Review of the Semenov regiment on Senatskaya Square. Xnumx
On December 12, 2012, Russian President Vladimir Putin, in his Address to the Federal Assembly, declared that in order to revive national consciousness, it is necessary to bind together historical era and return to understanding the truth that Russia did not begin in 1917 and not even in 1991, that "we have a single, inextricable thousand-year history, based on which we gain internal strength and the meaning of national development." Along with the revival of the historical memory of the Second World War (World War I), Putin proposed "to revive the names of the most illustrious regiments, military units, formations of past eras, and the Soviet and later eras, such units as Preobrazhensky, Semenovsky regiments" . The Ministry of Defense has been instructed to consider this issue.
It should be noted that a few years ago, the movement “People’s Council” sent an appeal to the President “On the reconstruction of the oldest guards regiments of the Russian army - Preobrazhensky, Semenovsky and Izmaylovsky”. The proposal was quite logical, given the fact that the Soviet military traditions were largely destroyed, and the royal traditions were forgotten. The Russian Defense Ministry responded that at the present time there is no legal and factual continuity of the military units of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation to the regiments of the Russian pre-revolutionary army. According to the bureaucrats of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation, it turned out that the current Russian army has nothing to do with the Russian army, which became famous under Poltava, Rymnik, Kunersdorf, the Battle of Borodino and the defense of Sevastopol. This approach is very similar to the principles of Russian liberals, who regularly repeat that today's Russia has no historical continuity even with the Soviet Union, not to mention the Russian kingdom or the Russian Empire. According to them, the current Russia and its army were created from scratch in 1991 by the efforts of the gentlemen Yeltsin and Grachev.
In addition, the military department reported that the transfer and conferment of honorary titles of disbanded military units, in the absence of direct continuity, will not contribute to the development of military traditions and instilling in military personnel a sense of military duty and pride in their military unit. An interesting fact is that Putin, in his speech, said the opposite. We are once again seeing a kind of “political schizophrenia” in the ranks of the Russian ruling class. After all, “Serdyukovskaya” military reform was originally aimed at the almost complete destruction of the Soviet military traditions, which were incompatible with the very idea of the army of the Eurasian spread, practical, modern and small. Officials once again followed the example of the West, creating a kind of modern punitive expeditionary corps (in the Russian sense, the army is a constantly armed part of the people, sharpened to protect it). In particular, this is why, in the course of the reform, many military units, including the Guards Kantemirovsky and Tamansky divisions, lost their historical names.
Putin's proposal has caused a variety of responses. According to some, the proposal to restore the names of the most illustrious parts of past eras gives the window dressing. And with the implementation of this idea, we will get the situation “we wanted the best, but it turned out as always,” that is, not real combat units will be created, but a kind of “amusing regiments”.
In addition, a lot of related questions arise. What other famous units will be rebuilt? Izmailovsky regiment? Lithuanian regiment? Absheron 81st Infantry Regiment? Caucasian native "Wild Division"? Kornilov shock regiment? 1st Officer General Markov Regiment? It will be even more difficult with Soviet formations - during the Great Patriotic War, the rank of Guards was awarded to 11 combined-arms armies, 6 tank armies, 68 rifle, cavalry, tank and mechanized corps, 117 rifle divisions, 53 aviation divisions, etc. The question is how these formations will be built into the existing structure of the troops?
The former head of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia, the Army General of the Reserve and a member of the military council of the Defense Ministry with an advisory voice, Yury Baluyevsky, in an interview with Izvestia, stated that the internal troops of the Interior Ministry should become their base for the Semyonovsky and Preobrazhensky regiments. According to the general, after the reform of Serdyukov, there are simply no worthy names in the Ministry of Defense. Thus, in the course of the reform of Serdyukov, there were simply no regiments left in the army, the army switched to a three-unit control system: the operational command — the brigade — battalion. Recently it turned out that the combat capability of the brigades was in doubt, since in them a serious lack of personnel, they started talking about battalion tactical groups. Divisions and regiments were retained only in the Airborne Forces of the Ministry of Defense and the Interior Forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. From a formal point of view, only for them it is not necessary to make exceptions, once again establishing divisions and regiments.
