Medieval and Modern times: workers of different professions

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Medieval and Modern times: workers of different professions
Among the professions shown in The Book of Twelve Brothers, there are a lot of builders. Yes, this is understandable; people need a roof over their heads to live. But besides them, members of the Mendel and Landauer brotherhood were also involved in many other things...


“The life of one who is content with his lot and a hard worker is sweet;”
Book of Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach 40:18

Documents stories. Today we continue our acquaintance with the professions of people from the Book of the Twelve Brothers. Among them there are many that are repeated from year to year and century to century. Moreover, practically nothing changes in their tools. But there were also very rare ones among them, which are found on its pages literally once.




Brother Kunz, driver. Stands next to a saddled lead horse and brandishes a whip. Horses pull a two-axle cart, on which there are tied bales, but only half of it is visible. 1425. (Amb. 317.2° Folio 32 verso (Mendel I))

The most important areas of human activity at all times have been transport and communications. Communication using messengers has already been discussed here, now it’s time to talk about transport. Moreover, land transport, since in the “Book of Twelve Brothers” only the profession of a driver is mentioned. Without a doubt, the role of the horse-drawn cart in the Middle Ages was exceptionally great, since Western Europe simply did not know any other land mobile transport at that time - only two and four-wheeled carts, which were harnessed either to horses or oxen and mules.


Leopold Karrenman, also a member of the fraternity and also a teamster. Obviously, he will have to sit on the horse while moving, since it is saddled. The two-wheeled cart is equipped with wicker sides. 1425. (Amb. 317.2° Folio 27 verso (Mendel I))

Almost all heavy loads were transported by carts of various types: wagons, wagons, carts, and in winter - on sledges. For such work, special, strong and hardy horses were required. A horse-drawn horse might not be too tall, but he was certainly strong and undemanding to care and food.


Stefan Krapf, a carter, and in an illustration from The Book of the Twelve Brothers he loads his two-wheeled cart with sand while his saddled horse rests. 1554. (Amb. 317b.2° Folio 6 recto (Mendel II))

Strong heavy-duty horses were also harnessed to a horse-drawn palanquin, a popular means of transportation in the Middle Ages. However, judging by the illustrations in The Book of the Twelve Brothers, fraternity brothers were not hired for such work. They transported mainly cargo within the city - goods, as well as building materials, for example, the same sand, as shown in one of the illustrations.


Hans Freyholz, cart master. He stands in his workshop near a wooden block and uses an ax to cut a knitting needle out of a wooden block. On the left is a wheel with spokes and a hub. The master's tools hang on hooks on the wall: an axe, two drills and two knives. There is a cart in the yard, still without wheels. 1584 (Amb. 317b.2° Folio 40 verso (Mendel II))

The work of the carters was provided by craftsmen who made carts and wheels. The work was difficult and responsible. After all, the same wheel rim at that time was made only of wood, and it had to be not only round, but also very durable. The spokes of the wheel and its hub were also made of wood. All these parts needed to be adjusted to one another in such a way as to ensure maximum strength to the connection. Naturally, oak wood was used for critical parts of the cart. At the same time, the wagon made from it should not have been very heavy either. Two-axle carts are more complicated than single-axle carts, since the front axle on such a cart must be rotary. In addition, to increase agility, the size of the front wheel should be one and a half to two times smaller than the rear. However, judging by the image in the “Book of the Twelve Brothers”, the cart of the driver Kunz does not yet have such a rotary axis.

By the way, cart axles at that time were also wooden. The metal in the carts of that time was used only for the bare minimum of nails, and even wheel rims, which protected the wood from destruction when colliding with the road.


Jörg Starts, a brotherhood member and innkeeper who is mentioned in the text above the illustration itself as the host who also serves his guests in the tavern. His guests are clearly not of ordinary rank, since they have boots with spurs on their feet, sit around a table covered with a white tablecloth, in the middle of which there is a dish of fried chicken and two smaller plates, as well as round sliced ​​bread. The guest sitting on the left holds a knife in his hand, and the one sitting at the table in the middle raises his glass. 1470. (Amb. 317.2° Folio 88 verso (Mendel I))

The brotherhood of Mendel and Landauer united people from a wide variety of, sometimes even quite exotic, professions. At the same time, it is difficult to imagine a more common occupation at that time than the profession of an innkeeper. However, it was difficult to call it easy. It was necessary to have time to serve the guests, and to make arrangements in the kitchen, and to go to the cellar for wine - in a word, you just had time to turn around. That’s why we don’t see so many innkeepers in the illustrations from The Book of the Twelve Brothers.


