For any sensible person, it has long been no secret that we live in a world that someone did not suit for people, or rather, not for all people; in which the vast majority lives by the rules of a tiny minority, and the world is extremely hostile, and the rules are aimed at destroying the majority. How could this happen? How flimsy David managed to perch around the neck of a huge Goliath and chase him, carelessly hanging his legs? Cunning, but deception, mostly. One of the ways in which the majority was forced to obey the minority is the falsification of the past. A very clever, but devilishly cruel Pope spoke frankly about this:
“Therefore, in order to subdue peacefully, I use a very simple and reliable method - I destroy their past ... For without the past, a person is vulnerable ... He loses his ancestral roots if he has no past. And just then, confused and unprotected, it becomes a “clean canvas” on which I can write any historyAnd, believe it, dear Isidora, people are only happy about this, because, I repeat, they cannot live without the past (even if they themselves don’t want to admit it). And when there is no such one, they accept any, just not to “hang” in obscurity, which is much worse for them than any other, made-up “story” ... ”
This method of “peaceful submission” turned out to be much more effective than submission by force. For it acts imperceptibly for subordinates, gradually plunging them into mental sleep, and subordinates do not experience unnecessary inconvenience — they do not smudge pens and do not wave their swords. Main their weapon - pen and ink. So they act, of course, after all the carriers of the truth, of which there have always been a little, physically destroyed, distorted information about them, sometimes to the opposite, and their entire heritage carefully, until the last leaf, was collected and taken to themselves. What could not take away without hesitation destroyed. Recall that the Etruscan Library in Rome, Alexandria, and the library of Ivan the Terrible were completely disappeared.
After stripping, the winners composed their history and assigned their heroes. Since we are now living in a hostile parasitic civilization, then all those whom she glorifies, who she calls great, have rendered her some invaluable service, have contributed their five kopecks to the cause of its formation. Moreover, since from time immemorial the confrontation on Earth went on between the parasitic civilization and the civilization of the Rus, then the present heroes are the heroes of social parasites, opponents of the Rus. The only benefit in this moment is that it is easy to distinguish one who is not at all a friend to us. If some historical figure is extolled to the skies, the nemeryanny kischestvo of monuments, memorial plaques are rebuilt to him and they are called by the name of the street, this is a sure sign that he did some disgusting rusam. And the more they extol, the more disgusting it is. This is also true in the opposite case - the more they curse, the scolded personality doesn’t please the parasites very much. It is necessary to understand only what.
The Russian Tsar, who in his Manifesto about the inviolability of autocracy from 29 on April 1881, announced a departure from the liberal course of his father, who untied the hands of the revolutionary movement that developed with Jewish money, and highlighted "maintaining order and power, observing the strictest justice and savings. A return to the primordial Russian beginnings and the provision of Russian interests everywhere ”, no one calls the Great one and does not put any monuments to the colossi. Alexander III in general is extremely unpopular among Russian liberasts, neither contemporary to him, nor contemporary to us.
They have created him a reputation as a slow-witted, limited man with mediocre abilities and (oh, horror!) Conservative views. Famous statesman and lawyer A.F. The horses, who acquitted the terrorist woman Vera Zasulich in the case of the attempted assassination of General F. Trepov, the mayor of St. Petersburg, called him “a hippopotamus in epaulets”. And the Minister of Railways of the Russian Empire, and later Finance S.Yu. Witte gave him the following description: Emperor Alexander III was “below the average mind, below the average abilities and below the secondary education; by appearance it looked like a big Russian peasant from central provinces, and nevertheless, with his appearance, which reflected his enormous character, beautiful heart, complacency, justice and at the same time hardness, he undoubtedly impressed. ” And it is considered that he treated Alexander III with sympathy.
Reception of volost foremen Alexander III in the courtyard of the Peter Palace in Moscow. Painting I. Repin (1885 — 1886)
Why did Alexander III deserve such an attitude?
