Military Review

Space and development: utilitarian needs or progress

23
"It is necessary to swim in the sea, but in order to live, it is possible to not live in this way." This is one of the many poetic translations of the ancient Navigare necesse est vivere non est necesse. A proud saying, of course, is much broader than simply stating the extreme importance of navigation. In accordance with it, the duty of the Russian space industry is to ensure the country's advanced development.

At the historical stage when the masters of such expressive expressions lived, to move forward, it was necessary to overcome the sea. Then we had to overcome a great deal in order to reach new and new levels of development. And today, the modern analogue of the sea, on which it is necessary to float, is space for us, the Universe. We settled comfortably in the small harbor of the great cosmos on our beautiful Earth. Got burned, adapted it for themselves. Not always carefully, in a businesslike manner. Yes, and we live something not very amicably. But this is another topic. We live on the shore of the universe. We learned how to make small voyages in the zone closest to Earth. Literally off the coastline. And then - the vast expanses. Fundamentally, the situation is very similar to the situation since the formation of the sentence given at the beginning.

Looking from the shore into the unknown, decorated with all sorts of speculation and legends, and the awareness of the need to begin the path. It seems to us today that we already know a lot about the Universe, but the fact that its 96 percent is dark (that is, unknown) energy and dark matter indicates that our knowledge is incomplete. We must move on. "It is necessary to swim in the sea ..." Otherwise, most of the creative potential will be locked up with equally harmful future improvements. weapons and entertainment. Without great goals, the world will slide into barbarism. With iPads in hand.

So on what we float on the sea? Alas, the possibilities are not rich. 54 a year ago, the Soviet Union launched the first satellite. Four years later, only four years, Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin saw the Earth from space. Only eight years passed and Neil Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface. Awesome, incredibly cool line of development of human capabilities. If it were to extend it at the same angle to our time - 43, from the last mentioned event, then on Mars the apple trees would have to bear fruit. But alas, this curve has become almost horizontal. The possibilities of humanity in this area began to develop very slowly. Have people become more stupid than strong figures? No, the scientific and industrial foundation, built by that time by the common efforts of all countries, was fully mastered. On it, due to the flash of high space activity, a certain superstructure was created, however, it did not lead to a qualitatively new technological era.

Objective limit

In the Kondratieff theory of technological waves, the third — from 1875 of the year — denotes the era of steel, electricity and heavy industry, the fourth — from 1908 of the year — the era of oil, automobile and mass production, the fifth — from 1971 of the year - the era of information and telecommunications. All in anticipation of the sixth wave - the era, or bio, or nanotech, or new energy, or complete greening of the industry.

Space and development: utilitarian needs or progress

Having developed the groundwork for the third, fourth and fifth technological waves for their needs, the space industry did not initiate a new one. Not at all that scale. With all the big public sound, especially in the recent past, with an annual contribution, for example, in Russia at a cost of tens of kilometers of Moscow roads, there is no reason to seriously influence the global economy. And space technologies are either almost frozen, as with rocket engines, or, at best, they are pursuing technologies from other, more dynamic areas.

Of course, the results of applied space activities are most actively used just within the framework of the information and telecommunications era. Due to its needs, an impressive increase in the characteristics of spacecraft has been achieved, providing observation of the Earth in various spectra. Created in addition to the magnetic and gravitational man-made navigation field of the Earth. The power of on-board repeaters has grown by an order of magnitude over the last quarter of a century, which made it possible to achieve enormous information transfer rates. True, Arthur Clark sarcastically, but very aptly remarked: "The more perfect the technique of transmitting information, the more ordinary, vulgar, gray its content becomes." But this is again not the topic of this article.

So, the society required the development of the characteristics of the applied spacecraft and it received it. Did you need a flight to other planets and the technology did not develop? No, the situation is somewhat more complicated. Within the framework of known physical laws, the level of development of rocket-space technology is close to the limit. Chemical fuels provide characteristics close to the theoretical limit. Strength of materials, too. At least until a long thread is woven from nanotubes. Of course, by improving production processes and optimizing the design, it is possible and necessary to reduce the cost, but there is no fundamental improvement in technical characteristics. And when earthlings with a great voltage of resources still get to Mars, they will cover a distance of only a few dozen light minutes. In the works on cosmology, kilo, mega, gigaparseki appear.

One parsec is three light years. Within the framework of the known physical laws, all this is unattainable in principle. Closing the dream of humanity? No, we focus on intensive research that advances progress in a number of areas.