Jörg Koppell. Brother comber, that is, a master maker of combs for combing hair. He is depicted sitting at his work desk and cutting out another comb with a thin file. The finished combs lie in front of him on the table and in the basket. On the floor, next to the work table, is a large vise. It appears that this brother used to be a hunter, because there is a large dog next to him, and again a hunter with a dog is visible in the window. In addition, on the wall of the workshop, the terrace of which faces the lake, hangs a gun with a powder flask and a bow. 1575. (Amb. 317b.2° Folio 34 recto (Mendel II))

The comb maker was a respected person, and most importantly, his products, although not expensive, were in constant demand. The fact is that one of the problems of the New Age was ... insects that nested in people's hair. They fought them in different ways, one of which was to comb the hair with combs with very narrow cuts between the teeth. Such combs were made from wood, but more often they used cattle horn and such rather exotic material as turtle shell. Combs also served as hairpins for lush women's hairstyles. By the way, in his free time from work, Brother Jörg apparently walked through the forests with a dog and a arquebus and shot himself game.


Wolfgang Geigenfeind, a member of the fraternity, is committed to treating people with cans. Wolfgang and his patient are dressed only in tight black panties and a yellow cap. In his left hand he holds an oil lamp, with which he places copper jars on the patient's back. It's hard to say why there are three tubs of water on the floor, but apparently they have something to do with the treatment. 1612 (Amb. 317b.2° Folio 80 verso (Mendel II))

Well, the doctor Wolfgang Geigenfeind is the only one like him. Apparently, there was simply no one else who would dare to do such a thing. Well, there could be a variety of reasons. Noteworthy is the underwear of both the doctor himself and his patient - a very modern cut... swimming trunks!


Hans, a member of the brotherhood, sits at his desk and holds a finished folding ivory sundial in his left hand. In his right hand he holds a compass. Interestingly, the watch has a built-in compass to determine the correct position of the sun. Therefore, on the table there are also compass hands and two other folding ivory sundials. The hourglass is attached to the wall. The view from the window is unusual. There we see a tent and a man armed with an oriental-looking saber. It is difficult to say what this has to do with the watchmaker from Nuremberg. 1631 (Amb. 317b.2° Folio 108 verso (Mendel II))

The only one in the "Book of the Twelve Brothers" and Hans Tutscher - a master in the manufacture of sundials with a compass built into them. But what is surprising here is not even the very design of this watch, by the way, very original, but why among the masters of the brotherhood there were no “real watchmakers”, manufacturers of mechanical watches. After all, at the beginning of 1510, the German master from Nuremberg, Peter Henlein, made a mechanical watch with one hand, which even received the name ... "Nuremberg Egg". In 1541, their production takes place in Geneva, and pocket watches acquire a flat shape. In the first half of the XNUMXth century, the clock face was covered with glass, a watch with a lid appeared, in a double case, decorated with enamel.

So watch production of the not so archaic sundial could well have taken place in Nuremberg in 1631. But for some reason there were no masters of mechanical watches among the brothers of the brotherhood Mendel and Landauer at this time. But sundials were in demand, and were made by one of the brothers!


Hans Mayer. He is also a member of the brotherhood, but his personality is quite mysterious, since it is not said about him what exactly he does, although a description of him is given. "Mayer sits or stands at a table over a blank book spread. He is dressed in an elegant button-down caftan with a white cut-out collar, and his cap is trimmed with lace. There is a richly decorated case on the table. Mayer is elegantly dressed and combed, he has fine features, which can be explained by his non-artisan background.". And that’s it, one can only guess about his occupation. 1637 (Amb. 279.2° Folio 112 verso (Landauer I))
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  1. +8
    1 September 2023
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

    As for the tubs of water, I would simply assume the following: the person went to the bathhouse. At the same time I installed the cans.
    1. +4
      1 September 2023

      Wolfgang Geigenfeind, a member of the fraternity, is engaged in treating people in the bathhouse with cupping. Wolfgang and his patient are dressed only in tight black panties and yellow caps. It is difficult to say why there are three tubs of water on the floor.

