From the history of own names of aircraft of Russia, 1918 - the end of 1920

The political crisis in the country and the long fratricidal Civil War that followed it left their mark on the decoration of the combat vehicles of the air units of the opposing sides. Despite a certain non-political nature of red aviators (during this period, various types of emblems prevailed more on airplanes), some vehicles sometimes turned into real flying propaganda posters. In the Red Army, it was possible to meet planes decorated with inscriptions, for example, "Red Eagles of all countries RISE" or"May Day Labor." At the same time in white aviation almost never used such arts. There were only isolated cases when aviators placed women's names on the fuselages of their aircraft. So, on the Northern Front, a marine pilot, Lieutenant Yakovitsky flew with the inscription "Nellj."Later this plane became the trophy of the red parts.


With the end of the Civil War, the propaganda orientation in the Air Force RRKA did not lose its relevance, but only changed and began to reflect the urgent problems of the current day. For the promotion of physical culture in the country, for example, on one of the planes of the type “U-1” there was a large poster with the appeal: "The physical culture of the proletariat is a means of improving and educating the fighters for the interests of their ... " [in the presented photograph of the aircraft, the end of the text is missing]. As you can see, the leadership of the Air Force paid great attention to the physical training of Soviet pilots, sometimes resorting to such unusual campaigning.

From the history of own names of aircraft of Russia, 1918 - the end of 1920
Aircraft poster "Red winner"


Airplane "Bristol F.2V" with a dead head I.U. Pavlov. Xnumx


Aircraft I.U. Pavlova "Fokker D.HIII" with the inscription "For VKP (b)"


As in the First World War, individual red pilots placed individual slogans on the fuselages of combat vehicles. Against this background, the well-known aviator I.U. Pavlov1Awarded during the Civil War three orders of the Red Banner. Expressing his loyalty to the Bolshevik party, he put on his plane the inscription: “For V.KP.P. (b)”. Previously, the emblem of a different direction decorated the side of his car, presented in the form of a dead head with a dagger blade in his teeth, the image of which was complemented by formidable words: «Death defeated. "

During the war, I.U. Pavlov also had to fly on an airplane, the former owner of which called him "Vieux ami" (fr. lang., "Old friend"). It was this inscription that saved the red pilot life, when he was in the camp of the enemy.

In case of unsuccessful shelling of an armored train of whites, the plane of IU Pavlova was shot down. When landing near the railway line, he was discovered by a white-cockpit. By posing as a white pilot who flew a captured red plane, he managed to convince the Cossacks of the veracity of his words. Gullible Cossacks helped I.U. Pavlov start the engine. When the plane took off, the red pilot shot at his rescuers with a machine gun ...2

In 1 920-ies. began the rapid development of the Soviet aircraft industry. Aircraft began to appear with various exotic type names: "The Little Humpbacked Horse" (constructions Vasily Khioni, 1923 g.), The Petrel C-4 (designs by Vyacheslav Nevdachina, 1927), "Three friends" (designs by SN Gorelov, AA Semenov and LI Sutugin, 1926), and others.

So the plane "The Little Humpbacked Horse" being a representative of light biplanes, he developed speed up to 120 km / h in flight and reached an altitude of 3200 m. Good air stability and maneuverability made it possible to use it in the national economy. In total, 30 devices of this type were built, which opened the era of agricultural aviation in the USSR.

W-1 aircraft poster


In parallel with aviation, there was an active development of Soviet gliding. Glavozdukhoflot’s leadership rendered great assistance to glider sports lovers, who decided in November 1921 to create with the scientific editorial office of the journal Vestnik Vozdushnogo Fleet"A special group of gliders, called" Soaring Flight ". Due to the huge interest in this sport in the coming years, non-motorized aircraft with various names and original designs appeared in the country.

In 1923, in the walls of the Aviaabotnik plant, the aeronaut N.D. Anoshchenko designed his balance glider "Toque". 17-year-old A. Yakovlev took part in its construction.3In the future, an outstanding Soviet aircraft designer. Two years later, students of the Academy of the Air Fleet, VS Vakhmistrov and M.K. Tikhonravov create single record glider with a resounding name "Zmey Gorynych". Unfortunately, his first flight ended in disaster. Pilot glider pilot A.A. Zhabrov suffered a severe spinal injury.

