Military Review

Russia and the world. Country of ice and ... science

27
The generally accepted version of our chronic lag in relation to the West in science and technology. It was as if Russia “started catching up” only after “cutting through a window to Europe”. However, the facts speak of something else.

Russia and the world. Country of ice and ... scienceTsar Cannon in the Moscow Kremlin.

The natural sciences in the modern sense were born shortly before the famous Peter's "cutting through the window." Yes, universities in Europe have existed for a long time. But it is forgotten that they were trained only in scholastic theology, jurisprudence, and (not everywhere) medicine. It was taught, however, "physics", but it was part of the philosophy, and she was taught according to Aristotle. From the end of the 16th century, mathematics was introduced in Jesuit schools - although they studied it according to Euclid, other mathematicians were not yet known.

And the level of medical science can be judged by the fact that bloodletting and intestinal cleansing were recognized as generally accepted means of all diseases. King Henry II, the wounded spear in the eye and brain, was given a laxative and began to bleed. Francis II, with strong suppuration behind the ear, in addition to these means, closed the exit of pus and caused gangrene. Laxatives brought Queen Margot to death with pneumonia. Louis XIII from childhood suffered from catarrh of the stomach - he was given anemia by bleeding. And Richelieu with hemorrhoids was tortured with daily enemas.

The second edition of the primer Vasily Burtsev.

But they were treated by the best doctors!

Of natural sciences, it was not by chance that astronomy was the first to develop; it became a “by-product” of the then fashionable astrology. And serious research has long remained a lot of lonely enthusiasts. What kind of scientific level can we talk about here, if at the end of the 16th century the Calvinists burned the founder of the circulatory theory Servet, in the 1616 year the Vatican banned the works of Copernicus, and Galileo was forced to renounce in the 1633 year!

And in actual fact, science began to progress only in the middle of the XVII century. And often it was in no way connected with the needs of production and with states where large-scale industry had already appeared. On the contrary, they invented in the countries of absolutism, where rich aristocrats sponsored scientists for their own entertainment. The impetus to the progress of machine technology gave ... theater. In pompous court performances it was considered chic when the stage was equipped with cunning mechanisms, clouds and chariots of “gods”, etc., drove, for which the inventors were attracted. During the construction of fountains, it suddenly became clear that water could not rise above a certain height. Where did the experiments of Torricelli and Pascal come from - and hydrodynamics was born. A side discovery of the “Torricellian emptiness”, a vacuum, for the first time denied the authority of Aristotle, who claimed that “nature does not tolerate emptiness”. The court fashion on gambling spawned an order - to calculate the probability of winning. And the theory of probability arose ... But in the struggle for the positions of professors of mathematics at Jesuit colleges, the candidates tried to prove their professionalism - and stepped over the framework of Euclid.

But even then science remained the lot of a handful of enthusiasts. British philosopher Bertrand Russell wrote that if 100 scientists had been killed in childhood in the 17th century, the modern world would not exist. They really were one. Galileo, Cardano, Tartaglia, Farm, Torricelli, Descartes, Pascal, Cavalieri, Huygens, Roberval, Desargues, Wiet ...

And they reported on the results of their research not in publications, but in correspondence among themselves - the connecting center of correspondence of all scientists of that time was monk Mersenn, on his own initiative. Only at the end of the 17th century, real scientific societies and academies appeared, the Greenwich Observatory is being built, physicians are widely involved in anatomy, Levenguk invents a microscope, Leibniz develops differential and integral calculus, Newton's genius flourishes, which in 1687 published his main work “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” . As you can see, not long before Peter went to Europe to "learn."

General view of the molotovy barn. XVII century. Reconstruction N. B. Baklanova.

Did science exist before Peter in Russia? Yes, it did. Although, of course, also far from modern. There was its own education system. Back in 1550, the Stoglavy Cathedral pointed out the need for "literacy to learn." But usually children were taught only reading, writing, counting, Holy Scripture, and the rest of the knowledge a person had to pick up himself, in communication with "knowledgeable people" and in "extensive reading."

That is, each continued education individually, depending on the chosen profession. There was also relevant literature: for example, “Alphabet Books” - instructions for teachers with a significant amount of practical knowledge in various fields. Guldenstern in the year 1602 mentions a Russian primer. And in 1634, the Moscow Printing House published a textbook by Vasily Burtsev, "Primer of the Slavonic Language, that is, the beginning of teaching to children." Foreigners are describing in the Moscow market the Mile-long Book Series. So there was a demand for books.

