Weapon from the pass
The subject of the article is a super-fast kinetic weapon. This topic emerged from an analysis of the tragic events on the Dyatlov Pass in February 1959. The death of nine tourists on the amount of available facts, even in the official investigation qualifies as violent with the use of an unknown weapon. This was discussed in the articles directly devoted to these events: "Unclassified materials - the truth is somewhere near" and "The dead do not lie."
Since the damage on the bodies of the dead corresponded to the power of the rifle bullet, and the nature of the damage indicated the very small size of such a bullet, the conclusion was that this bullet, in order to maintain its destructive power, should have microscopic dimensions and speed of the order of 1000km / sec.
In the previous article “Weapons from the Pass” the possibility of bullet bullet through the atmosphere without its destruction due to air friction was grounded, this article will attempt to reconstruct the weapon itself.
Once again about the version of events on the Dyatlov Pass. I believe that back in February 1959, our state (then the USSR) conducted an operation to seize an unknown high-tech object. At least 9 people died, most likely, this unknown object “didn’t seem to be enough”, otherwise the government wouldn’t make so much effort to hide its participation in these events.
This is only a version, I can be wrong. The sum of the facts is insufficient for an unambiguous interpretation of those old events, and it is not important in the context of the current topic.
It is important that the issue of the reality of the existence of an ultra-high-speed kinetic weapon is raised.
It is important that the bullets of such weapons can effectively move in gas (air) environments.
It is important that such a weapon is actually created on the basis of the technologies at our disposal.
But let's talk about this in more detail, we can certainly say that if the “micropoor” is a product of unknown technologies, then the weapon itself is also based on physical principles unknown to us. Maybe so, but the technologies known to us are capable of providing acceleration of bullets up to speeds of the order of 1000km / sec. I'm not talking about exotic, such as Gaussian weapons, railguns, there is no very ordinary powder technology, only in new, modern packaging.
Let's start with the existing technology of high-speed kinetic weapons, and only then proceed to fiction.
For traditional artillery systems, a theoretical projectile speed ceiling has been reached to date - around 2-3km / s. The speed of the combustion products of gunpowder is precisely at this level, namely, they create pressure on the bottom of the projectile, which accelerates it in the gun barrel.
To achieve such a result, one had to use a sabot projectile (lose a significant part of the energy), a caseless technology (a sleeve at high pressures in the breech wedges), shots with normalized rates of combustion of gunpowder and a multipoint blasting system (to create uniform pressure throughout the projectile's motion along the barrel) .
The limit has been reached, a further increase in the velocity of the projectile in this technology rests on the limiting pressures maintained by the barrel, which are already on the verge of the possible. As a result, we have such a projectile, a snapshot of the real shot, at the time of the reset of the calibrating tabs:
Pay attention to the arc near the flying shell inserts, this is the shock waves, which was written in the previous article. In a shock wave, gas molecules move faster than the speed of sound. Get under such a wave will not find it. But the sharpened core of the projectile such a wave can not create, the speed is not enough ....
But at the disposal of modern civilization there is another technology for creating high-speed kinetic weapons, literally cosmic in scale.
Arrows of god
Burning thousands of tons of fuel of maximum energy intensity, mankind has learned to launch objects weighing tens of tons into space and at speeds of the order of 10 km / sec. It is a sin not to use these space "projectiles" with huge kinetic energy as a weapon. The idea is not original, since 2000 the USA has been working on this project, its original name is "the arrows of God". It was assumed that objects on the ground would be hit by tungsten arrows about six meters long and weighing about one hundred kilograms. The kinetic energy of such an arrow, at such speeds, is approximately 0,1-0,3 Kilotons of TNT equivalent. This is how this project was presented then, more than 10 years ago:
The project in recent years has gone into the shadows, either they have forgotten about it, or vice versa, it has entered a stage of serious design work and, accordingly, acquired the “Top Secret” vulture.
The second is more likely, painfully tempting prospect, only from the satellite, as it was originally supposed to not use this weapon effectively, the laws of ballistics are inexorable. Targeting an object will lead to a sharp decrease in the speed of such a tungsten boom, and therefore it will not carry all the energy to the point of impact, at best the speed of the arrow at the point of impact will be 5-6 km / sec.
There is only one way out, the initial targeting to produce a correction of the orbits of the satellite itself, and for this purpose they use not the usual satellites, but the maneuvering orbital systems, which we have had Spiral in the Bose and its Strela carrier. Americans have not died theme, on the contrary, right now, the next Shuttle X-37B is in space. Here is what it looks like:
One of the obvious uses of this unmanned vehicle is a space bomber armed with the arrows of God described earlier.
So orbital kinetic weapons are the future of local conflicts, ideal, by the way. But this is not our topic, let us return to "our sheep", the traditional powder technology.