The tendency to perpetuate the names of famous people in the fuselages of aircraft has found its development. Among the first in the Soviet era, the pioneer of national aviation and glider B.I. Russian4. So, already in 1921, the inscription appeared on the wings of a Moran G type aircraft: "Grandpa Russian". This name ("grandfather"5), according to the aviator himself, he received personally from V.I. Lenin, who attended 1 in May 1918, on the first air festival in Soviet Russia, held at Khodynka. Fascinated by the flights of B. Rossky, the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars highly appreciated the pilot's high aerobatic skills and endowed the latter with an "honorary title." Later, with a similar inscription at the end of 1920's. flew aircraft type "ANT-3". Thus, B. Rossiysky turned out to be one of the first pilots in Russian practice, who was honored with the right to have such a high honor during his lifetime. But at the beginning of 1920's. this was an exception to the rule. In general, the leadership of the Red Army Air Force sought to adhere to the principle of devoting the names of the aircraft to avians or representatives of other branches of the military who had already died. Thus, a reconnaissance aircraft of the type “P-1” appeared in military aviation. «Red Guard Ivan Dubovoy ", and a number of gliders were named after their designers: "Morlet Klementyev" (AVF-11), "Krasnoenlet Denisov" (AHF-9), tragically killed in a plane crash.

Aircraft "Little Humpbacked Horse". Xnumx


Glider "Makaka", designs N.D. Anoshchenko. Xnumx


Airplane P-1 "Red Guard Ivan Dubovoy." Xnumx


"Grandpa Russian". "Moran G". Xnumx


In October 1927, the head of the Air Force of the Moscow Military District I.U. Pavlov filed a petition to the leadership of the Red Army Air Force for assigning the 8 th reconnaissance squadron to two aircraft "Red Moscow" the names of the aviators of the 1 th Soviet fighter air group (A.I. Efimova6 and gs Sapozhnikova7) who died during the Civil War. The head of the Red Army Air Force PI Rams8 supported this initiative and, in turn, reported on the merits of the issue to the Deputy Chairman of the USSR Revolutionary Military Council I.S. Unshlichtu9.

REPORT

Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR dated 7.12.1927. “On the assignment to two aircraft of units of the Air Force of the Moscow Military District of the names:

"The name of the military man Efimov and the name of the military man Sapozhnikov"10

The 1 th Soviet Fighter Group of t. Pavlov during the most difficult combat days of the 8 and 13 Army in the 1919-1920. lost her two best pilots tt. Efimov and Sapozhnikov, who with their selfless bravery and devotion to the cause of the Workers 'and Peasants' State wrote the best pages in history Soviet Aviation.

For the cause of the workers and peasants tt. Efimov and Sapozhnikov in difficult days gave everything, even to his own life.

Wishing to preserve the memory of these fighters of the days of the Civil War in the hearts of the present composition of the Red Army air force, I petition for permission to call the two aircraft of the 8 th Red Army Squadron "Red Moscow" the names of the gallantly lost comrades.

Head of the Red Army Air Force / Baranov /


Glider "Zmey Gorynych" in flight. Xnumx


Agreeing with the arguments of the leadership of the Air Force, IS Unshlicht gave an appropriate order to the head of the Directorate of the device and service of the troops of the Red Army’s Main Directorate on the registration of the procedure for assigning the names of heroically dead pilots to specific reconnaissance aircraft in a special order of the RVS of the USSR11. Later, the nominal aircraft were incorporated into the squadron "Red Moscow".

In the meantime, a practice has been established in the Air Force with the assignment of an honorary name to an aviation unit to place it on board the aircraft that were part of the said air formation. For example, pilots of a separate aviation detachment for testing marine planes of the Red Army Air Force Scientific Research Institute did this by placing on their machines the name of the deceased comrade M.A. Korovkina.

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REVOLUTIONARY MILITARY COUNCIL OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

№ 119

25 July 1931 Moscow

On the assignment to a separate aviation unit for testing marine aircraft of the Scientific Test Institute of the Red Army Air Force: “Separate aviation unit for testing marine aircraft engineer-pilot Korovkin”

To perpetuate the memory of the military engineer-mechanic of the air fleet of the naval pilot Korovkin Mitrofan Andreevich, who died during the performance of a special service task, assign a separate aviation unit for testing sea planes of the Scientific Test Institute of the Air Forces of the Red Army title:

"A separate aviation detachment for testing marine aircraft named after the engineer-pilot Korovkin."