      I'll joke a little. wink The answer to this question can be seen in the previous picture from The Book of Twelve Brothers. It has the exact same hood on it. but also with content. smile

      And what about the banks? Very simple! Probably everyone remembers the sparkling film by L. Gaidai based on the story of the same name by Maya Lassila “Behind the Matches” laughing


      - Steam, the smell of logs, the wife is nearby - what else could be better, Antti? Only the waiting room, where there is less steam and temperature, but more temptations and booze. To heat or not to heat the bath? There is no such question in our family at all, Friday has come - the bathhouse is ready, the vodka has been poured. In our bathhouse you can turn up the heat, or just turn up the heat, but would you like, Ihalainen, for me to put more jars on your back?
      - Don't, Anna-Lisa, I'm fine as it is. I'm so glad that everything came to its senses and we reconciled (c)
  2. +3
    1 September 2023
    The spokes of the wheel and its hub were also wooden.

    I wonder how they solved the friction issue?
    What was used as a bearing?
    1. +6
      1 September 2023
      The spokes of the wheel and its hub were also wooden.

      I wonder how they solved the friction issue?
      What was used as a bearing?

      Perhaps the same as our ancestors 50-100 years ago on wooden carts (wooden wheels): axle shafts forged from metal bars, and metal bushings are pressed into the holes of the hubs of wooden wheels, grease is beef fat (as early as the beginning of the 20th century, if I'm not mistaken used in the lubrication of locomotives).

      1. +6
        1 September 2023
        The most important difference between the cart wheel of the century before last is the iron rim. I think that in the 14th-16th centuries not all carriages had it, even in Western Europe. By the way, a very complicated detail - I tried several times to aim at something like this, but it didn’t grow together.
        1. +4
          1 September 2023
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          The most important difference between the cart wheel of the century before last is the iron rim. I think that in the 14th-16th centuries not all carriages had it, even in Western Europe. By the way, a very complicated detail - I tried several times to aim at something like this, but it didn’t grow together.

          In these times, metal hoops for wooden barrels, if I am not mistaken, were made everywhere, not only from wicker rods or vines.
          I think that a metal tire for wooden cart wheels was most likely used everywhere in these centuries. For carts with large wheels, bull/oxen harnesses may be without metal tyres. The wooden rim itself could be made up of several bars or bent, the metal rim (tire) connected them like rivets on a wooden barrel, providing strength and durability to the wooden rim.

          Such wooden carts, in addition to harness-making artels, were usually made and repaired in the carpentry workshops (with forges) of each state farm, where there were horses and horse-drawn vehicles, back in the 1980s.
          1. +4
            1 September 2023
            In our area, as a rule, hoops were made of elm.

            There is even a riddle: “It is oak itself, the belt is elm, and the nose is fake.”
            1. +7
              1 September 2023
              "Oak itself, the belt is elm, and the nose is linden."
              So that's what you are, Russian Pinocchio! laughing
              1. +6
                1 September 2023
                Still a barrel. Pinocchio, also known as Pinocchio, is probably made from pine, which in Latin is Pinus.

                It is impossible to prove, but I looked carefully at the picture in my favorite book - at the stage of creation Pinocchio.
                1. +5
                  1 September 2023
                  Pinocchio is probably made from pine, which is Latin for Pinus.

                  Pinocchio possibly comes from the Tuscan name for the pine nut tree "pinocchio"
                  Good morning, Sergey
                  1. +3
                    1 September 2023
                    Good afternoon, Dmitry! This pine is called pinia. Its seeds are larger than those of our cedar pines, and its crown is spreading.
            2. +4
              1 September 2023
              Quote from Korsar4
              "Oak itself, the belt is elm, and the nose is linden"

              It seems that some new species of sapiens lives in your area, hitherto unknown to modern science ... wink
              1. +4
                1 September 2023
                Barrels are used in many places. And about the riddle, you can look at Dahl.
            3. +3
              1 September 2023
              The word "hoop" has another meaning, also associated with a horse-drawn carriage. In some places, a horse bridle is called that.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. +3
        1 September 2023
        Quote: Lynx2000
        crimped metal bushings

        It also occurred to me, but I thought, maybe something very curious came into the mind of our ancestors ... wink
      4. +6
        1 September 2023
        lubricant - beef fat
        ,,, and also tar.
        1. +4
          1 September 2023
          ,,, I send a ray of diarrhea to that impudent one who, driving in his gig, sprayed my horse from head to toe. angry Okay, I wasn't there.
          I did not see the face - only I noticed the royal monogram. laughing
        2. 0
          3 September 2023
          , and also tar.

