Military Review

The problem of detecting stelc aircraft

32
The problem of detecting stelc aircraft



(According to the views of foreign military experts)

The militarist circles of the United States do not abandon attempts to achieve military superiority over the Soviet Union, making a special emphasis on new types of technology and weapons. Under current conditions, when the USSR and the United States concluded the Treaty on the Elimination of Medium and Short Range Missiles, negotiations are in progress on 50-percent reduction of strategic offensive weapons, in the plans of Pentagon strategists more and more attention is paid to low-profile aircraft (LA). Since 1983, the American program "Stelc", aimed at developing the technology of low-profile aircraft, is less well covered in the Western press. The strategic defense initiative came out on top in popularity. Nevertheless, the implementation of the stealth program continues at a rather high rate. According to foreign military experts, the results obtained in the course of its implementation will have a strong influence on the appearance of promising aircraft. It is believed that the reduction in visibility will become the leading trend in military aircraft 90-s. This is confirmed by the programs for developing the highest priority aircrafts of various classes that have the property of low visibility. Such aircraft include the B-2 bomber, a promising tactical ATF fighter, and the AFM cruise missile.

Reducing the visibility of the aircraft is carried out in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum: radar, optical, infrared and acoustic. The greatest attention is paid to reducing the radar visibility, since at present the main means of detecting aircraft in air defense systems are radar stations. There are also known technical ways of reducing the radar visibility of aircraft: improving aerodynamic forms, using new construction materials and radio absorbing coatings, reducing the number of antennas, etc. Judging by foreign press reports, modern technologies created by the Stealth program make it possible to reduce the effective area of ​​dispersion (EPR) aircraft almost 70 percent. in comparison with the aircraft of traditional schemes. At the same time, the detection range of such an inconspicuous aircraft will be reduced by a third, since the detection range is proportional to the fourth root of the EPR values.

Predicting the massive introduction of low-profile aircraft into service in 90's, foreign military departments are deploying a wide range of research into the problems of countering such aircraft. Special attention is paid to the problems of increasing the range of radar detection of inconspicuous airplanes, believing that the implementation of the results will largely determine the appearance of 90's radar facilities.

Current R & D is conditionally divided into two groups. The first group of studies is conducted within the framework of the traditional approach to solving the problem of increasing the range of radar target detection. In particular, the possibilities of increasing the radar power potential and increasing the sensitivity of radar receivers are being studied. A characteristic feature of these works is that in the course of their work, the specifics of Stealth-type aircraft as radar targets are practically not taken into account. The results of the work will be used mainly in the modernization of existing radars.

The second group of R & D is characterized by a large variety of ideas and research directions. It presents both completely new approaches and ideas known in theoretical radar, which for various reasons have not been implemented previously. Common is the desire of researchers to use signs (for example, characteristic forms) that are specific to low-profile aircraft to increase the detection range. As a result of these R & D, as a rule, the necessity of creating fundamentally new systems and tools is justified.

The problem of detecting subtle LAs is related to the effective scattering area, the magnitude of which depends on many factors: the size, shape, spatial position of the LA, the material from which it is made, frequency, polarization, and the shape of the irradiating signal. Moreover, even a slight change in any of these factors can lead to a significant (an order of magnitude or more) change in the ESR value. Therefore, when specifying the EPR values ​​of specific aircraft, the conditions under which they are obtained should be precisely determined. However, in foreign publications devoted to inconspicuous aircraft, this rule is often neglected. So, speaking of the magnitude of the ESR of the low-profile aircraft, its value is usually given when the apparatus is irradiated in the forward hemisphere, although the average indicator is the average ESR of the aircraft when irradiated from all directions. Due to such "little tricks" in the western publications devoted to low-profile aircraft, their ESR value appears, equal to 10-2 м2.

Foreign military experts point out that most of the authors of publications on low-profile aircraft are directly related to their development. Therefore, in these articles, as a rule, the advantages of low-profile aircraft are emphasized, and there is no mention of shortcomings or controversial issues. Common in calculating the detection range of low-profile aircraft is the use of the characteristics of existing radar defense. Opportunities to improve the radar, as well as changes in parameters affecting the EPR of the target, are usually not considered, although experts in the field of radar based on an objective analysis of the features of low-profile aircraft and their dependence on the characteristics of the radar have already identified promising ways to increase the range of targets of this type.

Traditional methods of increasing the detection range are based on increasing the energy potential of the radar and improving the quality of signal processing. The first can be increased by increasing the transmitter power and the directional coefficient of the radar antenna. In the future, the expected appearance of generator devices, which will increase the power of the radar transmitters in 2 — 3 times.
Increasing the directional coefficient, as a rule, is associated with an increase in the geometric dimensions of the antennas. The possibility of creating conformal antennas based on phased antenna arrays for long-range radar detection aircraft is being investigated. Antennas of this type will form part of the skin of the aircraft, which will allow them to be placed, for example, along the entire fuselage or front edge of the wing. Thus, it is possible to increase the geometric dimensions of the antenna to the limits determined by the size of the aircraft carrier. However, calculations show that even increasing the antenna size to the limit values ​​will increase the detection range only by 60 — 70 percent, which will compensate for the decrease in the EPR of the target by 10 dB. In this regard, foreign experts pay attention to the fact that the role of ground-based radar systems is increasing again, the antennas of which have virtually no restrictions on geometric dimensions.