Know the universe

The first direction is the development of fundamental knowledge about the basics of the universe. The fact that all physical laws known to man are uniquely applicable only to four percent of the Universe gives hope for the existence of still unknown laws. Perhaps this is similar to the situation of the XVII – XVIII centuries, when the laws of mechanics were known and the knowledge was developed, which finally allowed to formulate the laws of the electric world. And life has become completely different, incredible from the point of view of the century of mechanics. Along with research in the field of elementary particle physics (everyone knows about the Large Hadron Collider), astrophysical research with the help of telescopes carried out in different parts of the spectrum are of great importance. The Soviet Union made a significant contribution to the deployment of such works. Astron space observatories, Granat in the 80 of the XX century made a real breakthrough. Outstanding, sensational results have long been among the most quoted.

Nowadays, the Hubble telescope with a mirror with a diameter of 2,4 meters is widely known. Repeatedly repaired directly in orbit, he is still pleased with interesting results, and a new telescope, James Webb, is being prepared for his replacement. The Russian Spectr-R telescope or the Radiastron has been operating for almost a year now. With a high-precision antenna with a diameter of ten meters and ultra-sensitive receivers, it rotates around the Earth at an altitude of 300 thousands of kilometers and when combined with numerous ground-based radio telescopes it forms a virtual telescope of the size 300 thousands of kilometers. Hence the unprecedented resolution. Already obtained data on the internal structure of the object, located in five billion (billions) light years.

We looked into the incredible distance, but also into the deep past of the universe. There are very beautiful scientific hypotheses about the big bang, black holes, wormholes and tunnels in spacetime. There is an accumulation of data. A complete understanding of the processes of formation of the Universe, its evolution, the nature of matter, energy, gravity, time is somewhere ahead. Humanity, perhaps in ten, maybe in a hundred years, but it is necessary to pass this way. So, you need to create more advanced space tools - serviced and unattended in different orbits and on the surface of the moon.

In a cozy cradle

The second area of ​​effort is a complete understanding of all the processes of formation and evolution of the solar system. This is necessary to predict the future of our planet.

Why one of the neighboring planets is a sandy desert with dust storms up to 20 kilometers and only traces of oxygen in a very rarefied cold atmosphere? Why is the second, a neighbor, an acid hell with a temperature of almost five hundred degrees and a pressure around 90 atmospheres? Is there any other form of life in the solar system? And if it was, then why? Answers to these and similar questions are important for determining the correct strategy for the survival of humanity on Earth. At least until the power of the person expands and there is a real possibility of moving to another place of residence.


And now we must do our best to protect our only green planet. To give answers to the questions posed, one must be able to visit any bodies within the Solar System, including asteroids. The Soviet Union occupied a worthy place in the development of interplanetary technology. By the end of the 70-s of the XX century, 58 launches to the Moon were completed, 29 of them completed their task. Including ground delivered three times. The USA in the same period made 39 starts (including nine manned). Effective can be considered 22 mission. By Venus, 80 of the Soviet missions were launched by the end of the 29-s, 15 of which are successful. The United States limited itself to nine attempts, of which eight were successful.

Then there was a long pause in the activity of the Soviet Union and Russia, and now domestic automatic apparatuses need to regain the ability to reach, sit down, work on the surface of various celestial bodies and come back. Starting from the moon. Especially considering the new facts about the presence of ice at the poles. In addition, there is a version that this ice was deposited over billions of years by comets, including, perhaps, from other galaxies. That is, we were already delivered almost to the house a particle of other, very distant worlds. Mars, Venus, the satellites of Jupiter, asteroids of the Apophis type and, of course, the Sun (but without landing) are the goals of the automaton researchers, ensuring the virtual human presence in all parts of the Solar System. Somewhere in a more distant future, it is also possible for a person to directly participate in interplanetary missions, but only with a clear awareness of the appropriateness of risks and costs.

Innovations in science and technology

The third line of effort. To return to space technology the role of the engine of technological progress within the framework of the existing technological wave. And for this task should be set bold and ambitious. For example, there is a need to conduct long-term studies on the surface of the very interesting satellite of Jupiter - Europe. Ice and water were found there. Maybe there is life. But if in modern traditions to assemble a space reconnaissance aircraft from existing technical solutions, then the problem is not solved in principle - extremely high radiation. And the program of the European Space Agency is being developed from the cute name Europe to Ganymede, another satellite of Jupiter. Less interesting, but more affordable.