Deputy People's Commissar for Military and Maritime Affairs of the Chairman of the RVS of the USSR

Tukhachevsky13


With the end of the Civil War in the USSR, special attention was paid to the construction of the Air Fleet, which, according to the military and political leadership of the country, played an important role in strengthening the defensive capacity of the Soviet state. In order to attract the attention of Soviet people, especially young people, to the problems of aviation development, the Society of Air Fleet Friendship Society (ODVF) and the Russian Society of Voluntary Air Fleet (Dobrolet) were established in March 1923. Various campaign events were widely held with their participation, including In the fleet. Thus, at the call of ODVF and Dobrolet, in just ten months 1923, 3 million rubles were raised in gold for the construction of aircraft, airfields, and aircraft factories. The Ulyanov family also made its contribution. and the construction of the aircraft "True" V.I. Lenin and N.K. Krupskaya personally contributed 60 gold rubles.

Military units and educational institutions of the Red Army did not lag behind public organizations. Thus, by the efforts of cadets and teachers of the Serpukhov school of aerial shooting and bombing, extensive campaign work was launched at the enterprises of the city in support of strengthening the Air Fleet. This allowed for a short time to raise funds for the construction of the aircraft. "Serpukhov worker" later entered service with the Red Army Air Force.

In the winter of 1924, the formation of a separate reconnaissance detachment was completed. "Ultimatum" (Commander - BC Rutkovsky14). Considering the request of the workers who contributed money for the construction of nine aircraft, each combat vehicle showed a unique identification mark in the form of a powerful working hand clenched into a fist. The detachment joined the Air Force of the Moscow Military District.

After the death of the first head of the Soviet state, the USSR Revolutionary Military Council issued a special order (No. 367 of 9 in March 1924), in which to perpetuate the memory of V.I. Lenin one of the best units of the Air Force was assigned his name.

ORDER

REVOLUTIONARY MILITARY COUNCIL OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS15

№ 367

9 March 1924 Moscow

On the assignment of 1 reconnaissance aviation squadron named after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

The first reconnaissance aviation squadron to be given the name of "the name of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin", why this squadron will continue to be called:

"The first reconnaissance aviation squadron named after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin".

Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council

E. Sklyansky16


In order to re-equip the squadron of new aviation technology throughout the country began collecting money for its construction. In a short time, the first 19 aircraft were built, which were already 1 on June 1924. Delegates of the XIII party congress handed the squadron pilots at the Central airport (Khodynka, Moscow). Each unit had its own name, according to which it was possible to conclude that the provision of aircraft squadron named after VI. Lenin was a nationwide concern.

The names of the aircraft entered service with the 1 th reconnaissance aviation squadron: "Countryman Ilyich", "Samarets Ilyich ”,“ Komsomol member of Siberia ”,“ Nizhny Novgorod worker ”,“ Moskovsky communal worker ”,“ Dzerzhinsky ”,“ Grozny ”,“ Red North North Caucasus ”,“ Karaterin ”,“ Name comrade. Semashko " [from Narkomzdrav], «Red Voronezh Ilyich ”,“ Siberian Worker ”,“ Red Siberian ”,“ Red Sormovich ”,“ Prodrabotnik ”,“ Red Black Sea Coast ”,“ Don Worker ”,“ Red Vladimirite ”,“ Kizly Bukhara ”.

On this occasion, in those days, the newspaper Pravda wrote: "From now on, the Air Fleet has an aviation monument to the great leader and teacher of workers and peasants in their struggle with landowners and capitalists, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin."

Due to the fact that in the course of the collection of funds for the aircraft for the 1 squadron of combat vehicles, more than what was provided by its staff was built, it is decided to create second Lenin squadron. 1-i Soviet fighter squadron (Leningrad), which received 18 new aircraft, received this honor. At the same time, another 6 aircraft built with public money were incorporated into the aviation squad. "Ilyich" (Harkov city).

In March, 1925, the 6, the separate reconnaissance aviation squadron was renamed the aviation squad. "Red Moscow".

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REVOLUTIONARY MILITARY COUNCIL OF THE UNION SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS17 № 288

14 March 1925 Moscow

On the assignment of 6 Dep. reconnaissance air order

6th Dep. reconnaissance squadron "Red Moscow"

The 6 separate reconnaissance air detachment to assign the name "Red Moscow" and henceforth call this squadron:

"6 Separate Reconnaissance Air Squad Red Moscow"

Deputy Chairman of the PBC

Unshlicht


On the armament of a separate squadron entered registered aircraft: “Red Sokolniki”, “L. B. Krasin "," Narcomboenmore (in memory of MV Frunze18), "Comrade Nette", later - "George Sapozhnikov" и "Alexander Efimov."

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REVOLUTIONARY MILITARY COUNCIL OF THE UNION SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS19

№ 698

26 June 1925 Moscow

On the assignment of 3 to a separate reconnaissance aviation squadron of the name: “3 Separate Intelligence named after T. Frunze Aviation Squadron”

The separate reconnaissance aviation squadron 3 is given the name “Comrade Frunze’s name” and henceforth this squadron is called:

"3 is a separate reconnaissance named after comrade Frunze Aviation Squadron."