Kinematics acceleration projectile
According to the principle of its operation, the gun installation remains unchanged from the moment of its invention; it is a cylinder (barrel), a piston (projectile) and a charge (powder) placed between them. In such a scheme, the velocity of the projectile in the limit is determined by the velocity of dispersal of the combustion products of the charge, this value is maximum 3-4 km / s and depends on the pressure in the combustion volume (between the projectile and the bottom of the piston).
Modern artillery systems have reached the theoretical speed limit of the projectile in this kinematic scheme and a further increase in speed is almost impossible.
So the scheme needs to be changed, but is there any possibility at all to accelerate the projectile to a speed greater than the products of powder burning can provide? At first glance, it is impossible, it is impossible to push the projectile faster than the velocity of the gases carrying out this velocity head.
But sailors have long learned to accelerate their sailing ships to speeds greater than wind speed, in our case it is a direct analogy, the moving gaseous medium transfers its energy to a physical object, this is their latest achievement:
This "miracle" at wind speed in 40km / h due to the "oblique" sail is able to move at a speed of 120 km / h, that is, three times faster than the air driving this sailboat. This, at first glance, paradoxical result can be achieved due to the fact that speed is a vector quantity and movement at an angle to the direction of the wind with the help of an “oblique” sail is probably faster than the wind itself.
So the gunners have someone to borrow new principles for accelerating shells, a suitable principle is in tailors, or rather, in their main tool - scissors.
The effect of interlocking blades
There is such a concept, a “thought experiment,” all that concerns further implies the presence of imagination, at least at the household level .. an eleven-year-old child.
Imagine a pair of scissors, they are divorced, their tips are supposed to be divorced by a centimeter, and the blades have a closing point at a distance of 10 centimeters from the tips.
We begin to close them "all the way."
So, for the time until the tips will be held one centimeter, the point of closure will move ten centimeters.
In such a system, the speed of movement of physical objects will be maximum at the tips of scissors. But, most importantly, the point of application of forces (the closing point of the blades) will move at a speed of 10 times greater than the speed of physical objects in such a system. Since during the closing time (while the tips of the scissors are one centimeter), the closing point will move to 10 centimeters.
Now imagine, at the intersection of the blades, (at the point of closure) a small physical object is placed (for example a ball), so it will move at a speed of displacement of the point of closure, i.e. ten times faster than scissors tips.
This simple analogy allows us to understand how, at a given speed of a physical process, it is possible to obtain a point of application of forces moving much faster than the physical object itself.
And moreover, how this point of application of forces can accelerate physical objects to speeds much higher than the speeds of movement of the physical objects involved in the acceleration (blades in our example).
For simplicity, we will call this mechanism of acceleration of physical objects. "The effect of interlocking scissors".
I think it is easy to understand a person who does not know the fundamentals of physics, at least my 11 year-old daughter immediately, after I explained it to her, gave me an obvious association, saying: ".. yes, it’s just like a lemon bone with a finger ...".
Indeed, children of genius in their simplicity have long used this effect for their pranks, pinching a slippery seed with their thumb and index finger and “shooting” from such an improvised accelerating installation. So this method has already been used by many of us in practice as a child ...
Acceleration of bullets by the methods of "interlocking scissors" and "vector addition of speeds"
It may seem to someone that the author is the discoverer of new technologies, to the contrary, it may seem to someone that he is a visionary. No need for emotions, until I came up with anything new. These technologies are already used in real-life artillery systems based on the principles of a cumulative explosion. Only the words used there are too tricky, but as you know: "as you call a ship, so it will ... fly."
The cumulative effect was accidentally discovered in 30 years of the last century and immediately found use in artillery. The cumulative charge for acceleration of the gas jet uses the two effects mentioned above at once, the effect of vectorial addition of speeds and the effect of interlocking scissors. In more advanced implementations, a metal core is placed in a cumulative jet, which by this jet accelerates to the speed of the jet itself, the so-called “shock core”.
But this technology has a physical limit, the detonation speed is 10km / s (limit) and the angle of the cumulative cone is 1: 10 (physical tensile strength). As a result, we obtain the flow rate of gases at the level of 100-200 km / s. In theory.
This is a very inefficient process, most of the energy is wasted. In addition, there is a problem with targeting, which depends on the uniformity of the undermining of the shaped charge and its homogeneity.
Nevertheless, the technology has already left the laboratories and has been used in standard weapons since the mid-eighties of the last century, this is the well-known anti-tank "mine" TM-83 with a hit area of more than 50 meters. And here is the last, and moreover, the domestic example:
This is the anti-helicopter "mine", the range of "spitting" of the shaped charge to 180 meters, the striking element looks like this:
This is a photo of the impact nucleus in flight, immediately after its departure from the gas cumulative jet (black cloud to the right), a trace of a shock wave (Mach cone) is visible on the surface.