However, in the XVII century, there are already permanent schools. Under Mikhail Fedorovich - for the training of clergymen, and under Alexey Mikhailovich and for secular persons - schools at the Miracle, Zaikonospassky monasteries (students were given a stipend - 10 rubles a year!), Gymnasium at the Church of St. John the Theologian in China, a school at the church St. John the Divine in Bronnaya settlement, the school at the Printing House. Finally, the Fyodor Alekseevich created the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy.

There was its own medicine. Foscarino in the XVI century, wrote: "Doctors treat by experience and tried medicinal herbs." There was a medical literature - "Herbalists", "Zeleniki", "Medicare". There was a Pharmaceutical order, something like the "Ministry of Health." In Moscow, there was a Potion Series, which traded in medicinal herbs and other medical drugs. And there it was possible to hire "leztsa", "zubodёru", "ophthalmic", "chiropractor", "krovopuska" and even "womanish affairs of the master." Pharmaceutical order allocated drugs and medical personnel for the army, there are detailed paintings on this subject - how many “doctors”, surgeons, chiropractors. Under the tsarina, the Russian “dokhturitsa” is mentioned (and the “dokhtur” was higher than the “lechtsa”, usually the “dokhtury” were foreigners). Medical experts were among the monks of almost every monastery.

Since ancient times, there was also mathematics. And its own, subsequently repressed European. Not only the decimal system was used - they were considered to be more nines and magpies. I will not argue how convenient it is, but not at all primitive. Try to count in several systems and easily switch from one to another! (And everyone was able to count - what kind of trade without an account?)

In extant textbooks beginning of the XVI century. The terms are called “lists”, the sum is “bottom list”, the difference is “residuals”, decreasing is “borrowed list”, deductible “pay list”, the dividend is “big list”, private “zherebenny list”, the remainder is “ residual shares. There were manuals on geometry "with the application of land surveying", which provides information about the calculation of the areas of different shapes. The calculations of the squares are also contained in the work of Yermolai Erazm, "By the glorious king, the ruler and the land of agriculture".

And theoretical mathematics operated with numbers up to ... 10 in 48 degrees! - and also had its own terminology. “Darkness” in mathematics meant a thousand thousand - that is, a million, a million million - “legion”, a legion of the legions - “leodr”, and a leodr leodrov - “raven”. The unit of the 49 th digit. By the way, Old Russian mathematics in general often operated not with linear, but with power dependencies - one thousand thousand, forty forty.

There were highly educated specialists - “arithmometers”, cartographers. Of course, without foundational knowledge in the most diverse areas, such foundry workers as Andrei Chokhov, who created the Tsar Cannon, the huge Reut bell, etc., could not work. At this point, natural talent and “Russian savvy” were clearly not enough. As for the architects who solved the most complex engineering problems. And Fulvio Ruggieri, who admired the construction of our fortresses in 1568, respectfully called the Russian city planners "engineers". They knew how to make clever mechanisms. A false Dmitri sent a watch to Marina Mnishek who crafted various “pieces of Moscow custom” - they beat tambourines, played flutes and pipes. And under Mikhail Fedorovich, on the Spasskaya Tower, the Czech watch Tanner wrote that the clock was “like the Prague ones” - they called the “musical scale” on the bells.

There were enthusiastic scientists. The archive of the hegumen of the Solovki monastery of Fyodor Kolychev contains descriptions of many inventions that were introduced under his leadership. This and the giant hydraulic structures of the monastery with cunning pipelines, when the water from the 52 lakes was fed to the mills, set in motion the forges and hammers. And a mechanical dryer, a fan, and a device for warming up clay in the manufacture of bricks, and even original devices that accelerate and facilitate the manufacture of kvass.

Boyarin Matveyev studied algebra and made chemical experiments. Stolnik Godunov compiled the “Drawing of the Siberian Lands”, and Archbishop Kholmogorsky and Vazhsky Athanasius Lyubimov worked in architecture, medicine, astronomy, watched celestial bodies through “visual glass in a tree”, made maps of Pomerania and Ukraine, “Description of three ways from the Pomeranian countries to Swedish land ", developed a project for the development of the New Earth.