Vrid Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR

A. Bubnov20


Part of squadron crews "Red Moscow" in the same year took part in the hostilities in Turkestan.

In 1920 The patronage’s work, which was not spared by the Air Force, was also developed. Many labor collectives took the patronage of aviation units, giving them full support, including the supply of new military equipment. Thus, representatives of the railway and water transport of the Moscow hub presented the sponsored 17 th 1925 fighter squadron of aircraft built with the funds they had collected to the beginning of the work of the Ill Congress of the Soviets of the USSR (2 in May 11). Soon by order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR No. 719 from 3 July 1925, the squadron was named after F.E. Dzerzhinsky21, who was the people's commissar of communications at that time.

Junkers Ju-21 aircraft


Р-1 squadron "Our response to Chamberlain". Xnumx


Glider "Morlet Klementyev"


Airplane R-1 "Red Voronezh - Ilyich." Xnumx


The reconnaissance aircraft P-3 (ANT-3) "Proletarian". Xnumx


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REVOLUTIONARY MILITARY COUNCIL OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS22 № 719

July 3 1925 city Moscow

On the assignment of 2 to a separate fighter aviation squadron of the name: "2 is a separate fighter named after T. Dzerzhinsky Aviation Squadron"

2 separate fighter aviation squadron to assign the name "name of T. Dzerzhinsky" and henceforth call this squadron:

"2 is a separate fighter named after T. Dzerzhinsky Aviation Squadron."

For the Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR A. Bubnov


9 July 1929, the USSR Revolutionary Military Council, by its order No. 179, officially assigned the honorary title to the 18 aviation squadron of the Red Army Air Force: "18 squadron Communal employee». Thanks to the sponsorship of the Central Committee of the Union of Communal Services Employees, the squadron was given this honor by building and transferring a named plane to the unit. «Communal worker"23.

The signing of the Rapall Treaty between the USSR and Germany created a legal basis for economic cooperation, including in the field of the aviation industry. The German side proposed to allocate significant funds for the development of aircraft manufacturing (including engine building) in the Soviet Union with the condition of the temporary use of a number of Soviet aircraft factories in the interests of the Reichswehr. Despite the fact that this proposal practically violated the prohibition of the Versailles Pact (1919), which restricted the activities of the German military-industrial complex, the leadership of the USSR agreed with it. In accordance with the 26 signed on November 1922 between the German company Junkers and the Soviet government, contract No. 1, Junkers was granted the right to manufacture airplanes and engines in the USSR, incl. and for the Red Army units24.

Named aircraft Yu-13 "Sibrevkom"


In the middle of 1920's. German aircraft of the Junker type of various modifications began to be supplied to the Soviet aviation units: “Ju 20” (reconnaissance aircraft), “Ju 21”, “Ju 21с” (fighter aircraft), “South-1” (bombers), etc. According to the tradition established at that time, many of them soon became nominal. Some "Junkers" took part in the initiative on the initiative of a specially created Commission on Large Soviet Flights headed by the Chief of Staff of the Red Army, S.S. Kamenev25 long-haul flights to the Far East. The idea of ​​such a Eurasian “air bridge” arose on the eve of the First World War in order to bring Europe and Asia closer by means of air communications. It was planned to carry out a flight from Beijing to Paris on the route: Beijing-Urga-Irkutsk-Omsk-Kazan-Moscow-Warsaw-Vienna-Trieste-Genoa-Avignon-Dijon-Paris, with stops in the specified cities. The launch was planned for 1 in September 1912 from the Beijing airport and completed on November 1 in the capital of France. During this time, flight participants had to cover the distance in 13 thousand. Km26.

The first flight to the Far East took place on 10 June 1 925, which was attended by a group of aircraft of different types of structures: "Р-1" (pilot MM Gromov, EV Rodzevich), "Р-1" (pilot М .A. Volkovova, flight mechanic VP Kuznetsov), "Р-2" (pilot A.N. Ekatov, flight mechanic FP Malikov), "Yu-13""True" (pilot I.K. Polyakov, flight engineer, V.V. Osipov), AK-1 "Latvian shooter" (Pilot A.I. Tomashevsky, Flight Mechanic V.P. Kamyshev). Over the 52 flight hours, a 6476 km long Moscow-Beijing route was covered. Later, two P-1 crews from Beijing took a course on Tokyo and September 2. 1925 successfully landed in the capital of Japan. Thus, for the first time in the history of world aviation, the Sea of ​​Japan was overcome by land types of aircraft. For this feat, all pilots and mechanics, participants in the flight, were awarded orders of the Red Banner, and the pilots also received the honorary title "Honored Pilot"27.

