 caliber 85 mm;
- Two DTM machine guns caliber 7,62 mm;
- 56 shots;
- 1953 cartridge;
- telescopic sight TSH-16;
- machine gun telescopic sight PPU-8T;
Front of the tower - 90 mm;
side turret - 75 mm;
The forehead of the case is 45 mm;
hull bead - 45 mm;
roof - mm 16-20;
feed bottom - 40 mm;
feed top - 45 mm;
front sheet bottom - 20 mm;
rear sheet bottom - 13 mm;
- B-2-34, 12-cylinder, diesel, liquid cooling, hp power 500 at 1700 rpm; tank capacity - 550 l .;
- mechanical, 5-speed gearbox (4 forward, 1 back), final drives, friction clutches;
CHASSIS (on board):
5 dual track rollers (diameter 830 mm), rear guide and front drive wheel; tracks - fine, steel, ridge engagement, 72 track in each track;
on the highway - 54 km \ h;
range on the highway - 290-300 km;
over rough terrain - 25 km / h;
range over the country road - 220-250 km;
Rise - 35 degrees;
Descent - 40 degrees;
Wall height - 0,73 m;
The width of the moat - 2,50 m;
Wade depth - 1,30 m;
- intercom TPU-47;
- radio station 10-РТ-26Е.

Based on materials:

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  1. borisst64
    borisst64 26 December 2012 10: 00
    It was interesting to know that in 1960 the T-34-85 tank was on the same level. Details in the article like - "Between the tapered roller bearing of the gearbox drive shaft and the adapter sleeve, in addition to the oil seal, there is an oil deflector." - cause a smile (it was not enough to list the bearings by numbers). The volume of the article should not be an end in itself.
    1. Reddragon
      Reddragon 26 December 2012 10: 50
      In 50, it was still nothing, but by 60 it was outdated.

      Actually, he's 46 yearA common mistake.

      History of serial modifications:
      - T-34-85 sample 1946 g. (Volume 135) - medium tank post-war release
      - T-34-85 model 1952 g. - modernized medium tank, installed new means r / s
      - T-34-85 model 1957 g. - modernized medium tank, the engine B-34-M11 is installed
      - T-34-85 model 1960 g. - modernized medium tank
  2. Prohor
    Prohor 26 December 2012 10: 34
    It is unlikely that he was "on the level". With the advent of the T-54/55 and foreign counterparts, with the advent of the RPG-7, the excellent T-1944 for 34 lagged behind immediately and forever. How propeller-driven aircraft instantly became obsolete with the advent of jet aircraft.
    Although, given the real threat of a total war in those years, the modernization and maintenance of the combat effectiveness of any military equipment probably made sense
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 26 December 2012 11: 21
      I think the T-34 is outdated with the advent of the L-7 105mm gun.
      1. Kars
        Kars 26 December 2012 15: 04
        Unfortunately, it was outdated with the advent of PAK 40
        But this did not stop him from fighting for many more years.
        1. cth; fyn
          cth; fyn 26 December 2012 15: 54

          Unfortunately, it was outdated with the advent of PAK 40

          I had in mind a little different, when the L-7 appeared, it could be torn at a distance at which the S-53 fire could not hit the enemy and was only 40mm thick (you yourself proved this to you very reasonably last time).
          The last time I was mistaken, the T-34 gun was never stabilized. The S-54 gun was not manufactured, but it is a pity that in the 60s it was possible to convert old tanks slightly increasing their firepower.
          1. Kars
            Kars 26 December 2012 16: 00
            Quote: cth; fyn
            -53, could not hit the enemy and into the side with a thickness of only 40mm

            Well, change 40 to 44.
            This is a real fact. The T-34 lost the advantage of security with the advent of the massive appearance of PAK-40.

            As for the side, if it honestly doesn’t count when evaluating armored vehicles. Considering that they are fighting not only tanks but also anti-tank vehicles
            1. cth; fyn
              cth; fyn 26 December 2012 20: 33
              but the Pak-40 seemed to be on the panther and the T-4, and the T-34 successfully fought them, sort of ...
              1. Kars
                Kars 27 December 2012 00: 03
                Quote: cth; fyn
                but the Pak-40 seemed to be on the panther and the T-4, and the T-34 successfully fought them, like

                He fought, and not even seemingly successfully, but rather successfully. But this does not prevent him from becoming obsolete. Below is an adequate response to the appearance of the Pak-40, Panther, etc. (I'm talking about the T-44 / T-55)

                But the T-55 was already outdated (this is a conditional term, all the same) when the L-5 appeared, and the T-64 appeared in response, which the L-5 couldn’t penetrate into the forehead from 500 m.
            2. cth; fyn
              cth; fyn 26 December 2012 20: 55
              And why the Z-S-54 did not go into the series, because it really had an advantage over the Z-S-53 due to vertical stabilization?
        2. postman
          postman 26 December 2012 23: 41
          Quote: Kars
          But this did not stop him from fighting for many more years.