But we also note that Russia was by no means an industrially backward country. Back in the sixteenth century, large manufactory enterprises were salt factories - for example, the Stroganov enterprises produced 110 thousand tons of salt per year (by the way, there was its own school for training specialists, technical instructions were written). There were cable yards in Vologda and Kholmogory (Kholmogorsky provided ropes with 1/4 British fleet) And foreigners called the Moscow Cannon Yard a "foundry." He had several workshops, his own testing ground for guns, hammers were driven by hydraulic mechanisms. However, rapid industrial growth began in the XVII century - later than in Holland and England, but much earlier than in France, Italy, Spain.

Forging a cross. Miniature Synodica XVII century.

Under Mikhail Fedorovich, another cable yard was built in Arkhangelsk, in Moscow - 2 powder mills, sewing manufactories - Tsarskaya and Tsaritsyna workshops of the chamber, weaving - Khamovnaya izba, silk - Velvet yard, Upper printing house. Their workers were “state employees”, they lived on a salary from the treasury, and Oleariy, not without surprise, reports: “In Moscow it is accepted that every month all tsarist officials and artisans receive their salaries in time; to some it is even brought to the house. ” Large enterprises were brick factories. So, the needs of Moscow provided the plant in the village. Kalitnikovo. Add a powerful tanning industry in Kazan and Murom. And in 1632, the Dutch Marcelis and Vinius received a license to build an ironworks in Tula, that is, a metallurgical plant. (By the way, the Dutch metallurgy was also developed by the Dutch). But it is noteworthy that the tsarist literacy stipulated that the owners would hire people “out of kindness and not into bondage”, “no one could take care of anyone’s cramps and offenses”.

At the time of Alexei Mikhailovich, the process went even more intensively. Often, companies that were created with the participation of foreigners, adopting their technology, were budding others, with Russian craftsmen. The Dukhaninsky glass factory was built by the Italians, and then the state-owned Izmailovsky, which produced, according to foreigners' estimates, “fairly clean glass”, arose. The paper factory on Pakhra was built by the Germans, and the government bureau was separated from it, on the Yauza River. In Moscow, the watch factory, Granatny Dvor, another 2 printing house began to operate. And the Tula factory of Marselis and Vinius brought huge profits to the owners and the treasury, and their company received permission to build new ones - they appear in Kashira, Maloyaroslavetsky counties, on Vaha, Sheksna, in Kostroma and Voronezh.

For those times, not only foreigners and merchants were engaged in high-tech production, but also the highest know. Boyar Morozov in the Moscow suburb of Pavlovsk built his own smelter using advanced equipment. Distillery, potash factories acted in his patrimonies. Miloslavsky and Odoyevsky founded their enterprises, including metallurgical ones. And it is indicative of the fact that by the year 1648 Russia supplied not only wax and honey to Europe, but also ... cannons! "Over the sea at a free price" went to 800 guns per year. They were sold to the Dutch, and they resold them to third countries - to the same France, where their own production arose through 30 years, under Colbert.

In Russia, grew like mushrooms, leather, cloth, linen manufactories. And even the king and the queen took part in it! Collins described how “beautiful houses” were built in 7 versts from Moscow for the processing of hemp and flax, “which are in great order, very extensive and will deliver work to all the poor in the state ... The Queen will manage women in this establishment benefits ”(in total, during the reign of Mikhail Fedorovich and Alexei Mikhailovich, 60“ palace ”manufactories were created). At the same time, the industrial development of the Urals began. Copper was found near Salt Kamskaya (before Russia bought it), the Pyskorsky copper smelter began to operate here. Nevyansk plants were already built, the ones that Peter would give to Demidov.

Conducted geological exploration in Siberia. The order of the Ore Investigation sent instructions to the governors to “click on the squares” about the search for minerals, for which the reward was due. Attached and instructions on how to take samples sent to Moscow, where it was concluded about the feasibility of development. As a result, iron was found in Tomsk, Kuznetsk, Yenisei, Yakutsk counties, non-ferrous metals, silver near Nerchinsk, lead on Argun, nitrate on Olekma, mica, "stone nazdak", etc. were found. Steel mills - Nitsynsky, Dolmatova monastery were built . True, in most of the fields it came only to test pits and smelting, but such authoritative researchers of Siberia as S.V. Bakhrushin and S.A. Tokarev unequivocally established: “The research of 18th century academics was based on the previous searches and experience of service people of the 17th century ".