It was during his reign that Russia made a giant leap forward, pulling itself out of the swamp of liberal reforms in which Alexander II had led it, having died from them itself. A member of the terrorist party "Narodnaya Volya" threw a bomb at his feet. At that time, about the same impoverished impoverishment of the people, the same instability and chaos that Gorbachev and Yeltsin staged us almost a century later, was going on in the country.
Alexander III managed to create a miracle. The country began a real technical revolution. Industrialization was booming. The emperor managed to achieve stabilization of state finances, which made it possible to begin preparations for the introduction of the gold ruble, which was carried out after his death. He fought fiercely against corruption and embezzlement. He tried to appoint business executives and patriots who defended the national interests of the country to state posts.
The country's budget has become surplus. The same Witte had to admit “... Emperor Alexander III was a good owner not because of a sense of greed, but because of a sense of duty. I, not only in the royal family, but also among the dignitaries, never met that sense of respect for the state ruble, for the state penny, which Emperor Alexander III possessed. He protected every penny of the Russian people, the Russian state, as the best owner could not take care of her ... " The tightening of customs policy and the simultaneous encouragement of domestic producers led to a rapid increase in production. Customs taxation of foreign goods almost doubled, which led to a significant increase in government revenues.
The population of Russia grew from 71 million in 1856 to 122 million in 1894, including urban from 6 million to 16 million. The smelting of pig iron from I860 to 1895 year increased 4,5 times, coal mining - 30 times, oil - 754 times. The country built 28 thousand miles of railways connecting Moscow with the main industrial and agricultural areas and seaports (the network of railways in 1881-92 increased by 47%). In 1891, construction began on a strategically important Trans-Siberian Railway, connecting Russia with the Far East. The government began to buy out private railways, up to 60% of which were in the hands of the state by the middle of 90. The number of Russian river steamers has increased from 399 in 1860 to 2539 in 1895, and sea from 51 to 522. At that time, an industrial revolution was over in Russia, and the machine industry replaced the old manufactories. New industrial cities (Lodz, Yuzovka, Orekhovo-Zuyevo, Izhevsk) and whole industrial areas (coal-metallurgical in Donbass, oil in Baku, textile in Ivanovo) grew. The volume of foreign trade that did not reach 1850 in the year and 200 million rubles, by the year 1900 exceeded 1,3 billion rubles. By 1895, domestic trade increased by 3,5 times compared to 1873 in the year and reached 8,2 billion rubles (“History of Russia from Antiquity to Today” / edited by M.N. Zuev, Moscow, “Higher School”, 1998)
It was during the reign of Emperor Alexander III. Russia did not fight a single day (except for the conquest of Central Asia that ended with the capture of Kushka in 1885), for this the king was called "peacemaker". Everything was settled exclusively by diplomatic methods, moreover, without any regard for "Europe" or anyone else. He believed that there is no need for Russia to look for allies there and interfere in European affairs. His words, which have already become winged, are known: “All over the world we have only two faithful ally - our army and navy. All the rest at the first opportunity will turn on us". He did a lot to strengthen the army and the country's defense and the inviolability of its borders. "Our country, undoubtedly, needs a strong and well-organized army, which stands at the height of the modern development of military affairs, but not for aggressive purposes, but only to protect the integrity and state honor of Russia". So he spoke and so he did.
He did not interfere in the affairs of other countries, but he did not allow his own to be pushed around. Let me give you one example. A year after his accession to the throne, the Afghans, urged on by British instructors, decided to bite off a piece of territory belonging to Russia. The tsar's order was laconic: “Expel and teach a lesson, as it should!, Which was done. The British Ambassador in St. Petersburg received an order to express a pro-test and demand an apology. “We will not do this,” the emperor said and wrote a resolution on the English Ambassador’s dispatch: “There’s nothing to talk to them about.” After that, he awarded the head of the border detachment, the Order of St. George 3 degree. After this incident, Alexander III formulated his foreign policy very briefly:
"I will not allow anyone to encroach on our territory!"