          Why not the T-44?
          monolithic frontal sheet 120 mm, B-44 transversely, 300 mm below the T-34, a guitar in the transmission, and almost the same weight 3,19tn

          What is the point of producing the T-34 in various modifications when the 44 (1943) "tore" the M48 "Patton" (1952)?

          first option
          1. Kars
            Kars 26 December 2012 23: 58
            Quote: Postman
            Why not the T-44?

            And what about the thousands of T-34s, after all the pedestals work out?
            If you are talking about the war, they limited their output to the vectors, and the T-34 was already chasing en masse, and they didn’t want to rebuild the conveyors. Is it right or wrong, honestly hard to evaluate. Only the Germans (we will not be Americans, the British, there’s another situation) in the middle of the war invent a new medium tank.

            Well, then the T-54 has matured.

            If about post-war production, then I don’t know
            1950s it was repeatedly modernized. Modernization measures were carried out at the overhaul plants of the USSR Ministry of Defense. These measures (the purpose of which was to improve technical and combat characteristics, increase the reliability of units and units of the tank, ease of maintenance) were developed by VNII-100 and CEZ No. 1 on the instructions of GBTU. Final development of drawing technical documentation

            maybe all the same did not do new.
            1. postman
              postman 27 December 2012 01: 10
              Quote: Kars
              And what about the thousands of T-34s, after all the pedestals work out?

              It was necessary to stop production in 1944 at the end / beginning of 1945. Our generals will both accelerate and not stop.
              And the rest to Korea, Egypt, Israel, well, everywhere.

              In Kursk would have it. And?

              After the war, the production of T-44 continued until 1947, in total more than 1800 tanks of this type were produced.

              An official from the Rostov region is being tried for trying to sell a T-44 tank for 4,5 million rubles.
              1. loft79
                loft79 27 December 2012 01: 40
                Kars correctly said that it is dangerous to be wise with well-established production.

                Quote: Postman
                It was necessary to stop production in 1944 at the end / beginning of 1945.

                And to fight on what?
                At the beginning of the 45th nobody knew when the war would end. half a year, a year.
                Again, we must lay down on "what and how will happen after."

                Switching to a new tank at that time was risky. The Germans flew by.
                1. postman
                  postman 27 December 2012 01: 48
                  Quote: loft79
                  And to fight on what?

                  I think there was a surplus of them.
                  You can’t say that there was nothing to fight ....
                  1. Kars
                    Kars 27 December 2012 01: 50
                    Quote: Postman
                    You can’t say that there was nothing to fight ....

                    In 1945, the USSR irretrievably lost 13 tanks and self-propelled guns.
                    1. postman
                      postman 27 December 2012 01: 53
                      "In 1945" or "by 1945"?
                      1. Kars
                        Kars 27 December 2012 01: 55
                        Quote: Postman
                        In 1945 "or" by 1945 "?

                        B, unfortunately in B 1945
                      2. postman
                        postman 27 December 2012 02: 08
                        Quote: Kars
                        B, unfortunately in B 1945

                        Yes. looked. I pass. not until 44 was.
            2. postman
              postman 27 December 2012 01: 51
              Quote: Kars
              maybe all the same did not do new.

              Guess three times. Why and why on the T-44 swastika?

              1. studentmati
                studentmati 27 December 2012 01: 59
                Film studio Mosfilm. I recognized the garage door ....
                1. postman
                  postman 27 December 2012 02: 05
                  Yes, exactly, after removing the "camouflage" (it was necessary not to put the first photo)
                  is everything native inside?