So what was the backlog of Russia? That she invited foreign experts? But to adopt the best and latest experience is quite normal in technical progress. Suppose if there were some beautiful casters of your own - then why did Mikhail Fyodorovich not lure the famous Nuremberg master Hans Falken to Moscow (the same one on whose behalf the light gun was called the falconet)?

In fact, Peter I continued the practice of his grandfather and father. And after all, with what hunt went! Leibniz himself imposed, only frightened the king too cool social projects. A Swiss naturalist Bernoulli, going to Russia, wrote: "It is better to suffer a little from the harsh climate in the country of ices, where muses are welcomed, than to die of starvation in a country with a temperate climate, in which muses are offended and despised."
So judge for yourself what it really was - the “lag” or the wise policy of the kings, as a result of which the “brain drain” went in the opposite direction to the current one?
Author:
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27 comments
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  1. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 18 December 2012 08: 12
    +12
    Good article.
    It is necessary to read and believe less nonsense about the history of our country in the presentation of Westerners and other degenerates of predominantly geyropeysky origin.
    We should be proud of our history and our ancestors, and not be shy about them.
    Let the brazen ones and other Frenchmen, who washed up to the 19th century, 200 people in one tub in turn, feel shy. Let those in whose history the rulers annihilated more people on scaffolds and along roads along the roads more than our bloodiest kings Ivan IV and Peter 1.
    1. mda
      mda 18 December 2012 20: 16
      +1
      Quote: Sakhalininets
      Let the brazen ones and other Frenchmen, who washed up to the 19th century, 200 people in one tub in turn, feel shy.

      Did they wash themselves? In Europe, it was a sin to wash, and so they watered with perfumes.
  2. donchepano
    donchepano 18 December 2012 09: 23
    +1
    So we aren’t as dense as the Pagans of Anglo-Saxons represent us.
  3. 22rus
    22rus 18 December 2012 10: 04
    -10
    Could you publish lists of scientific works of Russian scientists for the 13-16th century? Well, something similar and comparable, for example, with the works of Leonardo da Vinci or Copernicus. Or Paracelsus and Vesalius. It is possible about something proportional to Jean Boden or Niccolo Machiavelli, Thomas Moore or Thomas Companella.
    At worst, Rene Descartes.
    I would read something in Russian from literature of the 14-16th centuries. And then all some kind of foreigners .. Shakespeare, Cervantes and Petrarch all sorts.
    1. Middle-brother
      Middle-brother 18 December 2012 10: 36
      +5
      22rus
      Are you sure you can read in Russian 14-16 centuries?
      1. 22rus
        22rus 18 December 2012 10: 39
        -8
        Quote: Middle Brother
        Are you sure you can read in Russian 14-16 centuries?

        What are the problems? Native, Russian. laughing
        Drive, I will try. Not the church one. Better poems.
        1. Middle-brother
          Middle-brother 18 December 2012 11: 10
          +8
          Quote: 22rus
          What are the problems? Native, Russian.

          Take any church book - it is in Old Slavonic. Do not master more than a couple of lines. And in the 14-16 centuries, only on this and wrote.
          "The list of scientific works of Russian scientists" will appear a little later. As for poetry - there is, for example, "The Lay of Igor's Host", created at the end of the 12th century. A little depressing, but what to do - nobody canceled Igo. And the Western scientists, philosophers, etc. mentioned by you above. appeared due to the fact that Russia did not let in the hordes of Europe so beloved by you, which would not have left a stone unturned from it.
          1. 22rus
            22rus 18 December 2012 11: 36
            -5
            Quote: Middle Brother
            As for poetry - there is, for example, "The Lay of Igor's Host", created at the end of the 12th century.

            It’s hard to call poetry. If just for the lack of others. I'd rather look through Shakespeare or Lope de Vega.

            Quote: Middle Brother
            Western scientists, philosophers, etc. appeared due to the fact that Russia did not let hordes so beloved of Europe that you would not leave a stone on it.