Now this is also the most difficult program can be implemented, but the impact on technical progress will be limited. But if all the same to Europe? On new solutions, for example, on the basis of the principles of electronic vacuum technology, the nature of plants or whatever it is, create completely unique devices that are absolutely resistant to radiation. Long way, dear, but one more step on the way of expanding the arsenal of opportunities.

Or a much more urgent task for space technology is the cleaning of near-Earth space from debris. It is time to make laws on the duty of each launching a new device to deduct from the orbit the same amount of old fragments by mass. Quickly and without fantasy, the problem can be solved today. We start the maneuvering device with the necessary fuel supply, we join with the passive object and transfer it to the flooding orbit. Everything is solved, but in the general case it will cost much more than launching a device of the same mass. And from the point of view of ecology, all these unnecessary launches and flooding are completely useless. Yes, and on technical progress, the impact is small. The alternative is to start creating something fundamentally new. A monster captures debris, decomposes into its constituent molecules, some use it as a working fluid to fly to the next object, and another part, according to the principle of operation of an 3D printer, turns it into elements of a new space station. After all, the materials in the remains of the satellites are the most remarkable and have already been delivered into orbit. Fantasy? Today, yes. The movement towards this goal will move both science and technology forward. But the goals were shredded, for which the bustling momentary humanity is waving, and money is pitiful.

Miracles do not happen

In the end, I will try to formulate the following thought. In common space activities, it is advisable to clearly separate the two areas. The first is the use of space or its operation for application purposes: communications, navigation, remote sensing of the Earth. Production of spacecraft for these needs is a typical industrial activity. In the market conditions for the conquest of the customer it is necessary to produce a mass product with the lowest cost, the best consumer characteristics and as soon as possible. For this, unification, the application of proven solutions with their constant evolutionary improvement, the smooth running and non-redundancy of all processes and resources used are extremely important. This area, as well as the field of mass launch vehicles, is well commercialized.

The second field of space activity is not commercialized at all, which was mainly discussed above. It can be called the scientific cosmos, deep space, the fundamental cosmos. The essence of this does not change. Within the framework of this direction, each mission is aimed at achieving a new level of knowledge development, a fundamentally new level of technology. Along with the maximum possible use of the solutions developed in the applied space, each project has to apply unique technologies and specific equipment. This area is characterized by a large degree of uncertainty, leading to increased risks in terms of time, costs, and the results of the mission. The real effect of such projects can manifest itself in many years. For successful activity in this area, it is extremely important to use the rules of organization, financing and evaluation of results that are significantly different from those in the applied space. This area of ​​space activity is completely dependent on the willingness of the state to invest resources in efforts to move humanity forward.

Russia, given its bright space history and far from being today's zero level, it may well be a worthy participant in this avant-garde movement. True, if you calculate the cost of space over the past 20 years in the United States, taking into account the resources of other departments, apart from NASA, it becomes clear that they exceed Russian costs tenfold. But as soon as a noticeable lag in the results of the activities of the Russian space industry from the American level is found, immediately there are reasons: sloppiness, weak leaders and so on and so forth.

Ineradicable in Russia faith in a miracle. Fairy tales are probably to blame. Ilya Muromets lay on the stove for thirty years and three years without any investment in his development, and then he got up and won all of them. Wonderful. All this would be funny if it were not so sad.