                  1. studentmati
                    studentmati 27 December 2012 02: 08
                    In the second and third photos, too, Vasily and the garage are visible, and what is more noticeable is the sharp boundaries of the gray paint, after removing the add-ons. And a number of points for the observant eye ....
                    1. postman
                      postman 27 December 2012 02: 10
                      Quote: studentmati
                      In the second photo

                      The riddle did not work out, it was first necessary to ask Kars from the Lviv plant (archives) to send photos ...
                      1. studentmati
                        studentmati 27 December 2012 02: 15
                        Well, in addition to the photo, the fact of "camouflage" 34 under the Nazis is widely described in special literature and retold more than once on television. Maybe it's just me that left such a deep imprint? Or maybe that Marshal of the Armored Forces Losik Oleg Alexandrovich, my fellow countryman?
                      2. postman
                        postman 27 December 2012 23: 10
                        Quote: studentmati
                        Well, besides the photo, the fact of "camouflage" 34-ok

                        THIS IS 44KA!
                      3. Kars
                        Kars 27 December 2012 02: 19
                        Quote: Postman
                        from Lviv plant (archives) send photos

                        you get ticonderogy drawings faster from the Pentagon)))))))) 0
              2. Kars
                Kars 27 December 2012 02: 01
                For the epic "Liberation", 15 Tigers were made at the Lviv Tank Repair Plant. The base was T-44 tanks. They subsequently starred in Hot Snow and other films. The most interesting thing is that fake rollers and widened tracks were installed on the tanks. But with such a chassis, the car lost control and had to be abandoned.

    2. Victor
      Victor 26 December 2012 13: 21
      Quote: Prokhor
      Although, given the real threat of a total war in those years, the modernization and maintenance of the combat effectiveness of any military equipment probably made sense

      Modernization was needed primarily for the supply of this tank to our Korean, and subsequently to the Vietnamese allies, and even to China they were delivered unmeasured and much more.
  3. Sirozha
    Sirozha 26 December 2012 10: 40
    Interesting! I didn’t know that, at that time, with us, they weren’t what they were armed with, but also modernized. That's true in order to understand what has been modernized there, one must thoroughly know the characteristics of the T-34-85 arr. 1944, and otherwise, as in my case, this article turns into just a set of characteristics of the T-34-85 mod. 1960 :)
    1. AK-47
      AK-47 26 December 2012 12: 28
      Quote: Sirozha
      I didn’t know that, at that time, with us, they weren’t what they were armed with, but they were modernized

      Officially, the T-34-85 tank was withdrawn from service in the Russian Federation only in 1993.
      After 1945, the T-34-85 at various times were in service in Austria, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, East Germany, Egypt, Israel (Egyptian trophies) , Iraq, Cyprus, China, DPRK, Congo, Cuba, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mozambique, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Northern Yemen, Syria, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, Finland (captured Soviet), Czechoslovakia, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, South Africa (captured Angolan), Yugoslavia, South Yemen.
      As of 2010, the T-34-85 is still in service with a number of countries.
  4. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 26 December 2012 11: 12
    the driver had a night vision device BVN
    To prevent fogging of the glass of the sight, it was equipped with an electric heater

    MMMM! High tech smile
    on dirt roads - up to 320 kilometers

    but this is serious
    To be honest, I didn’t notice serious differences from the 44-year-old model, only night-time surveillance devices from the driver’s mechanic appeared and the radio equipment was serious.
    In my opinion, this was missing:
    In 1945, on the basis of the ZIS-S-53, a modification with a single-plane barrel gyro stabilizer was developed, called the ZIS-S-54, but it was not launched into the series.