            Do you think that Europe could not stand up for itself? But by that time there were already guns there.
            1. Middle-brother
              Middle-brother 18 December 2012 12: 05
              +3
              Quote: 22rus
              Do you think that Europe could not stand up for itself? But by that time there were already guns there.

              I think that hardly.
              And the dictatorship of the Mongols and the Golden Horde for a long time delayed the development of Russia.
              1. Rink
                Rink 19 December 2012 01: 43
                +3
                Quote: Middle Brother
                And the dictatorship of the Mongols and the Golden Horde for a long time delayed the development of Russia.

                Was she real?

                What kind of strange people are the Mongol Tatars, despite the fact that they have nothing to do with either modern Mongols or modern Tatars?
                From where did they crawl out and where did they crawl? they were nowhere BEFORE, and nowhere AFTER this very yoke. Where is their capital, even the remnants?
                What is the name of Genghis Khan? ("Chinggis Khan" is just a title, "Great Khan") Why is it said in the descriptions of the Arab travelers who visited him at the headquarters that he was tall, Russian and blue-eyed? do Mongols or Tatars look like this? Why do the Arabs say that he is of the Christian denomination, and at his rate were Christian priests?
                Why in the capital of the Mongol-Tatars the largest percentage (according to the same Arabic sources and reports of the Pope’s ambassadors) was the largest percentage of Russians (Slavs)?
                Where is the economy and industry that made it possible to arm and feed the fictional millions of warlike nomads? Are they in the steppes or something, they mined iron ore and fuel for its smelting and forging swords, chain mail and horseshoes? Obviously dummies collected ...
                Do you know that Russian chain mail in those days was considered the top of blacksmithing and the most progressive (and expensive) equipment, because it had practically the same efficiency as armor, but unlike them it weighed less and did not constrain movement? And the European knights traveled in armor for so long because the chain mail was inaccessible to them, as the SU-35 technology was for African tribes.
                Why did nomads absolutely always and everywhere fought from spring to autumn, while the "Mongol-Tatars" in Russia fought only in winter? What did they feed their armies with? horses of nomads can pick out grass with their hoof from under a 10-cm layer of snow and crust, but not from under half-meter snowdrifts. There was no extra fodder in the villages, and 300 thousand nomads = about million horses. WHAT to feed, one of the historians thought about this ?! Yes, even if they seized all the fodder in Russia at that time, it would not be enough! But then in Russia until the spring all cattle and horses would die, and the annals do not report anything like that ...
                Why are all the surviving documents of the Horde (labels on the reign, etc.) written mainly in Russian, sometimes in Arabic, but never in "Mongol-Tatar"?
                Why in the Hungarian campaign did the Europeans in the Batu army see only Slavic troops, and do not describe any Asians? The letters of the Hungarian king to the pope survived, with a detailed report on the Mongol army: composition, strength, methods of warfare, etc. There, all the Mongols are Slavs.
                Why on old Orthodox icons the "Mongols" are fighting under Orthodox banners with the face of Christ, and are indistinguishable from the Russian troops in terms of equipment?
                Why were all the oldest (of the known) monasteries in Russia founded during the "occupation"?
                And why did the "occupation" and "oppression" end with the unification of the scattered Russian principalities and the creation of a single and strong Russian state? Moreover, the collection of lands by Moscow was carried out with the blessing and with the support of the horde, as if the experienced administrators, who had been oppressed by the empire in half the world, absolutely did not understand what this was fraught with for them?
                And in general, why did nomads never anywhere else in the history of the planet create not only giant empires, but even their own small states; neither earlier nor later?

                The more you think about it, the more incomprehensible the "Mongol-Tatar" yoke.
                I am not a historian, I am a techie. I read history simply as a pleasure, not remembering names and dates too much - well, like art books. The historian is able to bring much more inconsistencies in the official version of this mysterious yoke.
                1. Rink
                  Rink 19 December 2012 01: 46
                  +1
                  ... and in continuation (otherwise it dropped out "You entered too long a comment")


                  But from what I read in the scattered works of various historians, I concluded for myself:
                  The "Mongol-Tatar" "yoke" openly "at the tip of the pen" was invented by Western (German, most likely) historians of later centuries, just as now they are inventing the American "victory" over Hitler's Germany.

                  This is from a single berry bush. From a cranberry bush. Branchy.

