Military Review

Fight for the Caucasus. Late XVI - XVII centuries

3
Board of Emperor Fedor Ivanovich

In 1590-s, Russia began to restore its position in the Caucasus. On the river Sunzha, on the place where Tersky town previously stood, a new town was built. The Crimean Khanate tried to restore the old situation, forcing the Russians to leave the North Caucasus. In 1591-1592 Crimean Tatars raided the Russian regions, but without much success. The Moscow government was not going to leave Sunzha.

In 1594, the emperor Fedor Ivanovich sent a letter to the Ottoman Sultan Murad III. It was reported that the Kabardian tribes, the “mountain Cherkasy”, the Shamkhals are subjects of the Russian kingdom, that the fortresses “in the Kabardian land and Shevkal”, on the Terek and Sunzha were set up by the “petition” of the local population and for their saving. Thus, Moscow after the Livonian War was restoring its position in the North Caucasus. True, the Moscow government did not want to conflict with the powerful Ottoman Empire, and therefore left the Ottomans the right of free passage through the Russian-controlled lands in Derbent, Shemakha, Baku and other Transcaucasian lands "without any detention or clue." At the same time, the Russians refused to let in the Crimean Tatars. The cavalry of the Crimean Khan several times tried to break through to the rear of Persia along the shore of the Caspian Sea, but was stopped by Russian fortifications. The Crimean Tatars did not dare to go on the assault, limiting themselves to “diplomatic protests” and the ruin of the surrounding lands.

It must be said that at this time the Turks achieved great success in the Caucasus. During the reign of Murad III (1574 — 1595), the Ottoman army, having considerable numerical and technical superiority over the Persian troops, occupied the regions of Georgia and Armenia (1579 year), the southern and western shores of the Caspian Sea (1580 year). In 1585, the main forces of the Persian army were defeated and the Turks occupied the territories of modern Azerbaijan. The devastating campaigns of the Turkish-Tatar troops in Transcaucasia continued until the 1589 year. The South Caucasus has become destitute. A significant part of the local population was slaughtered or stolen into slavery, some fled. Many cities and villages, including such centers as Tabriz, Ganj, Shemakha, were severely devastated. In 1590, the Treaty of Constantinople was signed between Turkey and Persia. According to him, vast areas — most of Azerbaijan and Transcaucasia, including the former Iranian capital, Tabriz, Kurdistan, Luristan, and Khuzestan - crossed over to the Ottoman Empire.

The Russian kingdom in these years is fixed not only on Sunzha. In 1588-1589, at the request of Kabarda and Georgian Kakheti, Turki fortress was erected near the mouth of the Terek. This fortress should not be confused with the old Turkes, which were founded in 1563, upstream of the Terek, near Kabarda. Having rebuilt the new Turks, the Russian troops began to act against Shamkhal Tarkovsky, who at that time began to focus on Turkey. Russian troops tried to force their way through the possessions of Shamkhal (the title of the rulers of Dagestan) in the South Caucasus, in order to render assistance to Eastern Georgia. But with the beginning of the Time of Troubles and intervention, such actions were curtailed.

The first significant clashes with the mountaineers began during the reign of Fyodor Ivanovich. By the highest decree, troops were sent to the Terek to protect their subjects, that is, the Kabardians, which were disturbed by the Highlanders. In addition, the fight against the mountaineers was associated with requests for help from Kakheti. Under Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich, Kakhetian Tsar Alexander II was asked for Russian citizenship (1574 — 1601, 1602 — 1605). Kakheti was in a difficult position, maneuvering between the Ottoman Empire and Persia. In addition, the Georgians suffered greatly from the raids of the Highlanders. In 1587, the Georgian-Russian Union was established. In 1589, the Kakhetian king received official support from the Russian sovereign.

In 1594, the Russian government decided to strengthen Turki. Prince Andrey Khvorostinin's squad was sent to the Terek. Upon arrival, Russian troops took the city of Tarki, the capital of Shamkhalism. However, they could not keep the city. Dagestanis and Kumyks cut communications, causing food shortages. The unusual climate worsened the situation even more, mass diseases began. In the ranks left no more than half the unit. Khvorostinin began to withdraw soldiers and the detachment went to his own, but lost three-quarters of the squad.