Of course, there is an acute need for improvements in the industry and in terms of the structure and organization of work, the introduction of a modern quality management system, the involvement of promising specialists and mobile private structures, but given the awareness of most of our society of the importance of Russian positions in space, manifested in a very painful perception of every failure , we are simply doomed to be a great space power. And that means that they must not only allocate substantial resources for this, but use them to the maximum to achieve worthy goals. Space without us will always exist, we practically have no chance without it. Navigare necesse ...
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  1. humanist
    humanist 20 December 2012 16: 10
    +1
    It is clear that space exploration is a big breakthrough in technology, but huge amounts of money must be spent on this, and with a "probable" return in the distant future ... Modern Russia cannot afford such a "luxury", it will simply bring down the country's economy. It is necessary to allocate a budget for the development and research of new space rockets (ships) for the theoretical development of the development and probably at this stage everything ... Here the "discoverer" will invest a lot, and all countries will use the "fruits", and therefore, having understood this, no one wants to be a "sucker" and waits for others to "invest" ... IMHO hi
    1. Deniska999
      Deniska999 20 December 2012 16: 26
      -5
      First, in my opinion, it is necessary to solve earthly problems, and then climb into space.
      1. ShturmKGB
        ShturmKGB 20 December 2012 16: 40
        +10
        When gaining authority in the "space sphere", many "earthly" problems will be easier to solve, the example of the USSR in the 60s.
        It is necessary to actively explore the moon, this will be a springboard for further expansion into space. And whoever settles there first will take the most convenient place ...
        1. S_mirnov
          S_mirnov 20 December 2012 21: 00
          0
          "It is necessary to actively explore the Moon" - yeah, our north is dead, the east will soon be mastered by China, which means we will fly to explore the moon? Pancake! where is the mind?
          1. haron
            haron 20 December 2012 21: 53
            +3
            Quote: S_mirnov
            Pancake! where is the mind?

            Reason is and at what elementary. A technology that will work on Mars or the Moon will easily work in Taimyr.
            Quote: S_mirnov
            China will soon master the east,

            Do you propose to develop a cure for stupidity or greed ??? believe biochemistry, pharmacology and genetics are no less expensive industries.
      2. S_mirnov
        S_mirnov 20 December 2012 20: 52
        -2
        "It is necessary to solve earthly problems" - they hit the very hole! What the fuck is space when government money is stolen on earth? They won't reach space at all! First, you need to plug the holes where money flows (capital outflow abroad, theft in the Russian Federation, construction of luxury hotels in Chechnya (all right, factories would be worth it, even though jobs are created there and added value))! First, we need to establish a state, stop the extinction and degradation of the population, save the present, and then build the future!
        Otherwise, "all this is anaism, the process goes on, but there is no result!"
        1. haron
          haron 20 December 2012 21: 58
          0
          Quote: S_mirnov
          luxury hotels in Chechnya (okay, the factories would be worth it, at least jobs are created there and added value))!

          You are more attracted to the highlander with a dagger, or let it be better with a horn filled with wine ... perhaps this is also unlikely as a highlander with a micrometer, but there is a chance.
          1. S_mirnov
            S_mirnov 21 December 2012 10: 37
            0
            I am more seduced by a highlander behind a machine tool at a factory or by cultivating land, but with a dagger and with wine and not in the Caucasus - he is not at all seduced!
    2. Kaa
      Kaa 20 December 2012 18: 24
      +5
      Quote: humanist
      It is clear that space exploration is a big breakthrough in technology, but huge funds must be spent on this

      The Americans are "annealing" in this matter!
      "Americans want Obama to build a Death Star"
      On the website of the White House began collecting signatures for the start of construction of a space station from "Star Wars". Sources - http: //ru.tsn.ua / ..., http: //lenta.ru / ... The Americans want to force President Barack Obama to start building the Death Star military space station from the movie Star Wars, which capable of destroying entire planets. The corresponding petition of the US people to the President appeared on the White House website. In accordance with it, the Americans demand from the country's leader to complete the construction of the Death Star by 2016 and put it into orbit. "By focusing our defense resources on the project to build a space station equipped with state-of-the-art weapons like the Death Star, the government can stimulate job creation in the fields of engineering, mechanical engineering and space exploration. As well as significantly enhance national security." said in a petition on the White House website. The construction of the Death Star, which is slightly more than 140 kilometers in diameter, will not be cheap. According to news.com.au, scientists at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania have calculated that space weapons of this magnitude will cost more than 13 thousand of the planet's GDP http://www.newsfiber.com/p/s/h? V = EVZ% 2FIKjzD0HE% 3D + zHKF4n9i6yw% 3D
      1. Alekseir162
        Alekseir162 20 December 2012 19: 35
        0
        "Death Star" is certainly cool, but as V.S. Chernomyrdin said: "Where can you get the money?" “The Americans already have problems above the roof. In any case, it is certainly very interesting.
    3. haron
      haron 20 December 2012 18: 49
      +3
      If you return all the funds stolen from the budget, then they will be enough to support the country's space industry (this is also about the collapse of the country's budget wink )
      And further. First of all, the brains and hands of people who need to be educated and taught will raise and promote this industry. And if the problem of manufacturing a micron part can be solved by modern German CNC, then where to stick it and what it should be solved by the brain.
      It would be very nice if the space industry in Russia was self-sufficient, but IMHO in cooperation with Europe, Indians, etc. much more can be achieved.
      1. sleepy
        sleepy 21 December 2012 04: 35
        0
        There were brains, there were also developments.