                  Historians simply state these inconsistencies and oddities. Well, it remained uncorrected in certain documents - you still can't burn it at the stake of the Inquisition? something survived. Where inadvertently, where they saved, people hid. Now it is too late to destroy - facts and evidence that do not fit into the official version have already been "photographed". But the "scientists" do not stoop to attempts to explain. Just start explaining - the whole structure will fall apart. Easier to ignore.

                  And if all these inconsistencies and facts are collected in one place in one heap, they easily reach a critical mass, which is able to smash the "theory of yoke" in Russia to pieces.
          2. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 18 December 2012 13: 11
            +4
            Middle brother "The Lay of Igor's Regiment", created at the end of the 12th century. A little depressing, but what to do - nobody canceled Igo.
            I will correct you a little. Igo took place in the 13th century. The author was sad because he was worried that Russia was not united. Even in the matter of confrontation, let’s say so to external enemies.
            1. Pon69
              Pon69 18 December 2012 14: 37
              +5
              Wrote "Word ..." a church deacon, that's why the syllable is like that. And poems and all sorts of stories during the excavation in Novgorod on a birch bark plaque were found a lot. But the most striking thing is that the notes of two gossips were found. One other wrote to lag behind her husband. Moreover, in Russian, on the floor. And these notes were found in the cultural layer, which was formed several hundred years before the invasion of the Mongol-Tatars. It follows that one at least knew how to read, and the other to write. However, they were not nobility. That is, literacy was available.
        2. Prometey
          Prometey 18 December 2012 14: 00
          +2
          22rus
          Actually manuscript books can still be mastered, but documents of the 16-17th century - if you stock up with a bunch of patience and liters of eye drops. They are practically Chinese characters.
      2. Sakhalininsk
        Sakhalininsk 18 December 2012 14: 03
        +3
        Quote: Middle Brother
        Are you sure you can read in Russian 14-16 centuries?


        Man, do not feed the troll. It is from this even more verbiage.
    2. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 18 December 2012 10: 38
      +5
      22rus "Could you publish a list of scientific works of Russian scientists for the 13-16 centuries?"
      Yes, unfortunately our scientists later appeared. If Peter had not carried out the reforms, maybe they would not have happened at all. I see you as somehow uncomfortable that you have any relation to Russia. I sympathize with you! Can you change citizenship at least to Czech? In extreme cases, your nickname from 22rus to 22nerus. It would be logical.
      1. 22rus
        22rus 18 December 2012 11: 03
        -1
        Quote: Nagaibak
        Yes, unfortunately our scientists later appeared. If Peter had not carried out the reforms, maybe they would not have happened at all.

        About what happened after Peter I myself know. And here to...
        You read the article inattentively.
        Here is a quote from it.
        But did science exist in Russia before Peter? Yes, it did.

        So I want to know about the works of Russian scientists before Peter. What is so unusual here?

        Quote: Nagaibak
        22rus to 22nerus. It would be logical.

        In the sense of non-Russian, you can ask here, but not Russian? So more logical?
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 18 December 2012 13: 16
          0
          22rus "In the sense of non-Russian, you can ask here, but Russian - no? Is that more logical?" And here Russian-non-Russian. I have not seen any positive posts from you regarding Russia, so I wrote.
          1. 22rus
            22rus 18 December 2012 13: 26
            -2
            Quote: Nagaibak
            And here Russian-non-Russian. I haven’t seen positive posts from you regarding Russia, that's why I wrote it.

            I understood your position: Russians required write about Russia only good. All the rest - at will.
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 18 December 2012 15: 11
              +1
              [quote = 22rus "I understand your position: Russians are obliged to write only good things about Russia."
              - For you, at least sometimes it will be counted!
    3. Rebus
      Rebus 18 December 2012 12: 31
      +4
      Quote: 22rus
      Could you publish lists of scientific works of Russian scientists for the 13-16th century? Well, something similar and comparable, for example, with the works of Leonardo da Vinci or Copernicus. Or Paracelsus and Vesalius. It is possible about something proportional to Jean Boden or Niccolo Machiavelli, Thomas Moore or Thomas Companella.