It must be said that the attack on Shamkhalism should have come from two directions, from the Russian possessions and Kakheti, but the Georgians did not fulfill their obligations. Georgian ambassadors in Moscow reported that “the road is tight,” “a strong place,” just around the corner, so Kakheti will not send people.

Fight for the Caucasus. Late XVI - XVII centuries Board of Boris Godunov. Karaman battle 1605 of the year

Boris Godunov continued the policy of gradually strengthening Russian positions in the Caucasus. Russian successfully fought on Sulak and Terek. However, a new large-scale expedition against Shamkhalism ended with a heavy defeat and the death of thousands of warriors. Kakheti again asked for help from the Russian sovereign: "asking for help from him (Boris Godunov) on Gorki Cherkas that they (Kakhetians) are oppressed with them." Moscow sent the army to Dagestan under the command of the governor Ivan Buturlin and Osip Plescheev. The Kakhetians again promised an auxiliary army.

The beginning of the campaign was successful: 10-th. The Russian army (3 Streltsy Regiment, Terek Cossacks and Nogai) captured Tarki. The battle was fierce, the city streets were littered with enemy bodies. Before the battle, the troops listened to a speech in which they were reminded of the brothers who had fallen here and of Russian blood, who had been crying out for revenge. Shamkhal Surkhay II fled to the Avar Khan. The Russians began to build fortresses in Tarki, on Sulak (Koisu) and Aktash. Separate Russian detachments, without encountering serious resistance, collected food, drove away herds and herds. However, the Russian troops were not ready for a long war in the mountains, the governor could not resolve the issue with the regular supply of the corps. The Kumyks hid all the bread in the hiding places, started a partisan war against the Russians, attacking small detachments sent in search of provisions. Kakhetians again deceived and did not send auxiliary troops.

Then the Russian commanders in the late autumn, unable to feed the whole army, sent about half of the corps - about 5 thousand soldiers, for wintering in Astrakhan. The Russian army on the way to Astrakhan was attacked by large Kumyk forces. However, after a bloody battle, the attackers were defeated and retreated, losing about 3 thousand people.

At this time, the situation finally developed not in favor of the Russian detachment. Shamkhal "having sent to Turs (Turkish) tsar (sultan), asking for help from him; he sent many troops to their aid. ” The younger brother of Shamkhal Surkhai, Soltan-Mut, managed to raise the approach of the Turkish reinforcements, practically, all the Dagestan peoples against the invasion of the “infidels.” In early spring, the Dagestan-Turkish army laid siege to the Russian fortifications on Sulak. The head of a small detachment of voivod V.T. Dolgorukov burned down the fortifications and left for the Terek by sea. The small garrison on Aktash did the same. Buturlin's garrison in Tarki was alone. Soltan-Mut with the Turkish pashi offered to the Russian commanders to capitulate, but they refused. Then the Turks and the Highlanders went to storm. Part of the wall and the tower were blown up, the Russian garrison suffered heavy losses. The Janissaries and Dagestanis attempted to break into the fortress, but during the fierce battle the Russian soldiers repelled all attacks. Both sides suffered heavy losses. However, the situation was critical; there was no opportunity to defend a half-destroyed fortress. The main Turkish Pasha and Shamkhal made a secondary offer to surrender the fortress, guaranteeing Buturlin’s unimpeded access to the Russian possessions. In addition, Shamkhal undertook to provide care for seriously ill and wounded Russians, who had to be left in Tarki. Upon recovery, they were obliged to be released to the Terek.

Karamanskaya battle. A heavily-thinned Russian squad moved toward Sulak. Shamkhal provided the Russians with an amanat hostage, supposedly his son, to provide guarantees. One source reports that he was a condemned to death criminal. Shamkhal also demanded that Buturlin leave his son and the boyar children who distinguished themselves in battle. But the Russian voivode was firm and Shamkhal was forced to give up his claims.