Former Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR, Chairman of the All-Russian Armed Forces Veterans Organization under Viktor Yermakov said that the newly formed regiments should be based in St. Petersburg, since their historical predecessors in Moscow were only established, and then 200 years were located in the capital of the Russian Empire. On the Senate Square (Dekabristov Square), on the one hand, the former barracks of the Semenov regiment, on the other - the Transfiguration. Yermakov even suggested units that could be renamed: the Defense Center training center (in the suburb of Sertolovo) and the 138-I motorized rifle brigade (in the village of Kamenka near Vyborg).
The commander of the airborne troops, Lieutenant-General Vladimir Shamanov, in an interview with Izvestia, was modest and said that if given an indication, it would be considered in order to determine which units are most worthy of wearing historical names. According to him, not only the Airborne Forces have decent units, but also motorized riflemen, sailors and pilots. In the Airborne Forces managed to keep the division, continuity.
Vasily Panchenkov, head of the press service of the Internal Troops, was also taken aback in his statements: “We are transfigurations only in this sense, and also that we protect traditions”. It was in the Internal Troops that the memory of Felix Dzerzhinsky was preserved, the Separate Orders of Lenin and the October Revolution were associated with him. The Red Banner Operational Division of the Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia (before 1994, the unit was called the Separate Orders of Lenin and the October Revolution. ).
Back in 1992, the idea was to restore the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments on the basis of the Dzerzhinsky division and to place the historical barracks between the Preobrazhenskaya Square and Semenovskaya metro stations as their base. However, due to the fact that difficulties arose with the release of buildings that were occupied by various government agencies, the idea was not implemented.
President of the Academy of Military Sciences Makhmut Gareyev told RIA Newsthat the honorary title of the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments should receive the most distinguished in recent years, the formation of the Russian army. In his opinion, it is possible to create famous regiments on the basis of the former 4-th Guards Kantemirovsky tank division (now 4-I Separate Tank Brigade) and 2-th Guards Taman Motorized Rifle Division (modern 5-I separate Guards motorized rifle brigade).
Expressed his opinion and the chief editor of the newspaper "Cadet brotherhood" Alexander Salikhov. According to him, it is necessary to create the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation "absolutely from scratch", from the traditions laid down by Peter the Great, to conduct the most severe, exemplary selection in such regiments. The expert also reported on the need to take into account the traditions of the Soviet Guard, created in 1941 year.
True, it is worth noting that the expert forgot, or was silent about the fact that during the reign of Peter I, the guard was replenished mainly by noblemen. Who to pick in the new shelves now? "Golden youth" of St. Petersburg and Moscow? It is worth remembering that in the Semenovsky regiment only blondes were selected, in the Preobrazhensky - the highest and fair-haired, in the Izmailovsky - brunetov, in the Moscow regiment - red, etc.
History reference. Lifeguard Preobrazhensky His Majesty's regiment. He is one of the oldest (the Butyrsky regiment and the 1642 th Moscow Elective Soldier Regiment, the future Lefortovo Regiment) and one of the most elite regiments of the Russian Empire are considered to be the oldest. The beginning of its existence was laid in 2, when Tsar Peter Alekseevich of "amicable" ("Petrov regiment"), who were located in the village of Preobrazhensky, formed a military unit. In 1691-1695 The regiment received baptism of fire - participated in the Azov campaigns. In the 1696 year, the regiment received the 1698-x battalion composition, each battalion had 4 fusier (musketeer) companies; besides, the regiment had more bombing and grenadier companies. In 4, the name was given to the Life Guards Preobrazhensky Regiment. The regiment took part in all the main battles of the Russian-Swedish war 1700-1700, in the Prut campaign 1721 and the Persian campaign 1711-1722. Subsequently, the regiment participated in the most significant military conflicts: the Russian-Turkish war 1723-1735, the Russian-Swedish war 1739-1741, the Russian-Swedish war 1743 — 1788, in the wars with Napoleon France, in the Russian-Swedish the 1790-1808 war, the World War 1809 of the year and the foreign campaign of the Russian army. The regiment was noted during the palace coups, participating in the enthronement of Elizabeth Petrovna. The Transfigurations fought in the 1812 Russian-Turkish wars of the century, the Poles revolted in the 19 and 1830 years. The soldiers of the regiment fought bravely on the fields of the First World War (Second World War). One of the companies of the reserve battalion of the Preobrazhensky regiment took part in the February revolution. In 1863, the Soviet authorities disbanded a part. However, part of the regiment took part in the Civil War. As part of the white troops in the south of Russia, a company of Transfigurations fought in the 1918-I-Artillery Regiment, another company was part of the Artillery-Guards Battalion. For comparison, just in the First World War, the 1 officer-transfiguration died, and in the Civil War, the 42 officers of the Preobrazhensky regiment were killed.