      Tell me, when were the "works" of Leonardo da Vinci published, wasn't it the 1536th - XNUMXth centuries? Wasn't the only book of Copernicus included in the list of prohibited books? Paracelsus was generally a graphomaniac with delusions of grandeur, the real name of Philip Aureol Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim, and the name Aureol (golden) called himself because he considered his skill and hands not surpassed and wrote a "scientific" work "Book about nymphs, sylphs, pygmies, salamanders , giants and other spirits "(XNUMX).
      Or Tommaso Campanella, with his city of the sun, his genius on "and they lived together, and they had everything in common, even their wives," did not advance ...
      You did not write about Jacob Sprenger and Heinrich Institoris in their work “Hexenhammer” the culmination of scientific thought in Europe of the 31th - XNUMXth centuries, this book has been published XNUMX times, this book describes how to interrogate and torture witches from a scientific point of view ...

      Quote: 22rus
      I would read something in Russian from literature of the 14-16 centuries

      I highly recommend “Walking Over Three Seas” by Afanasy Nikitin, a very instructive book of the XNUMXth century, unlike Marco Polo, Afanasy Nikitin still visited India. This is a striking example of fiction and non-fiction.
      http://old-russian.chat.ru/16nikitin.htm
      And after reading "The word about plku Igorєvѣ Igorѧ son of Svt Slavlѧ grandson Olga" you will understand that Shakespeare and Petrarch are just craftsmen
      http://old-russian.chat.ru/05slovo.htm
      Also read "Zadonshchina" http://old-russian.chat.ru/15zadon.htm
      Or "The Legend of Dracula the Voivode" http://old-russian.chat.ru/09drakula.htm
      1. 22rus
        22rus 18 December 2012 12: 48
        +1
        Quote: Rebus
        Tell me, when were the "works" of Leonardo da Vinci published, wasn't it the XNUMXth - XNUMXth centuries?

        It does not matter. It is important when they were written.
        1. Rebus
          Rebus 18 December 2012 13: 11
          +1
          Quote: 22rus
          It does not matter. It is important when they were written.

          On the contrary, it is important that if there are no publications of the author during his lifetime, then these "works" are at least controversial, if not even a hoax ...
          1. 22rus
            22rus 18 December 2012 13: 38
            -8
            Quote: Rebus
            On the contrary, it is important that if there are no publications of the author during his lifetime, then these "works" are at least controversial, if not even a hoax.

            About " "A speech about the party of Igor, son of Svyatoslav, grandson of Oleg,
            known on the Arbat as Garik Vyrubala "
            The word about Igor's regiment "is still being argued a lot about its authenticity.
            The modern version looks like this. An excerpt from the prince's appeal to his squad:
            Without mochilov, people,
            Sneakily to show the rear
            Dark brown:
            So that you don’t hang on the tail,
            It’s necessary to extinguish a chock,
            Break off and fly ...

            smile
            1. donchepano
              donchepano 18 December 2012 13: 52
              +2
              Quote: 22rus
              22rus Today, 13:38


              Well, you’re a nonsense, of course, a cool poet. And your syllable is masterpiece and even a rest.
              Where is Shakespeare before you ...
              1. 22rus
                22rus 18 December 2012 14: 04
                -1
                Quote: donchepano
                Well, you’re a nonsense, of course, a cool poet. And your syllable is masterpiece and even a rest.
                Where is Shakespeare before you ..

                Not mine.
                The author is a philologist Viktor Shapoval, who translated the masterpieces of literature into youth slang, hoping in this way to arouse interest in literature from the current undergrowth.
            2. Rebus
              Rebus 18 December 2012 13: 53
              +3
              22rus,
              You boor. If you do not know how to lead a discussion, then it is better not to write. Or do you have others
              there are no arguments, or you are stupid, and the first and second says that you are a poor and narrow-minded person.
              1. 22rus
                22rus 18 December 2012 14: 06
                -2
                I think that you are mistaken. It’s hard to blame me for being rude.
                1. Rebus
                  Rebus 18 December 2012 14: 25
                  +4
                  Quote: 22 rus

                  I think that you are mistaken. It’s hard to blame me for being rude.

                  Just, it’s easy to accuse you of rudeness.
                  The word ham is a household name and comes from the name of the Ham son of Noah,
                  read this story carefully. A boor is a person who does not respect and defile his ancestors.
                  1. 22rus
                    22rus 18 December 2012 15: 21
                    -3
                    Quote: Rebus
                    Ham son of Noah ..... this is a man who does not respect and defile his ancestors.