Aircraft P-1 "Atheist"


Named plane of the society DOBROLET “TS.O. VKP (b) Pravda. Xnumx


The aircraft of the German production "Fokker" F.lll RR1 "Latvian rifleman", participating in the flight on the route Moscow - Beijing. / Xnumx


However, among Soviet pilots, German cars were not particularly popular. To a certain extent, this was in line with the intentions of the Soviet leadership to accelerate the transition to the production of domestic aircraft. A broad campaign was launched in the country — to equip the Red Army air forces only with Soviet armament. For this purpose, the general public was attracted with its communist enthusiasm.

So, around the 1925-made corps squadron (Ivanovo-Voznesensk), which was formed at the end of May 3, whose aircraft fleet consisted exclusively of German Ju 21 machines, the next year, a movement began to re-equip it with Soviet aircraft.

In those days, the Ivanovo Oblast newspaper, Rabochy Kray, wrote: “Members of the Union of Educators, united by the Myshkin Village Committee No. XXUMX, donate their one-day salary from the February salary to build the aircraft.” This initiative was supported by many enterprises and institutions of the region, as well as other cities of the country, which made their contribution to the construction of aircraft.

A year later, new combat vehicles built with popular funds began to arrive in the squadron. At the same time the names on the sides of the aircraft spoke for themselves: Ivanovo Medical Officer, Thunderbird, Arseny, Chemist (the last three aircraft of the P-1 type were named in memory of the Ivanovo Bolshevik underground fighters), “For Leninism!”, “Dzerzhinets”, “Ivanovo Weaver”, “Ivanovo Textile Worker” and etc.

After some time, cars appeared on the detachment's campsites, on the boards of which it was derived: “The Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR assigned to the 3 separate air squadron the name“ The name of Ivanovo-Voznesensky workers ”.

A similar trend took place in Moscow, where the 20 Aviation Squad in the summer of 1 927 took place the solemn transfer of aircraft "MosCoke builder " и Moscow Metalworker, built on the collected funds of the working people of the capital.

On the days of the celebration of the 10 anniversary of the October Revolution, representatives of Osoaviahim and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions presented a good gift to the Red Army Air Force - airplanes built with

consumer cooperatives under the motto "Our response to Chamberlain." The chosen motto was a reflection of the political situation prevailing in connection with the rupture of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union initiated by British Foreign Secretary O. Chamberlain. Among the first, this name was given to the ANT-3 aircraft, which performed the flight en route Moscow-Tokyo.

Later, by a special order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, nominal aircraft were concentrated in the 11 th aviation brigade.

ORDER

REVOLUTIONARY MILITARY COUNCIL OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS28 № 144

7 June 1929 Moscow

0 assigned to the 11 aviation brigade name: "11 Aircraft Bomb Consumer Cooperative".

In connection with the concentration in the 11 of the aviation brigade of all military aircraft built with the means of the Consumer Cooperative Foundation Our Response to Chamberlain, give the name of the designated brigade:

"11 Aircraft Factory Consumer Cooperative".

People's Commissar for Military and Maritime Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR Voroshilov


Various social organizations did not stand aside. So, in June 1929, at the airport named after MV In a solemn ceremony, Frunze presented two aircraft to the representatives of the Air Force: «Unbeliever» (P-1) and «Cooperated handicraftsman" from the Union of atheist-atheist societies and from the Osoaviahim cell of the All Union Union.

At the same time, the Soviet glider pilots continued to amaze and amaze with their new developments. In 1928, a single-seat glider of record-breaking type was presented to the court to numerous fans of non-powered aviation. "Buyan" (designs by A.N. Sharapova and V.N. Verzilova) and double training glider «Kudeyar " (designs by AN Sharapov) built in Simferopol.

The next decade was truly a time of active development of Soviet aviation and new world records in the development of airspace, moving the USSR into the category of world aviation powers.

Gliders "Buyan" and "Kudeyar." Xnumx


Named planes of the Civil War


LINKS AND DETAILS:

1 Pavlov Ivan Ulyanovich [26.11.1891 (according to other sources - 1893) - 11.4.1936] - Soviet military leader. He graduated from the Higher Academic Courses. In military service with 1914. He served in the 1 th combat aviation group (1917). In 1918, he created the 1-th Soviet military aviation group. After the war, deputy inspector, chief inspector of the Red Army Air Force. In 1924-1930 Head of Air Force MVO.