Improving the quality of operation of radar receiving devices is planned to be achieved primarily through the analysis of the fine structure of signals based on the implementation of digital filtering algorithms on computers. In this regard, high hopes are pinned on the introduction of ultra-high-speed integrated circuits and monolithic integrated circuits of the superhigh-frequency and millimeter-wave ranges. To perform certain signal processing operations, charge-coupled devices are created, as well as using surface acoustic waves.

In order to increase the detection range of unobtrusive targets, the United States Air Force plans to modernize the AWACS E-90 radars of the AWACS system (see color inset) in the first half of the 3-s (see color inset), that is, to improve the quality of digital signal processing using a computer. It is believed that after upgrading the target detection range will increase significantly due to an increase in the level of signals on 10 — 13 dB, as well as the reliability and radar noise immunity will increase. The improvement will also affect other electronic equipment of the aircraft E-3. It is planned, in particular, to install direct radio intelligence systems for passive detection of enemy aircraft, aperature satellite navigation system NAVSTAR and terminals of the 2 class of the combined tactical information distribution system JITIDS.

A known way to increase the detection range is to increase the coherent accumulation time of the echo signals. On the basis of this principle, a method of inverse synthesis of aperture has been developed. It uses algorithms that are inverse to those used in the modes of synthesizing the radar aperture and allow obtaining detailed images of ground objects based on the analysis of the Doppler signal frequency shifts. A distinctive feature of this method is that the signal accumulation occurs due to the movement of the target, and not the radar antenna, as in conventional aperture synthesizing.

The method of inverse synthesis of aperture was tested in ground-based measurement systems (radar signatures of space objects were obtained using radar on Kwajalein Island), and was also implemented in on-board radar that underwent flight tests at the beginning of 80-s. The first serial on-board station in which this method was applied was the AN / APS-137 radar, designed to perform recognition and classification tasks for marine objects. It is installed on the deck of the Viking S-3B anti-submarine aircraft and the Orion base patrol R-3. The disadvantage of this method is the need to know the distance to the target and the speed of its movement. Errors in the determination of these parameters lead to a deterioration of the accuracy characteristics of the radar in the mode of operation using the method of inverse synthesis of the aperture.

The conventional methods of increasing the detection range of low-profile aircrafts conditionally include those based on the choice of the optimal operating frequency range of the radar. Currently known means of reducing observability are effective only in a limited frequency range. It is believed that the lower limit of this range is 1 GHz, and the upper limit is 20 GHz. Moreover, the reduction of visibility in the entire specified range can be achieved only through the integrated use of various methods and means. Separate funds even more narrow-band. The range 1 — 20 GHz is not chosen by chance. First, most of the existing radar systems of air defense work in it, so the designers seek to reduce the aircraft visibility in this particular range. Secondly, there are a number of fundamental physical restrictions on ways to reduce the visibility of LA outside this range.

The choice of the optimal operating frequency range of the radar is based on the dependence of the EPR of the aircraft on the frequency of the irradiating signal. For example, the EPR of fighters of traditional schemes with a decrease in the frequency (increase in wavelength) of the probing signal increases according to a law close to linear. For subtle LAs, a similar dependence is even more pronounced — the EPR is proportional to the square of the probing signal's wavelength. Calculations show that the detection range in the free space of an inconspicuous aircraft in the 1 — 2 GHz band is 1,75 times as large as in the 2 — 4 GHz band, and 2,2 is more than the 4 — 8 GHz band. In this regard, foreign experts note the increased interest in the radar meter and decimeter ranges. For several decades, one of the leading trends in radiolocation was the assimilation of more and more high-frequency bands, which was due to the possibility of obtaining higher resolution. The appearance of subtle LA again attracted the attention of specialists to the meter and decimeter ranges.

An important direction in reducing the visibility of aircraft is the use of radar absorbing coatings. It is believed that if radar systems of various ranges are used in air defense systems, it will be practically impossible to create an effective radar absorbing coating for an aircraft. Ferrite-absorbing materials are relatively narrow-band. Thus, materials known as ekosorb, with a thickness of 5-8 mm, provide an absorption of 99 percent. incident wave energy in the band of approximately 300 MHz. It is noted that to reduce the visibility of the aircraft in a wider range, it is necessary to apply multilayer coatings. But taking into account the fact that the specific gravity of a modern ferrite coating is almost twice as large as that of aluminum, this is hardly feasible. Coatings based on dielectrics have a lower mass, but their thickness is directly dependent on the frequency of the absorbed waves. For example, to counter the probing signals of a radar operating at a frequency of 1 GHz, it is necessary that the coating thickness be approximately 300 mm, which, of course, is unacceptable for aviation.

If the probing signal's wavelength is commensurate with the size of the target, then the reflection will be of a resonant nature, due to the interaction of the direct reflected wave and the waves around the target. This phenomenon contributes to the formation of strong echoes. The phenomenon of resonance can also occur on the elements of a target's structure For example, stabilizers and wingtips fall into the resonance region of the radar system of the DRLO E-2 “Hokai” aircraft operating at frequencies around 400 MHz (wavelength 0,75 m). The command of the US Navy plans to leave the aircraft "Hokai" in service after the next modernization of equipment.