    And that would be a really cool upgrade.
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 26 December 2012 12: 12
      It would be cool to replace the MTO with a compact one from the T-44, reduce the number of shells, put a hydraulic lower hatch with a plow blade and get a BMP for 2 paratroopers with a landing in the finished trench. But outwardly this is not noticeable, not massively, cheaply, and it is not customary to occupy all the heights on the flanks when the columns are moving, despite Finnish, Afghanistan, Chechnya, respectively, equipment for landing and evacuating small groups is not being created.
  5. mkpda
    mkpda 26 December 2012 12: 22
    It is important that a large number of T-34-85 remained, they were simply maintained at the required level at minimum cost.
  6. Alexey Prikazchikov
    Alexey Prikazchikov 26 December 2012 12: 44
    The people and at t 34 gun was stabilized or not? Well, at least there was a vertical stabilizer or not?
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 26 December 2012 14: 30
      In 1945, on the basis of the ZIS-S-53, a modification with a single-plane barrel gyro stabilizer was developed, called the ZIS-S-54, but it was not launched into the series.
      1. Alexey Prikazchikov
        Alexey Prikazchikov 26 December 2012 15: 44
        Thanks, why didn’t they launch it?
        1. cth; fyn
          cth; fyn 26 December 2012 20: 31
          I don’t know for sure, but I think that the T-54 began to be developed, and there a 100mm gun and its power were released.
    2. bistrov.
      bistrov. 26 December 2012 20: 38
      Yes, there was no stabilization there. The first stabilization of guns appeared on the heavy tank IS-7 in 1947. Subsequently, the T-54.
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 26 December 2012 20: 53
        On the s-53 was not, but on the S-54 was, but 54 did not go into the series.
        In general, the American M-3 stuart had stabilization, and he went into the series before the war.
  7. bistrov.
    bistrov. 26 December 2012 12: 52
    In my opinion, no modernization of the T-34 tank saved it from its main shortcomings, a hatch in the front armor plate and poor visibility from the driver's observation devices, overloading of the front rollers due to the turret moved forward, very mediocre sighting devices, because of this he had insufficient range of an aimed shot (for example, the P-6 "Tiger" could hit the T-34 from a distance of up to 2000m.) But in 1944, the T-44 tank was already produced, largely relieved of the shortcomings of the T-34, in which the engine was positioned transversely, which made it possible to reduce the height of the hull by 300mm, shift the turret to the center of the hull, increase the thickness of the front armor plate to 120mm (for the Tiger -100mm), finally move the driver's hatch to the roof of the hull and abandon the ball mount of the course machine gun, increased reliability undercarriage thanks to the torsion bar suspension of the road wheels. During the war years, 655 T-44 tanks were produced and it continued to be produced until the appearance of the T-54 tank created on its basis.
    1. ate 13
      ate 13 27 December 2012 04: 43
      bistrov-you didn’t understand the basic idea of ​​the existence of the T-34-85 after the Second World War. This is a kind of mobilization machine. There were plenty of veterans trained in these tanks in the event of war, only to give out headsets and the old men went to shake the old. An important factor is to have a bunch of mediocre tanks moving around on nuclear wastelands past, which turned into scrap metal, of their more perfect kolegs. In short, when everyone else just ran out. Doesn’t its disadvantages matter anymore. Insufficient aiming range? How's that? Real The aiming range without rangefinders and computing equipment is the distance of a direct lay shot during the Second World War, 800-900 meters, so as not to bother with calculations under fire. Yes, a tiger has the ability to parasite from 2 kilometers, if ours is standing, Than the tigers all the war and We were engaged in firing at unreasonable distances at fixed targets, bunkers of guns and other firing points, well, until the St. John's wort, of course. T-34-85 confidently knocked out a tiger from 1000 meters, in the area of ​​1500 meters, the Germans lost this opportunity and tried to get somewhere in relative safety. The poor visibility of Soviet observation devices and sights was due to problems with the quality of glass melting during the evacuation, after the Second World War we figured it out. You can say that they were much simpler, but it's like comparing AK and sniper rifle . Well, I talked about this above. Plus, this tank was exported to Korea, Vietnam, Asia, Africa, Cuba, the personnel there were not very qualified. What is needed is not complicated, simple, maintainable, especially when dealing with fools rides, shoots and yes can protect tit on krupnokolibernogo gun,
  8. Denis
    Denis 27 December 2012 06: 12
    Attention! You do not have permission to view hidden text.

    Isn’t it a step back?
    after all, the hatch and the machine gun weakened the protection, which they got rid of on the T-44, especially since it had already been adopted
    it seems 34ka, a great car for its time, by 60m year outdated
    all the more so by the time the more modern T-54 were designed
    1. ate 13
      ate 13 27 December 2012 14: 20
      the hatch and the machine gun are like the cultural heritage of their ancestors, it’s difficult to get rid of and it’s pointless. You still can’t build up the frontal armor, the initial design flaw - all the same, the machine grew from the light T-20, T-34-85 is the limit of modernization of the ancient structure. these machines were still being produced, problems with the mass production of the T-54 and T-55 can be considered the main ones and they differ somewhat in cost.
  9. kopar
    kopar 27 December 2012 09: 21
    Thank you for the article. Yes, and many comments were informative. Therefore, I am grateful to the author and forum users.
  10. mamba
    mamba 27 December 2012 10: 06
    Strange, but in the T34-85 ammunition of the 1960 model there are no cumulative shells. For some reason, they were not developed for the ZIS-S-53 tank gun. And the Germans in the summer of 1941 burned our tanks with such shells.
    1. ate 13
      ate 13 27 December 2012 14: 05
      mambe, let's say, the appearance of the Germans at 41 and later with us was not from a good life. Just ordinary shells couldn’t confidently hit enemy armored vehicles, and here the Germans had their own nancy-like characteristics of the TTX communiques, but they couldn’t in sufficient quantities. Hitler almost personally ordered to give out to one or another subdivision, at first our accordion could not work out the fuse: then the troops were filled up with mediocre enough commutative lines. Here are such dances. 85mm guns, then why would he not give him a comming projectile, a tangible increase in penetration? If he meets a modern opponent, but he can cope with an up-to-date or easy one and existing one, all the more so since a normally working comaulative with a rifled gun is very expensive
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 27 December 2012 14: 32
        Penetration rate of a cumulative projectile does not change from range, so that at 1500 meters a T-34 with a ZIS S-53 cannon can no longer penetrate 44mm of armor, but with a cumulative projectile it could.
      2. mamba
        mamba 27 December 2012 14: 44
        Quote: jed13
        And as for the 85mm cannon, why doesn’t he give a communicative projectile, a tangible increase in penetration?