Another conflict began to mature with Austria-Hungary due to Russia's interference in the Balkan problems. At a dinner in the Winter Palace, the Austrian ambassador began to discuss the Balkan issue in a rather harsh manner and, getting excited, even hinted at the possibility of Austria mobilizing two or three corps. Alexander III was unperturbed and pretended not to notice the harsh tone of the ambassador. Then he calmly took the fork, bent it in a loop and threw it towards the device of the Austrian diplomat and said very calmly:
“That's what I'll do with your two or three buildings.”
In private life he kept strict moral rules, was very pious, distinguished by thrift, modesty, undemanding to comfort, and spent his leisure time in a narrow family and friendly circle. Pompousness and ostentatious luxury could not stand. I got up at 7 in the morning, went to bed at 3. He dressed very simply. For example, he could often be seen in soldiers' boots with pants tucked into them, and at home he wore an embroidered Russian shirt. He liked to wear a military uniform, which he reformed, taking the Russian costume as a basis, which made it simple, easy to wear and fit, cheaper to manufacture and more suitable for military operations. For example, the buttons were replaced by hooks, which was convenient not only to fit the form, but also eliminated the extra shiny object that could draw the enemy’s attention in sunny weather and cause his fire. For these reasons, sultans, shiny helmets and lapels were abolished. Such pragmatism of the emperor certainly offended the “refined taste” of the creative elite.
Here is how the artist A.N. Benoit describes his meeting with Alexander III:
“I was struck by his“ bulkiness ”, his heaviness and majesty. Introduced at the very beginning of the reign of a new military uniform with a claim to the national character, its sullen simplicity and, worst of all, these rude shoemakers with pants stuck in them angered my artistic feeling. But in nature everything was forgotten, until the very face of the sovereign was striking in its significance "
In addition to significance, the emperor also possessed a sense of humor, and in situations as if he did not have at all. So, in some volost board, some guy spat on his portrait. All the verdicts about insulting His Majesty were brought to him. The man was sentenced to six months in prison. Alexander III burst out laughing and exclaimed: "How! He didn’t care about my portrait, and I’ll still feed him for six months? You are crazy, gentlemen. Send him to hell and tell me that I, in turn, wanted to spit on him. And the end of the case. Here's a lot more!»
Writer M. Tsebrikov, an ardent supporter of the democratization of Russia and women's emancipation, was arrested for opening the letter to Alexander III, which she typed in Geneva and distributed in Russia, and in which, according to her, “put a moral slap on despotism”. The resolution of the king was laconic: "Let go of the old fool! She was deported from Moscow to the Vologda province.
He was one of the initiators of the creation of the “Russian Historical Society” and its first chairman and passionate collector of Russian art. The extensive collection of paintings, graphics, objects of decorative and applied art, sculptures he collected after his death was transferred to the Russian Museum, which was founded by his son, Russian Emperor Nicholas II in memory of his parent.
Alexander III was persistent hostility to liberalism and intellectuals. His words are known:
"Our ministers ... would not have been asked by unrealizable fantasies and lousy liberalism"He dealt with the terrorist organization Narodnaya Volya. Under Alexander III, many newspapers and magazines advocating a liberal “brainworm” were closed, but all other periodicals that contributed to the prosperity of their fatherland enjoyed the freedom and support of the government. By the end of the reign of Alexander III in Russia, about 400 periodicals were published, of which a quarter were newspapers. The number of scientific and special journals has significantly increased and has made 804 titles.
Alexander III unswervingly put into practice his conviction that Russians should dominate in Russia. The policy of protecting the interests of the state and on the outskirts of the Russian Empire was actively pursued. For example, the autonomy of Finland was limited, enjoying until that time all the advantages of neutrality under the protection of the Russian army and the benefits of the endless Russian market, but stubbornly denying Russians equal rights with the Finns and Swedes. All correspondence between the Finnish authorities and the Russians was now to be in Russian, Russian postage stamps and the ruble received circulation rights in Finland. It was also planned to force the Finns to pay for the maintenance of the army on a par with the population of indigenous Russia and to expand the sphere of the use of the Russian language in the country.