2 D.V. Mityurin. Red Aviadarm ./ Avionics World, 2003. No.2. - C.65.

3 Alexander S. Yakovlev [19.3 (1.4) .1906 - 1989] - Soviet aircraft designer, twice Hero of Socialist Labor (1940, 1957), Colonel-General (1946), Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1976). In the Red Army with 1924 year. From 1 927, a student of the Air Force Engineering Academy. NOT. Zhukovsky. In 1931, an engineer at an aviation factory, where he formed a light aviation design bureau. From 1935, the main, and in 1956-1984. - general designer. In 1940-1946 at the same time deputy people's commissar of the aviation industry. Under his leadership, more than 100 types of mass-produced aircraft and their modifications were created.

4 The Russian Boris Iliodorovich [1884-1977] is the first Moscow aviator and one of the first Russian aircraft manufacturers.

5 During this period, B.I. Russian was just 34 year.

6 Efimov Alexander Ivanovich [? - 28.06.1919] - red military pilot. During the Civil War, he fought as part of the 1 th Soviet fighter air group. Has suffered an accident when landing in the dark (1919).

7 Sapozhnikov George Stepanovich [? -6.09.1920] - red military pilot-ace. He graduated from the Samara real school, Sevastopol school of pilots (1915). In the Military Air Fleet from 1914. During the years of the 1 World War I participated in 37 air battles, shot down 2 of the enemy aircraft. He served as part of the 1 6 corps air squadron (1915-1916), then the 9 airframe squadron (1916-1918). During the Civil War, he fought as part of the 1 th Soviet fighter air group. One of the most successful military pilots of the Red Air Fleet. Tragically died during takeoff from the airfield (1920).

8 Baranov Peter Ionovich [10 (22) .09.1892 - 5.9.1933] - the Soviet military leader. In military service with 1915. He graduated from Chernyaevskie general education courses in St. Petersburg. For anti-government agitation among the soldiers was convicted in 1916 by a military court on 8 years of hard labor. Released during the February Revolution (1917). In December, 1917 became chairman of the revolutionary committee of the Romanian Front. In April, 1918 was commander of the Donetsk army. In the period 1919 - 1920. He served in the following positions: member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 8 Army, Southern Army Group of the Eastern Front, Turkestan Front, 1 and 14 Army. He was directly involved in the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising (1921). In 1921 - 1922 member of the RVS of the Turkestan Front and acting commander of the troops of the Fergana region, in 1923 the head and commissioner of the armored forces of the Red Army. Since August, 1923 was the Assistant Chief of the Main Administration of the Air Fleet for political affairs, since October 1924 was the Deputy Chief, and since March 1925, the Chief of the Red Army Air Force. With his active participation, the Air Force was restructured in accordance with the military reform of 1924-1925, and decisions were made to mobilize command personnel from other types of troops in the Air Force. In January, 1932 was the Deputy Commissar of Heavy Industry and the Head of the General Aviation Industry Directorate. Killed in a plane crash (1933).

9 Unshlicht Joseph Stanislavovich [19 (31) .12.1879 - 29.07.1937] - Soviet state, party and military leader. From 1900, he began a revolutionary activity. In the October days 1917 was a member of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee. After the October Revolution, a member of the NKVD collegium. In 1919, the People's Commissar for Military Affairs of the Lithuanian-Belarusian SSR. In April - December 1919 was a member of the Military Council of the 16 Army (prior to 9.6.1919 - the Belarusian-Lithuanian Army), from December 1919 to April 1921 - the Western Front. In 1921 - 1923 Deputy Chairman of the Cheka (GPU). In 1923 - 1925 member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and the head of the supply of the Red Army. In 1925 - 1930 - Deputy Chairman of the RVS of the USSR and Deputy. Commissar, simultaneously with 1927, the deputy. Chairman of the USSR Osoaviakhim. In 1930 - 1933 deputy Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council, in 1933 - 1935. Chief, Civil Air Fleet Directorate. Repressed in 1937

10 RGVA. F.29, op.7, d.277, l.Z.

11 Ibid. L.4.

12 Collection of orders RVSR, RVS of the USSR and NKO on the assignment of names to parts, formations and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 - 1937 - M., 1967. - C.296.