Life Guards Semenov regiment. The Semenov regiment was formed at the same time as Preobrazhensky, and its base was “amusing”. The regiment received baptism in the Azov campaigns, took part in a number of important operations of the Northern War: the battle of Narva (1700); taking Noteburg (1702); boarding Swedish ships on the river. Neve (1703); the seizure of Narva and Ivangorod (1704); capture of Mitavy (1705); battle at Forest (1708); Battle of Poltava (1709); capture of Vyborg (1710). During the battle of Narva, the Semenovites got the right to wear red stockings: in memory of the fact that “they were knee-deep in blood in this battle”. The regiment participated in the Prut campaign (1711); sea battle at Gangut; sea cruises in the Baltic Sea (1715-1720). One of the battalions of the regiment participated in the Persian campaign of Peter. Subsequently, the regiment took part in a number of Russian-Turkish wars. So, in 1737, the Semenovs took Ochakov by storm. The Semenov regiment fought with the French troops in the campaigns 1805-1807. In the battle of Borodino, the Semenovs participated in repelling the attacks of the French cavalry against the center of the Russian position. In the campaign 1813, they fought at Lutzen, Bautzen, Kulm and in the “Battle of the Nations” at Leipzig. The regiment reached Paris in the 1814 campaign of the year. In 1820, the regiment became famous for its “uprising” (the so-called “Semyonovskaya Story”) caused by the mistakes of the regiment commander Gregory Schwartz. One of her mouths refused to follow orders. She was sent at full strength to the Peter and Paul Fortress. The soldiers did not resist. Other companies decided to support their comrades and demanded the release of the company or send the entire regiment to the fortress. The whole regiment was sent to the fortress, there was no resistance. As a result, part of the Semenovites were subjected to corporal punishment, were sent to penal servitude, the majority were transferred to various army units. Of the officers and lower ranks of the 1, 2 and 3 grenadier divisions, a new Semenov regiment was formed, he received the rights of the young guard. In 1823, the rights of the Old Guard were restored. In 1825, the Semenovtsi took part in suppressing the Decembrist uprising.
Then the regiment fought in the Russian-Turkish war 1828-1829, in the suppression of the Polish uprising of the year 1831 and the storming of Warsaw. In 1863, the Semenov regiment fought with the Polish rebels, 1877-1878. - with the Turks. In 1905, the regiment was noted for suppressing the December uprising in Moscow. After the outbreak of the First World War, the best forces of the regiment were sent to the front, and only the reserve battalions, which were training the recruits, remained in the rear. At the front, the Semenov regiment was always at the forefront of the attack in the offensive, and covered the rear during the withdrawal. As a result, already in 1915, the regiment had to be withdrawn for redeployment, due to high losses in battles. Due to the demobilization and the collapse of the army, by the end of 1917, the main combat unit of the regiment had almost completely disappeared. But in the Petrograd district of the reserve battalion was deployed 3-battalion guard Semenov reserve regiment. Later it was renamed the Xrnumx Regiment for the Protection of Petrograd named after Uritsky, and after the Brest Peace Treaty, into the 3th Infantry Regiment of the 3 th Petrograd Special Forces Brigade. In the 2 year, during the offensive units Yudenich, part of the regiment moved to the side of the whites. In addition, part of the Semenovtsy fought on the side of the White movement and on the Southern front of the Civil War as part of the 1919-nd Artillery Regiment of the Volunteer Army of Denikin.
Nicholas II lays a brick in the wall of the newly built barracks of the Semenov regiment
A group of officers of the Semenov regiment with the regimental commander Major General Svita of His Majesty Yevgeny Novitsky (sitting in the 3 series in his cap) and the Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich. Xnumx
Transfiguration, who carried guard duty in the Tauride Palace 1917 year
Transfigurations on vacation between battles, 1914-17