The possibility of using two ranges and changing the frequency of the probing signal in accordance with the shape of the target is the main idea in creating a promising ASTARA (Aircraft Radar Aircraft Atmospheric Surveillance Technology) aircraft, which is specifically designed to detect subtle aircraft. It is assumed that it will complement the aircraft E-3 system AWACS. Flight tests are scheduled for 1991 year.

The creation of over-the-horizon radars in the United States began long before the organization of work to counter the inconspicuous aircraft. However, the fact that such stations operate in the meter wavelength range, now gives grounds for American experts to consider them as one of the important means of detecting subtle aircraft. Therefore, further development and testing of over-the-radar radars are carried out in view of their fulfillment of the new function. The development of over-the-horizon radars for reciprocating sensing, the US Air Force specialists have been doing since 1975. It is planned to build four radars, which should ensure the detection of targets approaching the North American continent from any direction, with the exception of the north. The latter cannot be covered due to the unstable nature of the propagation of short-wave signals in high geographic latitudes.

In 1988, the United States Air Force conducted the first tests of over-the-horizon radar to detect small targets that simulated cruise missiles. Its ability to detect targets in the airspace between f. Puerto Rico and Bermuda Islands. Radar operates in the range 5 — 28 MHz. Due to the influence of the ionosphere in the daytime, higher frequencies of this range were used, and lower frequencies at night. Cruise missiles were simulated by unmanned aerial vehicles AQM-34M, which were launched from the carrier NC-130. Their flight was carried out at various altitudes (150, 4500, 7500 m) at a speed of 650 — 750 km / h. As stated by the representative of the US Air Force, tests confirmed the possibility of detecting small targets of over-the-horizon radar at a distance of up to 2800 km. Based on their results, a decision was made to increase the size of the radar receiving antenna being built on the US West Coast from 1500 to 2400 m, which will double the sensitivity of the radar receiver. It is planned to complete the deployment of a system of four over-the-horizon radars in the 90s.

The US Navy is developing a transportable over-the-horizon ROTHR radar, the main advantage of which is the possibility of transferring it in a relatively short time to previously prepared positions. This station detects airplanes at a distance of 925 — 2700 km in the sector 60 °. Its electronic equipment is housed in 30 vans. In potential combat areas, antenna fields are being created, where, in the event of a crisis, vans with equipment will be transported. According to the representative of the company "Raytheon", a prototype radar is already placed on the position in Virginia, in the future it is planned to relocate to the Aleutian Islands. No other positions have yet been selected for the radar, however, it is planned to deploy at least nine radars primarily in marine (ocean) theaters, where they will be used in conjunction with the E-2 “Hokai” and E-3 “Sentry” airplanes.

In order to improve the quality of operation of over-the-horizon radar, US Air Force experts are exploring the possibility of creating an artificial ionospheric mirror. In their opinion, it will contribute to a more focused reflection of probing signals, which will increase the resolution and will allow to detect targets at distances less than 500 km.

Even the most ardent supporters of over-the-horizon radar systems recognize their inherent serious flaws: low resolution and low noise immunity. Nevertheless, according to foreign experts, over-the-horizon radar systems are the only type of systems that can be put into service by a number of Western countries in the future and provide detection of low-profile aircraft. All other types of systems, whatever benefits they may have, are in earlier stages of development.

The above approach to the optimal choice of range was focused on increasing the wavelength of the probing signals compared to those used in modern air defense radars. In the foreign press, an alternative way is also discussed, which consists in switching to the range of millimeter waves. Since it is believed that at present there are no radio absorbing materials that are most effective in the millimeter range, therefore radars operating in the range of millimeter waves can become an important element of advanced air defense systems. Mastering the millimeter range is high. The element base and principles of construction of systems operating at frequencies 30 — 40 and 85 — 95 GHz have already been worked out, as well as samples are created with operating frequencies close to 140 GHz.

Non-traditional ways of increasing the detection range of aircrafts with small EPRs are based on new approaches to solving the problem - time-frequency and spatial. Within the framework of the time-frequency approach, the methods of forming and processing new complex radar signals are investigated.

The use of probing signals, consistent with the shape of the target, can significantly enhance the echo signals. This method is similar to the matched filtering method used in modern radars. The formation of probing signals is based on the impulse response of the target, depending on its configuration, spatial position and movement dynamics. In practice, nanosecond pulses are required to align signals with a target. A special case of such pulses are non-sinusoidal signals, the important properties of which include ultra-wideband. In the foreign literature, signals that occupy the 0,5 — 10 GHz band and have a duration of 0,1 — 1 ms are considered as an example. Their use provides range resolution within 0,15 — 0,015 m. At the same time, reflections from the target are a set of echo signals from several point reflectors distributed over the target surface, which makes it possible to build a model of reflections from a particular aircraft, with which the shape of the sounding signals . Calculations show that ferromagnetic materials weakly absorb the energy of radar non-sinusoidal signals.

Since information on the configuration of the aircraft can be used to increase the detection range of aircraft with small ESR, foreign military experts are considering possible measures to conceal it. They include the following: placement of aircraft in shelters; rational choice of locations and restriction of training flights in the daytime in order to reduce the likelihood of receiving photographs of aircraft by various reconnaissance vehicles; improving training complexes and transferring the center of gravity of flight personnel training to simulators; equipping low-profile aircraft with devices that increase and distort the aircraft's EPR, since during training flights in the radar range of a civil aviation air traffic control systems, a potential enemy can receive information about real EPR.