The government of Alexander III took measures to limit the range of residence of the Jews by the “pale of habits”. In the 1891 year, they were forbidden to settle in Moscow and the Moscow province, and about 17 of thousands of Jews who lived there on the basis of the 1865 law of the year, with 1891 canceled for Moscow, were evicted from Moscow. Jews were banned from acquiring property in rural areas. In 1887, a special circular established the percentage rate of their admission to universities (no more than 10% within the Pale and 2-3% in other provinces) and introduced restrictions on the practice of law (their share in universities in law was 70%).
Alexander III patron of Russian science. When it opened the first university in Siberia - in Tomsk, a project was created for the creation of the Russian Archaeological Institute in Constantinople, the famous Historical Museum in Moscow was founded, the Imperial Institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg was opened under the leadership of I.P. Pavlov Institute of Technology in Kharkov, the Mining Institute in Yekaterinoslavl, the Veterinary Institute in Warsaw, and others. By the year 1894 there were 52 institutions of higher education in Russia.
Domestic science rushed forward. THEM. Sechenov created the theory of brain reflexes, laying the foundations of Russian physiology, I.P. Pavlov developed the theory of conditioned reflexes. I.I. Mechnikov created a school of microbiology and organized the first bacteriological station in Russia. K.A. Timiryazev became the founder of the domestic plant physiology. V.V. Dokuchaev marked the beginning of scientific soil science. The most prominent Russian mathematician and mechanic P.L. Chebyshev, invented the stopping machine and the adding machine.
Russian physicist A.G. Stoletov discovered the first law of the photoelectric effect. In 1881 A.F. Mozhaisky designed the world's first aircraft. In 1888, the self-taught mechanic FA Blinov invented a tracked tractor. In 1895, A.S. Popov demonstrated the first radio receiver invented by him in the world and soon achieved the range of transmission and reception already at a distance of 150 km. The founder of cosmonautics K.E. Tsiolkovsky.
The only pity is that the takeoff lasted only 13 years. Ah, if the reign of Alexander III would have lasted at least 10-20 years! But he died before reaching even 50, as a result of a kidney disease that developed after the terrible crash of the imperial train that happened in 1888. The roof of the dining-car, where the royal family and entourage were located, collapsed, and the emperor kept her on his shoulders until everyone got out of the dam.
Despite the impressive growth (193 cm) and solid build, the king's heroic body could not bear such a burden, and after 6 years the emperor died. According to one of the versions (unofficial, and the official investigation was conducted by A. F. Koni) the train wreck was caused by a bomb that was laid by the assistant chef associated with the revolutionary terrorist organizations. They could not forgive him for his desire to steadily "... Protect the purity of the" faith of the fathers ", the inviolability of the principle of autocracy and develop the Russian people ...", spreading the lie that the emperor died of rampant drunkenness.
The death of the Russian tsar shook Europe, which is surprising against the background of the usual European Russophobia. French Foreign Minister Flurance said:
“Alexander III was a true Russian Tsar, which Russia had not seen for a long time before. Of course, all the Romanovs were committed to the interests and greatness of their people. But driven by the desire to give their people Western European culture, they were looking for ideals outside of Russia ... Emperor Alexander III wished Russia to be Russia, that she, first of all, be Russian, and he himself gave the best examples to that. He showed himself the ideal type of a truly Russian person. ”
Even Marquis Solsbury, hostile to Russia, recognized:
“Alexander III many times saved Europe from the horrors of war. According to his deeds, sovereigns of Europe should learn how to govern their peoples. ”
He was the last ruler of the Russian state, who actually cared for the protection and prosperity of the Russian people, but they do not call him the Great and do not sing continuous panegyrics like the previous rulers.
Excerpts from the article by Elena Lyubimova "For what they were called Great"