          Which also needed to be obtained. Like coal, tar, potash, saltpeter...
      5. +5
        1 September 2023
        lubricant - beef fat

        From ancient times and right up to the middle of the last century, the axles and wheels of carts were smeared with birch tar. Tar is a liquid product of dry distillation (pyrolysis) of wood (wood resin). It was used everywhere as a lubricant because it contains a lot of paraffin and was widely available. Pay attention to the drawings or photos of old carts. Behind necessarily a bucket of tar. In our area it was called baklaga, but I don't know how it is in others.



        even on caricatures of carts with eggplants smile

        1. +4
          1 September 2023
          Quote: Richard
          lubricant - beef fat

          From ancient times and right up to the middle of the last century, the axles and wheels of carts were smeared with birch tar. Tar is a liquid product of dry distillation (pyrolysis) of wood (wood resin). It was used everywhere as a lubricant because it contains a lot of paraffin and was widely available. Pay attention to the drawings or photos of old carts. Behind necessarily a bucket of tar. In our area it was called baklaga, but I don't know how it is in others.

          Of course, tar was used as a lubricant, I wrote about beef fat - the first thing I remembered was postponed after visiting the Novosibirsk Museum of Railway Engineering, that beef fat was like grease / lithol in its properties.

          Tar does not like sunlight and is best stored with a covered lid, dust, small debris will fly in, stick with sand. A bucket on a cart also give a horse / horse a drink, give oats in a bucket ... Metal buckets were previously not very cheap to "poor" with tar.
          1. +5
            1 September 2023
            tar and carts from Russian classics wink
            Absolutely completely poor junkers were forced to go on vacation in state-owned boots fragrant with tar from under the cart baklag daubers (c)
            Kuprin A.I., "Junkers"

            That's what I respect you for, Akulina Ivanovna, because it's for the mind. You have a lot of it in your head, like a tar cart in a dungeon under a cart (c)
            Maxim Gorky "The Petty Bourgeois"

            -And why should they smear the gate with tar?
            -And the official knew that it was not an honest girl who lived here, but a passing yard for males, God forgive me. (c)
            Saltykov-Shchedrin M. E., "The history of one city"
          2. +3
            1 September 2023
            Tar does not like sunlight and is best stored with a covered lid, dust, small debris will fly in, stick with sand

            As far as I remember from childhood, no one covered wagon bagels with lids, they would put on a rag or burlap and normul.
            A bucket on a cart also give a horse / horse a drink, give oats in a bucket ...

            They didn’t carry a bucket to water the horse and oats with them in carts. For what? - They rode carts in warm weather. There are plenty of ponds and grass all around.
            1. +3
              1 September 2023
              Quote: Richard

              They didn’t carry a bucket to water the horse and oats with them in carts. For what? - They rode carts in warm weather. There are plenty of ponds and grass all around.

              It is not always convenient to bring a horse / mare harnessed to a cart to a watering place, it is easier to scoop water from a column, from a river, stream or spring. On one grass, the horse is not a worker, it will not pull the cart, on state farms the same cattlemen / shepherds, driving up in a cart, collected a quarter or a fifth of a bucket of oats in the bin, they gave the horse 2-3 times a day if the cart pulls.
              The bushings were already lubricated with grease from post-war MTS, you don’t need to carry it with you.