The use of radar with multi-frequency signals also applies to time-frequency detection of low-profile aircraft. In this case, the target is irradiated simultaneously with several continuous signals at different frequencies. Reception and processing of the echo signals are performed using a multichannel receiver, in each channel of which pairs of signals are formed at close frequencies, and then multiplied and integrated or Doppler filtering is performed. The advantage of multi-frequency radar is the ability to select a set of frequencies that provide the maximum detection range. As in the previous method, the defining parameter is the configuration of the target.

To increase the detection range of aircraft with small ESR, the possibilities of using the “nonlinear radar” effect are also being investigated. This effect is that the objects of technology during irradiation not only reflect the incident waves, but also generate re-radiation on harmonics. Sometimes this phenomenon is called the “rusty bolt” effect, since the source of generation on harmonics is, in particular, the combination of metal elements. However, semiconductors have a similar property. The latter circumstance is of interest to researchers in connection with the equipment of LA with multifunctional active phased antenna arrays in which it is planned to use elements on gallium arsenide. The radiation level with an increase in the harmonic number decreases sharply. That is why only the second and third harmonics are of practical interest.

Judging by Western press reports, all methods of the time-frequency group are still in the early stages of theoretical and experimental research and development, and therefore their implementation will be possible only in the long term.

As part of a spatial approach to increasing the detection range of low-profile aircraft, methods and tools are being developed based on the dependence of the EPR of an aircraft on the direction of irradiation. As a rule, the designers of such devices can reduce the value of the EPR mainly when irradiated in the forward hemisphere.

In recent years, the interest of specialists to the so-called multi-position radar, which represent a system of several interacting transmitters and receivers spaced apart, has increased. The simplest multi-station radar, consisting of one transmitter and one receiver, is called bistatic. The principles of building multi-station radars were known at the dawn of radar, but some technical problems, such as providing data transmission for synchronizing transmitters and receivers, did not find a satisfactory solution in those years. Therefore, the further development of radar has gone the way of improving single-station systems.

An important parameter of bistatic radar is the angle between the directions from the target to the transmitting and receiving positions - the so-called bistatic angle. Special attention is paid to studies of radars with a bistatic angle equal to 180 °, that is, when the detectable aircraft is on the straight line connecting the transmitter and receiver. In this case, the EPR of the aircraft strongly (by tens of decibels) increases as a result of the effect known as “forward scattering”. In the first approximation, the “front scattering” EPR is equal to the ratio of the square of the irradiated area of ​​the aircraft to the square of the radar transmitter wavelength multiplied by a factor equal to 12. Since the EPR of “front scattering” does not depend on the material from which the aircraft is made, the effect of using composite materials and radar absorbing coatings in the low-profile aircraft will be neutralized. The “front scattering” ESR value decreases with decreasing bistatic angle, but even at 165 ° angle it is still significantly larger than that of single-position radar.

In the foreign press, various options are proposed for constructing multi-position radars, differing mainly in the method of organizing irradiation of targets. Radar of early warning systems and reconnaissance-strike complexes, space-based radars or even television broadcast stations can be used as transmitting stations. The possibility of introducing a multi-position regime into existing radars and creating radar networks on their basis is also being considered.

The use of space based radar. This will allow LA to be irradiated from In this case, the EPR of the aircraft will increase due to an increase in the irradiated area. Currently, specialists from the United States, Great Britain and Canada are implementing a joint program for creating space-based radars designed for detecting and early warning of a raid by bomber and cruise missiles. At the same time, the requirements imposed by each of the countries on the space system have their own characteristics.

British experts believe that space-based radars should also provide tracking and tracking of land and sea targets, including on the battlefield. According to their estimates, tracking of marine objects does not represent serious technical difficulties, but to realize the possibility of tracking targets on the battlefield, a large amount of research will be required. The most suitable type of stations for placement on a space carrier is considered to be synthetic aperture radar.

Canada is participating in a number of joint projects with the United States to provide air defense systems for the North American continent, including upgrading the network of ground-based radars, creating over-the-horizon radars, and expanding areas controlled by E-3 aircraft. However, representatives of the Ministry of Defense of Canada consider the space-based radar to be the only means that can provide tracking of the entire territory of the country with the adjacent airspace and maritime waters. In addition to solving the main task, such a station, in their opinion, should perform the functions of search and rescue systems, navigation and air traffic control. Initial plans include launching four to ten AESs equipped with radar into low polar orbits. In order to increase the survivability of the system, US Air Force experts are considering the possibility of creating a space-based distributed radar. The joint functioning of the “constellation” of the satellite makes it possible to realize an extremely large common aperture of the system. Proposals for placing radars on dirigibles or aerostats that provide payloads of up to 1 tonnes to altitude up to 25 km are also put forward as intermediate ones.

In parallel with the development of a radar station in the USA, an experiment is being prepared to place an infrared telescope into orbit as a detection tool with a passive mode of operation and a higher resolution. It was planned to deliver the telescope to orbit in March 1986 of the year with the help of the Space Shuttle space shuttle, however, the Challenger crash delayed the experiment for several years.