Let's call everything by its proper name, the shock core, is High speed bullet, only dispersed not in the barrel, but in a stream of gases. And the shaped charge itself is Rifleless gunnery, this is what we need for the reconstruction of weapons from the pass.
The speed of such a bullet is 3 km / s, it is very far from the theoretical technology limit of 200 km / s. Let me explain why - the theoretical speed limit is reached in the course of scientific experiments in laboratory conditions, there it is enough to get at least one record result during the experiments. And in real weapons, the equipment should work with a hundred percent guarantee.
The method of acceleration of an object by a cumulative jet at small closing angles of an explosive cone (25-45 degrees) does not provide accurate aiming and often the impact core simply slips out of the focus of the gas stream, leaving what is called “milk”.
For combat use, cumulative notch is made with a clamping angle greater than 100 degrees, with such angles of cumulative notch the speed over 5km / sec cannot be achieved even in theory, but the technology works reliably and is applicable in combat conditions.
You can speed up the process of “closing scissors”, but in this case, you should abandon the detonation method to form the point of application of forces in the explosive channel. For this, it is necessary that the explosion pass along the acceleration route of a bullet at a higher speed than can provide a detonation mechanism.
In this case, the blasting scheme should provide simultaneous blasting of explosives along the entire length of the explosive channel, and the scissors effect should be obtained by conical arrangement of the walls of the explosive channel, as shown in the figure:
Creating a scheme for the simultaneous detonation of an explosive in a bullet acceleration channel is quite a feasible task for a modern technological level.
And besides, the issue of physical strength will be immediately resolved, the tube of detonating substance will not have time to collapse during the passage of the bullet, since the mechanical load will be transferred more slowly than the explosive process goes.
For a bullet, the point of application of force is important, the only problem is controlling the speed of movement of the point of application of force, so that the bullet is always at this point, but more on that later, this is a technique and not a theory.
It remains to understand the scaling of the process of acceleration of such a bullet, namely, in what mass-dimensional parameters to implement this theoretical mechanism in practice.
Scaling law RTT
We live in persistent delusions, an example of such a delusion is the associative combination of concepts: “more - it means more powerful”. Artillery science is very conservative and is fully subject to this principle so far, but nothing lasts forever under the moon.
Until recently, this associative paradigm was largely correct, and less costly from the point of view of practical implementation. But now it is no longer the case; technology breakthroughs are carried out where principles change to just the opposite.
I will give an example from my profession, computers for 20-30 have decreased in volume by a factor of 1000, while their computing power has also risen by a thousand times.
I would generalize this example to a global scale, formulating it as a law, for example: “An increase in the efficiency of the physical process is inversely proportional to the volume used to implement this process. ”.
I will call it the law R_T_T, by the right of the discoverer, what if the name takes root?
A joke, of course, but in every joke there is some truth, so we will try to prove to the gunners that their engineering science obeys this law too.
Considering "our sheep", knowing the pressure of gases of combustion products of explosives, the mass of "micro bullets", its effective surface you can calculate the acceleration distance, in other words, the length of the barrel in which the "micro bullet" accelerates to a given speed.
It turned out that such a “microbulb” to 1000km / s can be accelerated at a distance of just 15 centimeters.
Our "scissors" close with a doubled velocity of the gases of explosion products - 20 km / s, which means that to obtain a closing speed of 1000 km / s and an input gauge with a diameter of 1 mm for an explosive channel 150 mm long, the output gauge should be 1,3 mm ..
It remains to understand how much explosives are needed for such acceleration, but everything is simple, physics is universal and its laws are unchanged, to disperse a bullet is a million times easier and a thousand times faster than our standard, - a rifle bullet will need exactly as much energy as acceleration conventional rifle bullets.
Consequently, the energy of the explosive should remain unchanged, but the nature of the explosive should be different, the gunpowder does not fit, burns too slowly, a detonating explosive is needed. In other words, you need to make a tube 5 mm long from 150 grams of explosive, such as RDX. and an inlet diameter of 1mm. and the output is 1,3 mm.
For the strength and concentration of the explosion inside the channel of the passage of “micro-bullets” it is necessary to place this construction in a strong metal cylinder. And to manage on the entire distance of the passage of the "micro-bullets" to produce a simultaneous and uniform detonation of explosives.
To summarize, the physical principles for dispersing a bullet to speeds in 1000km / sec are even based on powder technologies, moreover, these principles are used in real weapons systems.
Just do not immediately rush into the laboratory and try to implement such an explosive accelerating system, there is one significant problem, the initial speed of the microboots in such an explosive channel must be greater than the speed of closing the explosive fronts, otherwise the effect of the closing scissors will not work.
In other words, in order to inject a “microbelt” into the explosive channel, it must first be accelerated to a speed of approximately 10km / s, and this is far from simple.
Therefore, the technical details of the implementation of such a hypothetical rifle system will be left for the next part of this article, so the continuation follows ....