Leaving the sick and wounded in the care of the Shamkhaltsevs, the Russian detachment with songs reached out for Sulak. Dagestanis also had a holiday - the end of fasting in the month of Ramadan (uraza-bayram). On the same day, the wedding of Shamkhal and the daughter of the Avar Khan took place. During the festival, Muslim clerics decided to decorate the day with a good cause for Muslims - the release of Shamkhal and his associates from the oath given to this “infidel”. Muslim warriors, burning with the desire to avenge the death of their comrades, immediately rushed in pursuit.

20-thousand The army broke up into several detachments and overtook the Russians beyond the Ozen swamps at the mouth of the river Shura-ozen. The attack was sudden, the Russian warriors did not manage to organize a fortified camp and meet the enemy with a "fiery battle". A violent hand-to-hand fight began. As a result, the outcome of the battle decided the numerical superiority of the Shamkhal warriors. The Russian detachment was divided into separate groups that fought with the bitterness of the doomed. One of the first, in the eyes of his father - the governor Buturlin, killed his young son Fedor.

The mountaineers, in anticipation of great losses, offered Russian soldiers to quit weapon. “The Russians unanimously doomed themselves to glorious death; fought with the enemy evil and numerous in manuscript, a man with a man, one with three, fearing not death, but captivity ”. The bloody battle lasted for several hours, before almost all Russian soldiers fell killed or seriously wounded. Voivods Ivan Buturlin and his son Fedor, Osip Pleshcheyev and his sons Bogdan and Lev, Ivan Poleva, Ivan Isupov and other commanders were killed in the battle. Most of the seriously wounded, who were captured, killed. Only a few of the wounded were left alive - Prince Vladimir Bakhteyarov, the son of I. Buturlin - Petr, and the archers' heads, Athanasius the Good and the Smirny Mamatov. The sick and wounded Russians, who remained in Tarki, were tortured and "died an agonizing death."

These were the first serious Russian clashes with the peoples of Dagestan and they did not bode well. In addition, the actions of the Russian kingdom in the North Caucasus caused serious irritation to the Persian rulers and the Brilliant Ports. Persia and Turkey did not want to see new opponents in the Caucasus, and also “infidels”. The Ottoman Empire and Persia in this period had too strong positions in the Caucasus for Russia to be able to resist them on an equal footing. The Caucasus was still a distant South for the Russian state, where there was only one serious base for further advancement - Astrakhan. This predetermined the defeat of 1605 of the year. Years of hard work were needed in preparing positions, fortified lines, establishing contacts with local rulers, diplomacy on the principle of "divide and conquer", "carrot and stick". It was necessary to attract large financial and material, human resources in order to pacify this huge land and knock out the Turks and Persians from there. Russia of the end of the 16 of the beginning of the 17 of the centuries simply didn’t have objective opportunities to join a significant part of the Caucasus. They will appear much later, already at the end of 18 and the beginning of 19 centuries.

It is necessary to take into account the factor of the Time of Troubles. Smoot for a long time distracted all the forces of the Russian state to internal problems. And after the Time of Troubles was over, Russia had to solve, first of all, the foreign policy problems associated with the Western Russian lands and the Commonwealth. Therefore, Russia for many decades stopped significant military activities in the Caucasus. But at the same time, the Russian kingdom did not interrupt its cultural contacts with co-religionists, primarily with Christian Georgia. Although active assistance, for the reasons stated could not. The development of mutually beneficial economic ties with the region continued.

Expansion of Turkey and Persia

At this time, the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate greatly strengthened their expansion in the Caucasus. Turks and Crimean Tatars tried to subjugate the Adighes and Kabardians, to plant Islam among them. However, the Turks did not achieve much success in this matter. Islam was adopted only by the feudal elite of the Adyghes, who were inclined towards this religion during the time of the Golden Horde. The bulk of the Circassians continued to adhere to semi-Christian, semi-pagan beliefs. Bakhchisarai and Istanbul did not succeed in reaching the complete submission of the Adyg tribes, part of the princes cooperated with the Turks and Tatars, but only in their own interests, in order to use them in the struggle with their neighbors.