Assessing the problem of increasing the detection range of low-profile aircrafts in general, foreign experts note that intensive theoretical and experimental work is being carried out in all possible directions. Separate results can be realized in the near future after receiving reliable information about what methods and means of reducing observability will be put into practice on 90's aircraft. Radar experts are optimistic, because история The development of technology shows that radar always had advantages over countermeasures, and this situation will continue, obviously, in the foreseeable future.

As for the problem of combating an aircraft of the stealth type, it is of less concern to foreign military specialists. It is believed that, with reliable detection and tracking, they can be destroyed with a given probability both by existing anti-aircraft missile systems and by promising ones.



Foreign Military Review №7 1989 С.37-42


PS: Please pay attention to the date of publication - 1989.
Even then, for many specialists, it was clear that the powerfully promoted conception of invisibility could not become a panacea for “invulnerability”. And time has confirmed this - all Ф117, created by the technology of stealth to the detriment of aerodynamics, hastily, before the end of the service life, were removed from service.
The same is true with respect to the following products of marketers - F22.
And it is commendable that our designers, when creating the T-50, did not follow this disastrous path ...
Author:
Originator:
http://pentagonus.ru/publ/problema_obnaruzhenija_letatelnykh_apparatov_tipa_stelt/18-1-0-1385
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  1. WW3
    WW3 10 December 2012 07: 06
    +3
    Please pay attention to the publication date - 1989.
    .

    A bit old though.
    And the F35 B and C "stealth" entered service ....
    1. alex-defensor
      alex-defensor 10 December 2012 07: 13
      +1
      Quote: WW3
      A bit old though.
      And the F35 B and C "stealth" entered service ...


      I agree, the topic is already hackneyed and bearded, tired of reading about it ...
      1. alex-defensor
        alex-defensor 10 December 2012 08: 03
        +4
        Quote: olp
        nobody abandons stealth technologies, abandoned barely flying freaks like f-117


        But still, the F-117 was supposed to be born, at least in order to prove that irons can fly ...
    2. PLO
      PLO 10 December 2012 07: 15
      +1
      you misunderstood the article, read a little further

      Even then, for many specialists, it was clear that powerfully promoted the concept of stealth, cannot become a panacea for "invulnerability"

      stealth is a useful feature, but tends to it to the detriment of LTH is a dead end

      freak f-117 decommissioned, there is still the fail V-2 to write off
      1. Kaa
        Kaa 10 December 2012 10: 08
        +8
        Quote: olp
        stealth useful feature

        And it is best achieved after launching this one - there is a goal - it is noticeable, there is no goal - it is "hardly noticeable" ... so, small pieces on the ground ...
        1. MG42
          MG42 10 December 2012 18: 37
          +3
          Quote: Kaa
          there is a goal - it is noticeable, there is no goal - it is "hardly noticeable".

          Kaa + but I’ll just add that it’s not so simple - the target goes under the cover of active interference, and when the missile approaches, it can produce passive interference. Active interference occurs in almost the entire range of air defense operations during military operations, for example, as a desert storm, so stealth in such conditions as fish in water. If this is just a single target without massive layered attacks, then there are chances to hit it.
          1. Kaa
            Kaa 10 December 2012 19: 07
            +3
            Quote: MG42
            the target goes under the cover of active interference

            The more active interference, the ... better!
            "What is stealth technology? This is a coating that absorbs radiation. There is no reflective signal, which is needed for active radar. And Kolchuga works on the radiation of airborne radar systems. Military aviation, as a rule, does not fly in a combat situation without a working airborne radar : all-round visibility, fire control, friend - alien, etc., and these emissions are received by "Kolchuga". And aircraft made using "stealth" technology are detected in the same way. If the onboard radar is turned off, we do not see the equipment. the fact that a reconnaissance air target does not know that it has been detected, in contrast to the situation when this detection is provided by an active radar. We create complexes. Complexes that provide two methods for calculating the coordinates of the target. And without calculating the coordinates of the target, you can only determine the bearing direction.You need at least two stations to determine the coordinates of the target by the triangulation method, at least three - to determine the coordinates t by the difference-ranging (or hyperbolic) method, and to determine the third coordinate, 4 stations are needed. This is not the case on Russian single Kolchugas. Information processing is a very complex process. We are now improving processing and are finding new solutions to increase the accuracy of calculating the coordinates of the target, and this is very encouraging. "Http://zubr.in.ua/articles/2006/11/29/94/
            1. MG42
              MG42 10 December 2012 19: 18
              +4
              It is necessary to combine Ukrainian. and growing up. The military-industrial complex then is force. Add. the station was called the SSC - a target reconnaissance station + to the main radar. The advantages of a passive radar are that they will not receive a missile homing on the radiation of an active radar in response.
              1. Kaa
                Kaa 10 December 2012 20: 30
                +1
                Quote: MG42
                It is necessary to combine Ukrainian. and growing up. Defense industry then it's strength