              He himself spent his childhood summer with his grandfather in the village, at the age of 10-14 he worked part-time as a rider of state farm fields, riding, from cattle damage.
            2. Fat
              +3
              1 September 2023
              hi Dmitriy. And of course, bugs and midges, along with other rubbish, get into the lubricant with "wonderful selectivity! laughing Where is the lubricant without "additives" ... smile
        2. +3
          1 September 2023
          Later, the bucket was hung on the hitch of a car, but for a different purpose.
          Greetings, Dmitry!
          1. +5
            1 September 2023
            Good afternoon, Anton!
            Stop! belay In the opinion of the administration, I greeted you too briefly and apparently not informatively and respectfully. They need to fix it. There is nowhere to go, the opinion of the administration is the law. fixing smile
            Good day to you dear Anton! May this day be filled with light, warmth and interesting things for you. I wish that whatever you undertake, it turns out easily and with pleasure. Have a great day, the implementation of all plans and a great mood!
            1. +5
              1 September 2023
              Thank you, Dmitry!
              The day turned out to be filled with putty dust from the sanded walls ...
      6. +6
        1 September 2023
        Good morning, and thanks for the work Vyacheslav Olegovich. I dare to suggest that tar was used to lubricate the axles on carts and wagons. It is extracted from wood, as far as I've heard, the best tar was obtained from birch. Although animal fats were also used.
  3. +2
    1 September 2023
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

    It is noteworthy (I noticed this and not only in this article) that all the names of the characters on the engravings are of German origin. And so far I have not noticed French, Italian and English. I wonder why?
    1. +6
      1 September 2023
      I wonder why?
      Apparently, because mostly Germans lived in Nuremberg.
      Hello Artem!
      1. +2
        1 September 2023
        Good morning Anton! hi
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        I wonder why?
        Apparently, because mostly Germans lived in Nuremberg.
        Hello Artem!

        Logical. Yes I asked because I forgot where this book was written. And now you reminded me, and I understood everything. smile
    2. +4
      1 September 2023
      Quote from Kojote21
      I wonder why?

      Because the brotherhood was located in Nuremberg and only those who had lived in the city for 10 years, no less, could get into it. Where will the foreigners come from?
  4. +2
    1 September 2023
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    The most important difference between the cart wheel of the century before last is the iron rim

    Remember how the prophet Ezekiel said about the wheel rim: ...their rims around all four were full of eyes...
    Maybe they just stuffed nails around the entire rim?
    1. +6
      1 September 2023
      Maybe they just stuffed nails around the entire rim?

      According to archaeological finds, they began to protect the wooden rim with copper nails from the second millennium BC. A thousand years later, a metal rim appeared.
  5. 0
    1 September 2023
    Stefan Kraft

    If this is a German name, then it is pronounced not "Stefan", but "Stefan". Yes
    1. +2
      1 September 2023
      Quote from Kojote21
      If this is a German name, then it is pronounced not "Stefan", but "Stefan"

      If I haven't forgotten anything, then in accordance with the rules of transliteration into Russian it will be Stephen. The German pronounces it like Stefan
      1. +1
        1 September 2023
        Quote: Luminman
        Quote from Kojote21
        If this is a German name, then it is pronounced not "Stefan", but "Stefan"

        If I haven't forgotten anything, then in accordance with the rules of transliteration into Russian it will be Stephen. The German pronounces it like Stefan

        Good afternoon, Nikolai! hi

        So I said, how would this name be pronounced just the same in German! Yes
    2. +3
      1 September 2023
      To understand how it is pronounced, you need to look at the original text. In this case, the author used the English "legends" of miniatures.
      1. +2
        1 September 2023
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        English "legends" of miniatures.

        German!
        1. +1
          1 September 2023
          Quote: kalibr
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          English "legends" of miniatures.

          German!

          Especially!
  6. Fat
    +4
    1 September 2023
    Hans Mayer. He is also a member of the fraternity, but the personality is rather mysterious, since it is not said about him what exactly he does, although a description of him is given. Meyer sits or stands at a table over a blank spread of a book. He is dressed in an elegant button-down caftan with a white cut-out collar, and his cap is trimmed with lace. There is a richly decorated case on the table. Mayer is elegantly dressed and combed, he has fine features, which can be explained by his non-artisan background.

    hi Vyacheslav Olegovich. On the table, besides a book with an empty spread, there is a half-open box of paints! I dare say Mayer is an illustrator. Also a master of his craft. It is possible that this miniature is a self-portrait... smile
    1. +3
      1 September 2023
      Quote: Thick
      It is possible that this miniature is a self-portrait.