As noted above, the Turks under Sultan Murad III achieved great success, by 1590 putting control of a large part of the South Caucasus. But soon the Persians will take revenge. The Persian Shah Abbas I (rules in 1587 - 1629 years) will streamline the financial system, remove the Kyzylbashs (Turks) from ruling the country, forming their personal protection solely from the ghouls (brought up in the Islamic traditions of captured boys from among Armenians, Georgians or Circassians). Abbas, with the help of British instructors, will create a regular army, mostly armed with firearms and even equipped with artillery. This will allow him to win a number of victories over the nomadic Uzbeks, driving them out of northeastern Iran and the Afghan tribes. He would subjugate Khorasan, Herat, Gilan, Mazanderan, Lurestan and Kandahar, extending his dominion over much of Afghanistan. After this, Abbas the Great will turn the army against Turkey.

In the Iranian-Turkish war 1603 — 1612. the Persians are already up. The situation for the war was favorable: the rear was cleaned, and the Turks were connected with the war with Austria. The Persians will destroy the Turkish garrisons in Azerbaijan, conquer Eastern Armenia. Luristan, Eastern Georgia and South Kurdistan were also captured. It is clear that the local Caucasian population will again suffer greatly, being between the hammer and the anvil. Thus, the Persians from Armenia will relocate more than 300 thousand people to the depths of Iran. Abbas showed incredible cruelty to the local population, surprising even in those times far from humanity. The Turkish army will make several incursions into Azerbaijan, but will fail. The Istanbul Peace Treaty of November 20 1612 of the year approved the conquest of Persia. Turkey will have to admit defeat, but only for a while, soon the struggle will continue.

The rule of the Turks in the Transcaucasus was replaced by the no less cruel yoke of the Persians. Zulfigar-Shah Karamanly was appointed the ruler of Shemakhi. By the will of the Shah, Derbent Viceroy was formed, which became a springboard for penetration into Dagestan. From Derbent, Persian troops began to raid Dagestan villages. Tsar of Kakheti Alexander sent a letter to the Russian commanders in Terki, where he said that Lezgin and Shevkale people beat their heads and "want to be in the age-old serfs under his royal hand."

To be continued ...
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  1. ShturmKGB
    ShturmKGB 10 December 2012 10: 29
    +2
    I always read historical essays with interest on this site, thank you.
  2. Yeraz
    Yeraz 10 December 2012 15: 24
    +4
    The Persian Shah Abbas I (reigned in 1587 - 1629) will streamline the financial system, remove from the government of the Kyzylbash (Türks)

    And why it is not indicated that these Türks are current Azerbaijanis. And then an unknowing person will read and think there is a Türkic people and get confused. The Türks consist of many peoples (Turks, Azerbaijanis, Kumyks, Kazakhs and many others) The author more accurately convey information.
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay 10 December 2012 17: 34
      +2
      Quote: Yeraz
      And why it is not indicated that these Türks are current Azerbaijanis. And then an unknowing person will read and think there is a Türkic people and get confused. The Türks consist of many peoples (Turks, Azerbaijanis, Kumyks, Kazakhs and many others) The author more accurately convey information.