                    Speaking specifically about Hama, he insulted only my father. About the desecration of ancestors (in the sense that you are trying to incriminate me here) in the Bible, of course there is nothing.
                    And rudeness is usually called insulting people or violating public order orally. What I repeat, was not noticed.
                    However, this is already far from the topic.
                    I just wanted to learn about the works of Russian scientists that existed long before Peter, as the author told us in his article.
                    Or ... is it also rudeness?
                    1. Kortik
                      Kortik 19 December 2012 04: 13
                      0
                      My friend, what are you acting under two nicknames? Confused color epaulet. On one of the rank and file of the Russian army, and on the other - a gunworm, it is not clear what affiliation. Although the nicknames seem to be the same, the difference in nicknames in the space is between 22 and rus. This is dishonest. I will say more: somehow it’s not at all patsansky. It is necessary to fight in one form, and you as a saboteur change it. This is a sad fact. I am crying. There is nothing more to be done. I went to sleep .. Good night. Everyone.
    4. Suvorov000
      Suvorov000 18 December 2012 14: 04
      +5
      Well, at least when all enlightened Europe went all in lice and died of the plague, Russia at least once a week went to the bathhouse to wash, this already says something
    5. vadimN
      vadimN 18 December 2012 15: 34
      +3
      Quote: 22rus
      Could you publish a list of scientific works of Russian scientists over the 13-16 centuries?


      With this question, I would like to address you to Messrs. Miller, Schumacher, Juncker, Bayer ..., and other Germans at the court of Elizabeth Petrovna, who "wrote and edited" Russian history to fit their needs. It is a pity, they died a long time ago, otherwise they could stuff them in the face, as MV Lomonosov dreamed ...
      In their own times, according to Kluchesky, many letters from Russian monastery libraries disappeared. Another reason for the poor preservation of Russian primary sources of knowledge is, oddly enough, the widespread prevalence of this very knowledge.
      The point is that in Europe science was an elite occupation and was intended for a narrow circle of "intellectuals". In Russia, knowledge has always been the property, and for the most part a product, of the people. They were founded and developed in the field of knowledge of nature and the World. And they were preserved among the people either in oral traditions or in birch bark - things that are not always durable, especially under conditions of "friendly" German patronage.
      At the time of the widespread dissemination of paper and book printing in Russia, science, through the efforts of the same Germans and often the Christian church authorities, has already acquired "European" features - closedness, elitism, "imprisonment" for the needs of the ruling class.
  4. itr
    itr 18 December 2012 10: 41
    +2
    There was its own medicine. Foscarino in the XVI century wrote: "Doctors treat by experience and tested medicinal herbs." There was medical literature - "Herbalists", "Zeelyniki", "Healers". There was a Pharmaceutical order, something like a "Ministry of Health." In Moscow there was the Zeleny Ryad, which sold medicinal herbs and other medical potions. And in the same place it was possible to hire a “liech”, “a beaver”, “an eye-socket”, “a chiropractor”, “bloodletting” and even “master's affairs of a woman”. A pharmacist’s order allocated medicines and medical personnel for the army, there are detailed paintings on this subject - how many “doctors”, surgeons, chiropractors. Under the tsarina, the Russian “dohturitsa” is mentioned (and “dohtur” was higher than the “Lechts”, usually “dohturits” were foreigners). And they treated with enemas and bloodletting . Sorry, but this is nonsense.
    1. Alex
      Alex 21 November 2013 15: 37
      +2
      Quote: itr
      And they treated with enemas and bloodletting

      Well, why? Aleksei Mikhailovich just died of a cold when he began to be treated in a European way - bloodletting. And he also demanded the same from the boyars. So it’s not so simple.
  5. He is
    He is 18 December 2012 11: 28
    +1
    And at the present time "brains" come to us from the other side! Where are we going? Back in the Middle Ages?
  6. wulf66
    wulf66 18 December 2012 17: 46
    +1
    Great article! And if you add to the article mentioned that you haven’t washed for centuries in Europopia, and you have revered the Russian bathhouse for barbarism, then everything falls into place! Where the barbarians think I can see with the naked eye !!!
  7. sniper
    sniper 18 December 2012 19: 05
    +2
    Thanks for the article and for the comments, often you will learn more from them than from the material under discussion! Article plus !!!