        Rockets and spacecraft »Unknown ships» Project "Spiral"
        Rockets and spacecraft »Project" Spiral "

        "At the beginning of the 60s, in the OKB-155 of the State Committee for Aviation Technology (GKAT), under the leadership of A. Mikoyan, research began on combined aerospace systems that combine the features of aircraft and missiles.
        In 1965, a work plan for the "Spiral" theme and a preliminary design of the system were signed.
        The head of the topic was appointed deputy chief designer G.E. Lozino-Lozinsky.
        The main goal of the Spiral program was to create a manned orbital aircraft (OS) for performing applied tasks in space, as well as for ensuring the possibility of regular and safe transportation along the route
        Earth-orbit-Earth ... "
        http://www.airbase.ru/books/authors/rus/a/afanasiev-i-b/unknown_spaceships/4/
  2. botur2013
    botur2013 20 December 2012 17: 08
    +3
    Space technology needs to be developed so as not to overtake or even be overboard.
    1. sleepy
      sleepy 21 December 2012 04: 38
      +1
      Academician Boris Evseevich Chertok. The legend of Soviet cosmonautics.

  3. Gipmol
    Gipmol 20 December 2012 17: 17
    +4
    SPACE-WHO IF NOT WE ??? !!!
  4. pinkrabbit
    pinkrabbit 20 December 2012 17: 31
    0
    until they come up with cool energy, nothing can be learned. and as soon as you immediately super jerk into space, robots and other crap from science fiction films.
  5. TekhnarMAF
    TekhnarMAF 20 December 2012 17: 36
    +3
    The article is ambiguous, but relevant. Man does not live by bread alone! The question is, who will “plant apple trees on Mars?” Old people leave, young people do not want to engage in a routine that will bear fruit someday. We are ruled by the "golden calf", "let the fools go after the fog" Alas, these are the realities!
  6. homosum20
    homosum20 20 December 2012 17: 42
    +2
    All achievements in space used the technology of the arms race and pursued its goals in the first place. I want to remind you that the first Soviet satellite rushed in orbit with the joyful Beep-Beep not at all because he wanted to please the humanity of the United States with our achievements, but so that they would feel that from now on the oceans are no longer their protection and that - something heavy, not with a "beep-beep", but with a nuclear warhead.
    And the Americans were nationwide
    Then, to a simple arms race, motifs inspired by the global geopolitical confrontation will be added: a namber from the ballet, through hockey to space.
    Humans are very utilitarian creatures.
    It seems to me that if on the moon, Mars, Venus (in a word, where humanity can reach), something absolutely necessary is not found now, or as the planet’s resources are exhausted, the only incentive for the development of space technologies will remain ABM. And with her, I think, we will not fly far.
    1. Garrin
      Garrin 20 December 2012 23: 09
      0
      Quote: homosum20

      homosum20

      Thanks! "+"
      While I read the article and was going to answer, I saw my thoughts in your presentation.
      Article is also "+"
      A little distracted from earthly problems and thoughtful.
  7. Kosmodrom
    Kosmodrom 20 December 2012 18: 54
    0
    The author is right. There will be no breakthrough space programs in the near future. Everything that we are doing in space now was achieved in the 60s and 70s. Old programs are simply repeated at a new technological level. And this will continue for more than a dozen years, until a new technological leap occurs. In the meantime, the "industrialization" of near space, without which there is now nowhere - watching TV, eating in a car, listening to the weather forecast, talking on the phone - all this is space, which helps to solve earthly problems.
  8. anfreezer
    anfreezer 20 December 2012 18: 57
    +4
    A positive article and .... somewhere even kindly childish))) good But someday it will be so ..
  9. Nechai
    Nechai 20 December 2012 19: 14
    +3
    Quote: pinkrabbit
    until they come up with cool energy, nothing can be learned. and as soon as a super jerk into space

    I’m embarrassed to ask who, why, and most importantly HOW it will be invented FOR SPACE, if funding and experimental work and real-time inspections in space will NOT be carried out?!?!?!
    Quote: homosum20
    missile defense will remain the only incentive for the development of space technologies.