13 Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolaevich [4 (16) .2.1893 - 1 1.6.1937] - Soviet military leader, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1935). He graduated from the Alexander Military School (1914), took an active part in the 1-th World War. In the period 1915 -1917. was in captivity. During the Civil War: a representative of the Military Department of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, Commissar of Defense of the Moscow Region, Commander of the 1 Army of the Eastern Front, Assistant Commander of the Southern Front, Commander of the Army of the Southern Front, Commander of the Caucasus Front, then the Western Front. He led the operation to suppress the Kronstadt and Tambov Uprisings in 1921. From 1921 he headed the Red Army Military Academy, from July 1924 - Deputy Chief of Staff of the Red Army, November 1925 to May 1928 - Chief of Staff of the Red Army, took an active part in military reform 1924 - 1925's. From May 1928 commanded the troops of the Leningrad Military District. From 1931, Deputy Commissar of Military Affairs and Chairman of the USSR Revolutionary Military Council, Head of Armaments of the Red Army, from 1934 - Deputy Commissar of Defense, from 1936, Deputy Commissar of Defense and Head of Combat Training. In 1937, the commander of the Volga Military District. In the same year, on a false accusation, he was illegally repressed. Rehabilitated (posthumously) in 1956

14 Rutkovsky V. S. [? -?] - Russian and Soviet military leader. During the 1 World War I as part of the WWF of the army, lieutenant colonel (1917). He consecutively held the positions of: a pilot of the 8 corps air squadron, commander of the 18 air corps, commander of the 10 air division. Head of the Air Force of the Moscow Military District (1918 - 1919). In 1924, the commander of the separate intelligence unit "Ultimatum".

15 Collection of orders RVSR, RVS of the USSR and NKO on the assignment of names to parts, formations and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 - 1937 - M „1967. - S. 172.

16 Sklyansky Efraim Markovich [1892 -1925] - Soviet state and military leader. Member of World War 1. In the Red Army from 1918. Member of the Petrograd RVK, Commissar of the General Staff and General Headquarters of the VG. Member of the College and Deputy Commissar of Foreign Affairs, a member of the Supreme Military Council. Deputy Chairman of the PBC of the Republic (1918 - 1924), member of the Council of Labor and Defense (1920 - 1921). With 1924, he worked at the Supreme Economic Council. Killed in overseas business trip (1925).

Later converted to the squadron of the same name.

17 Collection of orders RVSR, RVS of the USSR and NKO on the assignment of names to parts, formations and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 - 1937 - M., 1967. - C.212.

18 Frunze Mikhail Vasilyevich [21.1 (2.2). 1885 - 31.10.1925] - Soviet state and military leader, military theorist. In military service with 1916, Mr.. With 1904, he studied at St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, was expelled for revolutionary activities. 1905 to 1917 professional revolutionary, repeatedly arrested and exiled. In 1917, the head of the people's militia in Minsk, a member of the committee of the Western Front, a member of the executive committee of the Minsk Council. During the October armed uprising in Petrograd, the chairman of the Revolutionary Military Committee of the Shui. military district. From January 1918 the commander of the 1919 Army, in May-June - the Turkestan army, from July - the Eastern troops, and from August - the Turkestan fronts. In September 4, the commander of the Southern Front. In 1920 - 1922 . Authorized At the same time, in November 1924 - January 1920 headed the Ukrainian diplomatic delegation to Turkey at the conclusion of a friendship treaty between them. From February 1922, the deputy chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, headed the Ukrainian Armed Forces of Ukraine and the Crimea (1921 - 1922). and Deputy Chairman of the Economic Council of Ukraine.Since March 1922 1, Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, since April at the same time Chief of Staff of the Red Army and Head of the Military Academy of the Red Army. Since January, 924 was the chairman of the RVS of the USSR and the people's commissar for military and naval affairs, and since February also a member of the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR.

19 Collection of orders RVSR, RVS of the USSR and NKO on the assignment of names to parts, formations and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 - 1937 - M., 1967. - C.226.

20 Andrey Bubnov [22.3 (3.4). 1884 - 1.8.1938] - Soviet statesman and military leader, army commissar of 1 rank (1924). In military service in 1918 - 1929. He studied at the Moscow Agricultural Institute, expelled for revolutionary activities. In 1907 - 1917 on professional revolutionary work. In October, 1917 was a member of the Politburo of the RSDLP (b) and the Military Revolutionary Party Center for the Leadership of the Armed Uprising in Petrograd. Since December, 1917 has been a member of the board of the Narkuput, Commissioner of the Republic Railway in the South. In March - April 1918, the people's secretary (People's Commissar) of economic affairs of the Ukrainian SSR, in April-July a member of the Bureau of the leadership of the rebel struggle behind enemy lines, in July-September the chairman of the All-Ukrainian Center RVC. In March - April 1919, the chairman of the Kiev regional executive committee. Member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Ukrainian Front (April – June 1919), 14 Army (June – October), Kozlovskaya Shock Group (October – November), Head of the Political Department of the Left-Bank Group of Forces (November – December). In August 1919 - September 1920. Member of the Council of Defense of the Ukrainian SSR. He took an active part in leading the troops on the fronts of the Civil War in Russia (1917-1922). Since 1921, a member of the South-Eastern Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.), In 1921 - 1 922. member of the RVS SKVO and 1 of the Cavalry Army. In 1922 - 1923 head Agitprom CC RCP (b). From January 1924 to September 1929, Chief of the Political Administration of the Red Army, member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, chairman of the commission for the introduction of unity of command in the Red Army and Navy. In 1929 - 1937 Commissar of Education of the RSFSR. Unreasonably repressed (1938). Rehabilitated (posthumously) in 1956