                Everyone understands this, but the "gun barons" and "red directors" on both sides of the artificially created border are resting on their arms and legs and fighting with each other - "BUSINESS DETERMINES CONSCIOUSNESS!" negative
            2. gregor6549
              gregor6549 11 December 2012 10: 19
              0
              Stealth technologies are not one technology, but a whole set of technologies used to reduce the likelihood of detecting an aircraft, tank, ship, etc. in all wavelengths (radio, optical, sound) that are used or may be used by a potential enemy. Therefore, the use of absorbing coatings is one of many, but far from the only direction in stealth technologies. In particular, such directions include the use of such angles of inclination of surfaces at which the probing signal of the radar will be reflected from them not in the direction of the receiving antenna of this locator, but in a completely different direction. That's why F117 turned out to be such an angular freak. A number of measures are also used to reduce the intrinsic radiation in the optical, including (infrared) and other ranges. They also came up with the creation of a cloud of plasma around the "invisible" and many other tricky things. Another thing is that for every cunning ass ... there is always ... you know what. And this applies not only to the invisible, but also to the one who tries to pinch them. In general, nothing new. The dialectic of armed struggle ... in kind. hi
            3. gregor6549
              gregor6549 11 December 2012 15: 46
              0
              Another snowstorm.
              "Kolchuga" is a micro-base (unlike the long-known wide-base) passive radio direction finding system designed to detect, determine the coordinates and track radio emission sources, including radar radiation, active jammers, etc. in a passive mode and to detect stealth intended.
              Moreover, it would be more than stupid to spend huge amounts of money first to ensure stealth is invisible in all ranges, and then use its airborne radar to make life easier for the enemy.
              From the very beginning of the F117's combat use, they never turned on their onboard radars and radio communication systems in the combat area. Moreover, they were usually accompanied by a whole crowd of cover and reconnaissance aircraft (F16, AWACS, etc.) whose main task was to suppress the air defense system with all available types of influence (active and passive interference, anti-aircraft missile systems, etc.) and provide stealth with information about the assigned targets, and also about the general air and ground situation. It can be added that it was the recall to the base for some organizational reasons of such cover aircraft that allowed the Yugoslav air defense to credit the only F117 shot down in that war. On the whole, it is interesting to watch how legends and myths about the next "wunderwaffe" are born. I can add that I was well acquainted with the Zaporozhye enterprise that created Kolchuga. It was this enterprise in the early 80s that was instructed to implement the great backlog that had accumulated at this enterprise during work on the creation of passive radio direction finding channels used in mobile radar altimeters of the PRV13 and PRV17 type and then in later three-coordinate radars. And then everyone survived as best he could and sold what he had.
  2. gregor6549
    gregor6549 10 December 2012 07: 27
    +4
    The USA, of course, realized that the bet only on stealth did not justify itself, although the only F117 aircraft lost due to its detection by ground air defense means was the F117 shot down over Yugoslavia. Therefore, they decided, if possible, to combine stealth technologies in various wavelengths with normal aerodynamics and weapons. They have not yet seen any particular failures in this direction. The troubles with the F22 lie in a completely different plane, including the high cost of this aircraft and the flaw in individual pilot life support systems. Probably one should not make fools of the designers of the US aircraft, as well as of the customers of these aircraft. Yes, they are all people and they, like all people, tend to be mistaken or silent when it comes to corporate or government. interests. On the other hand, when designing their aircraft, they quite clearly imagine what kind of enemy they will have to face and what capabilities this enemy has available or may appear in the foreseeable period of time. Of course, you can talk for a long time about the theoretically optimal means of detecting stealth, including bistatic and other radars. But such means have been discussed for more than a decade. As a result, the 5th generation of stealth has been flying in the USA for a long time, and with the implementation of domestic "brilliant" ideas in terms of their detection, it is still difficult. How is it there? "The path to science is strewn with millions of corpses of brilliant ideas" I can't vouch for the accuracy of the aphorism, but somewhere like that. In general, some more or less successful examples of such means (and they exist) did not and will not do the weather, and the enemy must be respected if you want him to respect you ... and therefore he is afraid.
    1. Dinver
      Dinver 10 December 2012 10: 30
      0
      At the expense of F117 came across an article by one American in it "according to declassified data" (as I really do not know), there was information about the irrecoverable loss of 2 aircraft in Yugoslavia, 1 aircraft managed to fly to the airfield. It also described some kind of "epic fail" that happened in Iraq in 2003, in which out of 20 directed aircraft, only 2 were able to drop bombs, on the remaining 18 there was some kind of failure and they returned to the airfield with full ammunition. The article also described many other jambs associated with this miracle of technology, which is probably why they were written off so quickly.
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 10 December 2012 10: 50
        0
        About the losses of Ф117 in disasters and military operations: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/f-117-losses.htm
        1. postman
          postman 10 December 2012 21: 49
          0
          Quote: gregor6549
          About the losses of F117 in disasters and military operations:

          About the combat use of F-117:
          In total, until 1990 was built 64 cars of this type - 5 prototypes YF-117A and 59 serial F-117A. The Nighthawk were in service until April 22, 2008.

          For 25 years of military service in the Air Force The United States Nighthawk took part in 5 operations: the invasion of Panama in 1989, the war with Iraq in 1991, the bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999, the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the war with Iraq 2003

          The following air defense systems were in service with Iraq:
          S-75 Volga (SA-2 Guideline) - 45 systems, presumably (besides the USSR, they could be purchased in other countries);
          C-75 Dvina (SA-2 Guideline) 20-30 batteries (100-130 PU);
          S-125 "Pechora" (SA-3 Goa) - 8 systems;
          S-125 Neva (SA-3 Goa) 25-50 batteries (100-140 PU);
          "Square" (SA-6 Gainful) - 25 batteries (100 PU; 36-55 batteries according to Jane's);
          "Wasp" (SA-8 Gecko) - up to 50;
          Arrow-1 (SA-9 Gaskin) - 400;
          "Arrow-10" (SA-13 Gopher) - 192;
          “Roland-2” - 13 self-propelled (not all-weather Roland-1) and 100 stationary complexes;
          HAWK - several complexes were captured in Kuwait, but not used.