    What about planetary defense? No one has canceled comets, asteroids. And Apophis is still flying side by side ...
    Quote: Kosmodrom
    In the meantime, the "industrialization" of near space, without which there is nowhere - we watch TV, eat in a car, listen to the weather forecast, talk on the phone - all this is space,

    True, but industrialization turned out to be SINGLE - informational. But the creation of real things slowed down all activities.
    You have not come across the version that in the late 60s and early 70s, despite all the rumors about the scientific and technological revolution, in fact, its vector was "CLOSED". And many developments, technologies, inventions were tucked under the rug, and their creators were dealt with by a variety of methods, including death?
    These are simple questions:
    - why does Mars lack an electric magnetic field? And this is not an idle curiosity. Especially in the light of amers' fun with "Harp".
    - maybe Earth conditions were much earlier on Venus? And then what led to such a change?
    - Or maybe the Asteroid Belt is really the wreckage of the planet Phaeton? Then what happened to her?
    The answer to such burning questions for Humanity is sitting in our cradle (cradles for all earthly races? another question) - Mother Earth cannot be found ... So there is only one path, there is no other and cannot be.
  10. Rus2012
    Rus2012 20 December 2012 21: 11
    +1
    ... the whole tragedy of the current situation of mankind lies in the fact that it rested against the limits of growth ...
    -It is clear that in no form can the stars / planets reach / return
    - vivid ideas of the development of mankind, which could give the so-called classic enlightened scholars do not exist. the theory of globalization before our eyes is turning into a chimera
    - even a controlled thermonuclear fusion in the near future in an understandable form is not achievable, turns into a kind of pursuit of a perpetual motion machine

    requires a breakthrough-feat commensurate in size with the 2 coming of Christ ...
    and most likely something like this will happen.
    in any case, expectation and premonition in people is ....
    1. Chamber No. 6
      Chamber No. 6 20 December 2012 22: 54
      +3
      ... the whole tragedy of the current situation of mankind lies in the fact that it rested against the limits of growth ...
      I completely agree with you! This has already been in the history of mankind, and more than once. Once our ancestors (whose idea of ​​the world around them came down to the fact that the earth was flat) became cramped in the framework of the existing worldview, and they reached a new level.
      And the fact that we have rested against the limits of growth means only one thing - we have already "grown out of these panties"!
      1. Misantrop
        Misantrop 20 December 2012 23: 29
        +1
        Quote: Ward # 6
        we have already "grown out of these panties"

        And now we think thoughtfully whether to sew new (not cheap) pants or run bare-backed - no one cares anyway laughing
  11. Nickanor
    Nickanor 21 December 2012 09: 34
    +1
    Very good and optimistic article! Gently stingy tear came crying
    And now for a snack a little "offtopic in the subject":
    The author of the article, judging by the signature at its end, is Viktor Khartov, Director General of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise NPO named after S.A. Lavochkin.
    And this is how things really are in the enterprise he leads:
    http://laspace.livejournal.com/2981.html
    http://www.npo-lavochkina.ru/
  12. Andof odessa
    Andof odessa 21 December 2012 13: 46
    0
    The author is right that space is a new ocean for humanity. and a dash through it to new "islands" is inevitable and necessary. but no one will do it until the moment when the elite feel the danger for them personally in staying on earth. they know the history well and just as we project the image of the ocean into space, they project onto the space colonies the image of overseas colonies that will surely come out of control, even more, colonies that do not initially fit into the modern political system of government. and why should we form hotbeds of future problems while on earth, not all are "democratized" to fit a common pattern?
    And the question of the economic component is solved simply. After all, the problem is built around a cyclical problem. Why invest in industrial facilities in orbit is expensive and you can’t get profit until their products are sold only on land. and 2 why the colony if all industrial goods to ensure the activity will have to be delivered from the ground? and the fact that in the new overseas colonies immediately forges were created, everyone forgets. I think we would still not have mastered America if for the repair of each horseshoe we would have to drive the ship to Europe !? here too, with the simultaneous (really about ...... expensive) construction of industry in orbit and a colony, the final cost of developing even the same moon will be significantly reduced. and setting up such a project before the state will lead to significant economic growth. since it will require intensive work of the entire economy and the launch of a huge number of enterprises. but then the question will be how can the loot go past the oligarchs? ent is unacceptable !!! which means that no one will undertake this either at our place or abroad.
    so we are waiting for a large brick from the asteroid belt so that something changes. sad