21 Dzerzhinsky Felix Edmundovich [30.8 (1 1.9). 1877 - 20.7.1926] - Soviet state and military leader. Professional revolutionary. In October, 1917 was a member of the Military Revolutionary Party Center for the leadership of the armed uprising in Petrograd and the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee. From December 1917, the chairman of the Cheka on counter-revolution and sabotage. From August 1918, the chairman of the Special Department of the Cheka, designed to stop subversive activities in the Red Army. Heading the Cheka, and from 1919, the Commissariat of Internal Affairs, at the same time performed responsible tasks on the fronts. From September, 1919 was a member of the Defense Committee of Moscow, from May to September 1920 was the head of the South-Western rear, then a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Western Front. In 1920 - 1921 He headed various state commissions. Since April, 1921 city Commissar of Communications, simultaneously Chairman of the Cheka and the Commissar of Internal Affairs. Since July, 1923 has been a member of the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR. Since September, 1923 was the chairman of the board of the United State Political Administration at the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR (OGPU), and since February 1924 - and the chairman of the Supreme Council for the National Economy (VSNH).

22 Collection of orders RVSR, RVS of the USSR and NKO on the assignment of names to parts, formations and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 - 1937 - M „1967. - C.227.

23 Ibid. C.276.

24 YES. Sobolev. D.B. Khazanov. German trail in the domestic aviation. - M .: RUSAVIA, 2000. - C.56.

25 Kamenev Sergey Sergeevich [4 (16) .4.1881 - 25.8.1936] - Soviet military leader, commander of 1 rank (1935). He graduated from the Alexander Military School (1900) and the General Staff Academy (1907). Member of the World War 1: Senior Adjutant of the Operations Division of the 1 Army, Infantry Regiment Commander, Chief of Staff of the Rifle Corps, Colonel. During the Civil War: Chief of Staff of the 15 Infantry Corps, then 3 A, Military Head of the Nevelsky District of the Western Curtain Section (1918), Commander of the Eastern Front (1918 - 1919, with a break in 1919 in May). Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic and member of the RVSR (1919 - 1924). From March 1925, Chief of Staff of the Red Army, from November - Chief Inspector, then Head of the Main Directorate of the Red Army. From May 1927, Deputy People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and Deputy Chairman of the USSR Revolutionary Military Council. Since June 1934, the head of the Red Army Air Defense Directorate. Died in 1936

26 Russian disabled, May 19 (June 1) 1912. No.108. - S.Z.

27 VC. Ants Air Force testers. M .: Voenizdat, 1990. - C.73.

28 Collection of orders RVSR, RVS of the USSR and NKO on the assignment of names to parts, formations and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 - 1937 - M „1967. - C.275.
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  1. InkGrey
    InkGrey 17 December 2012 10: 44 New
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    Thanks for the article, it was interesting to read about an interesting time.
  2. biglow
    biglow 17 December 2012 16: 34 New
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    my great-grandfather flew on such things, was afraid to approach modern planes
  3. Marek Rozny
    Marek Rozny 19 December 2012 21: 06 New
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    The article is very interesting!
    By the way, I noticed that one of the planes here is called "Kizly of Bukhara." I looked in google, in other sources it is also written. Probably someone was mistaken somewhere and the correct spelling should be in Uzbek "Kizyl Bukhara" or "Kyzyl Bukhara" ("Red Bukhara" in Russian).
    Well, almost to the point, in Kazakhstan a couple of months ago, the national air carrier Air Astana announced that one of the brand new airbuses will be named after the first Kazakh military pilot, Hyuaz Dospanova, who fought in the famous regiment of “night witches” during the Second World War.

    And I collect information about the development of aviation in Kazakhstan, it just started with the fact that after the civil war, part of the aircraft mentioned in the article was sent to Central Asia to deal with the Basmachi. If suddenly anyone has any information (even half a line), I would be grateful.