          Strela-2 (SA-7 Grail), Strela-3 (SA-14 Gremlin) and Igla-1 (SA-16 Gimlet) - and anti-aircraft guns (ZU-23-2, ZSU-23-4 " Shilka ”, M-1939, S-60, ZSU-57-2 and others).
          several Adnan AWACS (French radar on the platform of the Soviet IL-76), early warning radar P-14 (Tall King)
          No "stealth" was ever found, as evidenced by the unchanged mode of operation of Iraqi radars (when an ordinary plane flew up to the border, the air defense immediately "looked up")

          the successful use of stealth to defeat strategic bridges in Iraq, whereas earlier, over 100 unsuccessful sorties by F-15, F-16 and F / A-18 planes were performed on them. Four days before the Allied Ground Forces began, seventeen F-117A attacked pipelines over a period of 27 minutes, using which Iraqis intended to fill the ditches in Kuwait with oil: 34 out of 32 goals were hit.

          In total, during the war, the F-117A performed 1271 sorties with a duration of more than 7000 hours and dropped 2087 laser-guided bombs GBU-10 and GBU-27 with a total mass of about 2000 tons, i.e. about 1% of the total number of multinational aviation sorties (and less than 4% total number of combat sorties). Their effectiveness (the relative number of sorties with defeat of the assigned targets) was, according to official estimates, 80-95%. In particular, it is alleged that the stealth pilots achieved 1669 direct hits, allowing only 418 misses.

          Yugoslavia:
          Since the air war against Yugoslavia lasted 78 days and during it F-117 aircraft made about 850 sorties, it is not necessary to talk about a certain method of “Invisibility Hunting” developed by the Yugoslav air defense, due to the small results it achieved.

          Based on materials from Russian and foreign sources
    2. alexng
      alexng 10 December 2012 10: 47
      +5
      Modern systems are able to see goals whose reflecting ability is no more than a tennis ball. So stealth has an effect, only during military operations in dwarf countries and in countries with ineffective air defense systems. Oh, how mattresses began to move when the question of supplying C-300 to Iran was hotly. And something they did not very much hope for their stealth at the same time, but raised a howl, and Medvedev (AI PADla) went on about the striped. But in vain.
      1. patsantre
        patsantre 10 December 2012 18: 19
        0
        Quote: alexneg
        whose reflectivity is not more than a tennis ball

        Are they capable of, the question is, from what distance? They have already said 100 times that stealth is not invisibility, and in the ranges for which it is designed, in any case, it reduces the detection range, and can decrease it very, very well.
    3. leon-iv
      leon-iv 10 December 2012 12: 54
      +1
      Well, in fact, the F-22 is not so good and flies. It just turns out a suitcase without a handle.
      A bunch of problems.
      For as a drummer with SDB is not funny
      As an interceptor, too small a radius of action or PTB then why F-22
      As a fighter, this is so good. But again, short range
      + the cost of flight hours and preparation for departure.
      + requirements for GDP and storage conditions.


      And the "mass" F-35 is just sawing.

      And as many in the PAK FA note, they took into account the problems of F-22
      1. postman
        postman 10 December 2012 22: 40
        +1
        Quote: leon-iv
        For as a drummer with SDB is not funny

        ?
        SDB I (GBU-39) and was then conceived in the 90s for the F-22A

        SDB II (Raytheon GBU-53) MMTD expected in 2017, again for F-22 (or JSF)


        The design is designed in such a way that the F-22 can carry 8 units in its internal compartments and can attack several targets, with one throwing position.

        Quote: leon-iv
        How interceptor is too short

        in general, he was planned as a fighter for gaining superiority in the air.
        comparison for "without PTB"
        MiG-31B / MiG -31 (Combat radius: 720–1200 km): 720 km (sv) / 1200 km (subsonic).
        MiG-25P (Combat radius: 620-740 km) 1250km / 1730km
        F-22 (combat radius: 760–1100 km): 1300 km / 2500 km
        what's the catch then?
        Quote: leon-iv
        too small range


        Quote: leon-iv
        But again, short range
        “Again, what's the catch?” The statement diverges from LTH.

        Quote: leon-iv
        + the cost of flight hours and preparation for departure.

        2004: 30 hours of maintenance for each flight hour, total flight hour cost from $ 44-46000.
        2008: 18,1 hours, 2009: 10,5 hours
        / Pentagon initial requirement 12 hours of service for 1 hour of flight /
        $ 19750 (against $ 17465 for the F-15)
        "USAF Performs First Long-Term F-22 Raptor Maintenance." Strategicdefenceintelligence.com. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
        Based on 2012 results, maintenance costs should decrease by 1/3 (FY) 2012
        Quote: leon-iv
        + requirements for GDP and storage conditions.

        915 m runway?
        scraping the runway when landing?
        Scratches on horizontal stabilizers when landing on a Hickam?