      Without any doubt. But there is no indication of this in the signature!
      1. +2
        1 September 2023

        Meyer sits or stands at a table over a blank spread of a book. He is dressed in an elegant button-down caftan with a white frill collar, and his cap is trimmed with lace. There is a richly decorated case on the table. Mayer is elegantly dressed and combed, and has fine features, which can be explained by his non-craft background.” And that’s it, one can only guess about his occupation. 1637 (Amb. 279.2° Folio 112 verso (Landauer I))

        Or maybe everything is much simpler, and mayer is not a name, but a position?
        (М) Mayer - initially the manager of the estate of a feudal patrimony, a headman, a wealthy peasant in medieval Germany. Then a tenant of a peasant or guild type. As a rule, he came from among dependent people and received a percentage salary from the owner's profit or a land allotment for his service. From the XNUMXth century in Germany, the so-called. meyer lease. Later, in Germany, all middle-level bosses were called mayers, incl. and military. Hence the military rank - major (c)
        Encyclopedia of I. D. Sytin. 1911-1915
        1. Fat
          0
          1 September 2023
          It’s possible, Dmitry! smile
          In the version of the artist named Hans Maer, a descendant of the headman, the title of Zeichsmaler is no less honorable than that of Hofmahler laughing laughing
        2. +2
          1 September 2023
          It didn't occur to me. And the idea is very interesting!!! My applause.
    2. +2
      1 September 2023
      Quote: Thick
      there is a half-open box with paints!

      Here I will write a book about everything about this, I will definitely insert this your assumption.
      1. +2
        1 September 2023
        The Books of the Twelve Brothers were written from 1425 to 1806. That is, these books cover a period of almost four hundred years. All five books of The Houses of the Twelve Brothers by Mendelsche Jr., Mendelsche Sr. (vol. 1, vol. 2 and vol. 3), and Matthäus Landauer Jr. (vol. 1 and vol. 2) are now in the city library of Nuremberg. Anyone who wants to can see them. Manuscripts are available in folio versions with an extensive parallel edition. and digital versions where you can search for deciphered inscriptions and technical iconography using free text and detailed research. In addition, registries of professions, professional groups, names and surnames of characters are offered - a very interesting search), illustrated tools, materials and products. In general, modern German librarians have done their best.
        Let's use the name search for characters

        link: https://www.nuernberger-hausbuecher.de/index.php?do=list&tt=prs-lastname
        and look for 400 years of everyone named Mayer - almost all of them are jewelers. There are only two Hanses among the Mayers.

        One is a jeweler, who lived and died almost at the same time as our character, the other, as Vyacheslav has already indicated with dashes opposite his profession and type of activity.

        Further. On the same website of the Nuremberg city library, you can also see some of the names of the compilers and artists of the miniatures of these chronicles for all time. There is no illustrator Mayer there. request
        Where did colleague Tolstoy get an artist named Hans Mayer, and even a descendant of the headman, a Zeichsmaler, is not clear. Maybe judging by the emoticons he put under his comment laughing laughing - Is he just kidding?
        1. +2
          1 September 2023
          Digital version of the Nuremberg City Library for all five books of The House of the Twelve Brothers. Here you can find any nuances of these manuscripts using the blue digital links

          link to the Nuremberg City Library website for all five books of The House of the Twelve Brothers.
          https://www.bayerische-landesbibliothek-online.de/hausbuecher-der-nuernberger-zwoelfbruederstiftungen.html
          I have a built-in auto translation, but in the original it is in German.
          1. 0
            4 September 2023
            Thank you very much, dear Richard, for the link. Everyone will be interested. I used another source, everything there is in German.
  7. +1
    1 September 2023
    On the table is a richly decorated case. Mayer is elegantly dressed and combed, he has fine features, which can be explained by his non-artisan background. And that's all, one can only guess about the nature of his occupation.

    The case is very similar to a box of watercolors, even the lid seems to be sliding. I join the version of the self-portrait!
    The view from the window is unusual. There we see a tent and a man armed with an oriental-looking saber. It is difficult to say what this has to do with the master watchmaker from Nuremberg.

    Apparently, the user of the described devices is depicted - a traveler in wild places. Even now such a traveler needs a tent and a knife.

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