        Then, for modern smoothbore tank guns, for example, type KBA3, 2A46, 125 mm caliber, cumulative shells would not be used. request
        1. ate 13
          ate 13 29 December 2012 00: 28
          Firstly, there is a very big difference between a smoothbore and a rifled cannon in terms of the comulative. A rifled projectile flies out of the cannon spinning furiously: in the roulade, due to centrifugal force, the comulative stream may simply not form or will be simply ineffective. type of bearing - the outer casing rotates stabilizing flight, the inner one will not say that it stood still but the rotation was much slower - allowing you to create a comulative stream. Pleasure say so expensive. the trunk doesn’t have such problems. Further, the 85mm barrel, which was obsolete and even with a bullet shell, could hardly fight with a serious opponent. The idea of ​​throwing shells at the enemy at extreme distances is very good, but in the end it will simply lead to an excessive use of ammunition, and it’s very expensive. to improve the sights. Probably on the basis of such assumptions decided not to create a projectile.
  11. vik71
    vik71 27 December 2012 11: 06
    Reading the comments, one gets the impression that some "experts" in tank technology and combat only in WOT and only a few have real practice and understanding. Using a mouse to use and "burn" virtual tanks on the monitor - do not install bags ...
    The war puts everything in place, and the Tiger with 2000 meters, and supposedly miserable 34 ku, praised PAK 40 and simple ZIS 3. You can talk and argue here ad infinitum, the Wehrmacht and Red Army veterans tankers will unfortunately not be in our discussions .. ........
    1. ate 13
      ate 13 27 December 2012 14: 13
      ha my friend and you would try to fill up the tiger in the same WoT, out of let's say 85mm on a classmate’s car, you can hang yourself. Solid rebound shells are only pointed and pop-hibernate, but the usual T-34-76 has zero chances without a tail. Just made the game more balanced, so that there is no stupid shooting as it was in real life
      1. tomket
        tomket 8 January 2013 22: 21
        those who are interested can read "I fought on a t-34", then blazh WoT with your ricochets will quickly fly out of my head, by the way, have you wondered, for example, where is the shell that ricocheted from the frontal armor flies? , and 4mm, the cannon is quite sure and the royal tigers were stitching
        1. Denis
          Denis 9 January 2013 13: 31
          Quote: tomket
          wondering, for example, where does a projectile ricocheting from the frontal armor fly? it flies under the tower, at t-s4 it’s such a good trap for shells

          Maybe in that saying “I’m not up to fat, maybe I’m living?” Such a big lure is only on the T-34-85. And on the early T-34 and on the T-44 it is practically absent. Maybe such a design of the tower from the 85mm-place cannon do you need more?
    2. sscha
      sscha 2 March 2013 20: 33
      My mother is a member of the Second World War. (mechanic-radio telegraphist, Chernyakhovsky army)
      My uncle is a driver - T - 34 - 76 (to the Kursk Bulge. After the shell shock - the driver is an instructor)
      My friend's father-in-law is charging on KV on Kurskaya ...
      I didn’t finish tanking in the 80s (but I know what the GUITAR on the T-62 is and I don’t pretend to be more).
      ...... You can talk and argue here ad infinitum, veteran tankers of the Wehrmacht and the Red Army in our discussions unfortunately will not ..........
      What else can you say ... ??? !!! ...
  12. Strashila
    Strashila 27 December 2012 11: 38
    As my dad says, a tank is a tank, and you won’t trample it with a buckle, and it will hurt your leg. It can actually burn everything except modern tanks, and it can spoil them with the crew’s effort.
  13. vik71
    vik71 27 December 2012 14: 19
    ate 13,
    So here I am saying - some WoT specialists.
  14. tomket
    tomket 8 January 2013 22: 16
    it is strange that ms-1 in 60 did not dare to modernize, Khrushchev that apparently did not overlook, since they were similar