        And what about storage then? According to official figures, only a protective container for the cockpit is required when transporting it.
        and so it is tested for the effects of chemical, biological and "environmental" reagents, and for the blow of a bird (about 1,4 kg at a speed of 350 knots) ....
    4. viktor_ui
      viktor_ui 10 December 2012 17: 20
      0
      gregor6549 - a hammer and not very sickly in return - I shake my hand.
  3. WW3
    WW3 10 December 2012 07: 32
    0
    Quote: olp
    freak f-117 decommissioned, there is still the fail V-2 to write off

    Some "freaks" will be replaced by others ... amers are not going to give up stealth ...
    http://www.newsru.com/world/25may2011/usa.html
    1. PLO
      PLO 10 December 2012 07: 53
      +3
      nobody abandons stealth technologies, abandoned barely flying freaks like f-117
      1. viktor_ui
        viktor_ui 10 December 2012 17: 23
        +1
        olp - well, why the F-117 ugly freaks abandoned them - it was they who broke Iraqi air defense in the third air attack, because the two previous mass air attacks were not successful ... or if you argue. GREAT car for its time and do not need a shadow on the wattle fence.
        1. Kaa
          Kaa 10 December 2012 18: 15
          0
          Quote: viktor_ui
          Cool car for its time

          And how cool it would be for raids on Berlin in 1944-1945 ... mmm! Compare the air defense of the USSR, for which it was created and Iraq - well, solidly, right ...
  4. WW3
    WW3 10 December 2012 08: 03
    +4
    Quote: olp
    nobody abandons stealth technologies, abandoned barely flying freaks like f-117

    So I agree + ...
  5. Locksmith
    Locksmith 10 December 2012 12: 32
    0
    Quote: olp
    nobody discards stealth technologies

    I have a feeling that our T50s were made specifically for the American air defense system and partly for the rash, the 22-midships are very small, since she doesn’t see hers, please be the same to you, you don’t need to see him laughing
  6. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus 10 December 2012 12: 46
    +1
    Such news has recently slipped through http://izvestia.ru/news/540389 Russia will receive an “all-seeing eye” at the end of the 2013 year. That's interesting what kind of beast, I think this is a space-based system ...
  7. gregor6549
    gregor6549 10 December 2012 14: 51
    0
    Again, the discussion on a purely technical and very specific issue boiled down to the standard "yes, we have all of them with hats ...." And both those that are and those that are still sewn. The level, however, is below the baseboard
    1. leon-iv
      leon-iv 10 December 2012 15: 17
      +1
      By the way, how do you assess the modernization of the F-15 Silent Eagle?
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 10 December 2012 17: 18
        0
        I don’t see anything special in this modernization. Another attempt to offer for export a rather old, but slightly modified aircraft as a cheaper alternative to such expensive newcomers as F35, Eurofighter, etc.
  8. vikruss
    vikruss 10 December 2012 15: 01
    -1
    Why publish articles that are already 25 years old. Almost all the names of these systems have long been decommissioned and withdrawn from service, or never appeared at all. request
    1. Stiletto
      Stiletto 10 December 2012 16: 50
      +1
      And this is in order to stimulate the Yankees to create the next "tricky nuts" for which there has long been a bolt. But they don't need to know about it, do they? Let there be a surprise :-)))
  9. viktor_ui
    viktor_ui 10 December 2012 17: 35
    0
    I screech at comments like what ours DID as opposed to and in spite of the damned amers ... DID THE PLANER DO? A BALANCED INTEGRATED AIR SYSTEM MADE ??? YOU ARE CHE ... - the conversation is about the READY combat, complex, the system is going on, and not about the PROTOTYPES (the market is not about small-scale production ....) - WELL, REALLY DO NOT UNDERSTAND ??? OR I’m one ram, all like that smart here ....
    The times of single, unitary prodigies were almost never (I consider the operation KUBUKSON and others like it an exception to the rule)
    Chez word zadolbalo read posts about the silly Yanks and their ally with a smooth translation into pedrilost .... ALREADY NOT FUNNY.
  10. duchy
    duchy 10 December 2012 18: 02
    0
    What do you mean why??? What if something new comes through in the discussions ?? fool For example, to create a device that picks up not the signature of the reflected signal, but its energy potential, the coordinates are determined by triangulation, and even cooler as an ordinary radar wassat No Stealth technology will help here. bully
  11. viktor_ui
    viktor_ui 10 December 2012 18: 26
    0
    duche - yes, no problem, when it will be massively implemented in the troops, an impressive cohort of specialists will be trained and the infrastructure accompanying all this will be established ... secret at today's level of corruption - "do not make my horseshoes laugh") ... Regarding the deception of scanning systems at the level of substitution of a real signature, THERE IS ALREADY A FAIRED FACT, and only a blind person does not see it (and this topic is not shared with us) drinks
    I CONSTANTLY MAKE AN EMPHASIS ABOUT AN EXTENDED COMPLEX SYSTEM, and not about bazaring in the style of piece prototypes .... these are radically different things.
    Regarding transgulation in changing the background of the current surface - something similar will already be scanned by NATO satellites when passing through the local areas of our country - that is, a local change in the interested piece of the surface is recorded with an accuracy of several tens of centimeters in height (if it’s not right - correct, there was an article on this site )
  12. duchy
    duchy 10 December 2012 18: 38
    +1
    / viktor_ui - And what are we bothering about now, in a circle drinks