      Well, according to the last article, one could see that Mr. Samsonov has a special dislike for Azerbaijanis!
      But this is normal, people are different and different characters!
    2. tekinoral
      tekinoral 10 December 2012 23: 22
      +3
      Not profitable and do not know that the Safavid dynasty were Turks?
  3. Black
    Black 10 December 2012 21: 32
    -1
    Why are you so worried, dear! we love you, especially on the eve of March 8.
    It would be good for Georgians to know and remember these pages of history. Do not intervene Rossiya- and would forget that such a people ....
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay 10 December 2012 22: 30
      +1
      Sergey, I'm not talking about you, but about the author !!
      On the eve of March 8, I am also personally crazy about you Sergey)))
  4. Yarbay
    Yarbay 10 December 2012 23: 07
    +1
    In the fall of 1585, the Turks invade Tabriz. Destroy
    in the city, palaces, mosques and residential buildings, arrange a terrible massacre. Tabriz from blooming and not
    having peers in the Middle East, it is turning into a dead city.
    Dissatisfied with the policy of Hamza-Mirza, the Kyzylbash commanders kill him, sending him for
    this to the sleeping prince of his barber - an Armenian from Khoy. It happens in Ganja on December 10, 1586.
    years, during peace talks with the Turks, not far from the tomb of the great Azerbaijani poet
    Sheikh Nizami! The Turks, taking advantage of the confusion reigning in the yard, in connection with the murder of the prince,
    develop an offensive and occupy almost the whole of Azerbaijan. At the same time, they are invading Khorasan
    Uzbeks, to the pacification of which Shah Mohammed Hudabendi is sent.
    Taking advantage of this, at the height of the war with the Uzbeks, in 1587, Abbas Mirza occupied Qazvin and
    takes the title of shah. He persuades his father, the old Shah, to recant in his favor. New check
    takes on the service of 12000 Georgians who converted to Islam and embarks on reforms in the field
    military and civil administration.
    According to Don Juan Persian (Oruj-bey Bayaty), a participant in the events: “On the first day, how
    only the oath of allegiance to the new monarch ended, Shah Abbas gave the order to
    the next day, khans and commanders visited his palace in peaceful attire, without weapons, since he
    wishes to consult with them about the establishment of the Sofa or the Council of State. Next
    morning, when everyone gathered, as ordered, Shah Abbas gave a secret order to his Georgian guard
    close all the passages and exits onto the streets facing the square around the palace ... Then the shah turned with
    a question for those gathered, namely, what punishment does one who has killed his prince deserve? In the end-
    of course, everyone unanimously agreed that the person who had committed the murder of his prince
    deserves to die. As soon as this sentence was pronounced, as at the sign of Shah Abbas, Georgian
    guards attacked those present in the palace building, putting to death all without exception
    conspirators, after which twenty-two heads on the tips of the spears were exhibited from the windows of the palace for the public to see!
    After that, a young monarch who is only fifteen years old kills
    applicant for the regency - Murshid-Gulu-khan Ustadzhlu, and others who want to rule on his behalf and
    completely takes power into their own hands.
    However, the main struggle lies ahead. Azerbaijan is captured by the Turks, Khorasan with the cities of Merv,
    Herat, Mashhad and Nishapur - Uzbeks, the internal regions of the country long ago lost their submission
    central authority. The first thing that Shah Abbas does is introduce a series of laws restricting rights
    Kyzylbash emirs and expanding the rights and privileges of the Persian civil bureaucracy,
    carries out a number of military and civil reforms. However, one should not exaggerate the process of personalization.
    countries and armies taking place under Shah Abbas, as some historians do. Turkic -
    the Azerbaijani language remains, as many European travelers write, official
    the language of the court and the army.
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay 10 December 2012 23: 11
      +1
      Don Juan of Persia (Oruj-bey Bayat), a contemporary of Shah Abbas writes:
      “Now we have 32 clans of noble families recognized in Persia and having great superiority in
      country. " All 32 surnames, including such as Ustadzhlu, Shamlu, Afshary, Turkoman, Bayat, Tekeli,
      Harmandalu, Zulkardarlu, Qajar, Karamanlu, Bai-Burtlu, Isnirlu, Aryat, Chaushlu and others relate to
      Turkic - Azerbaijani surnames. The names of military and court ranks also remain
      Azerbaijani. For example, Khan, Beglarbek, Kyzylbash, Kullar, Ishik-agasibashi, Kurchi,
      Kurchibashi, Yasavul, Kanugi Bashi, Chalchi Bashi and many others. Azerbaijan continues to remain
      the most important administrative unit of the country and the ruler of Azerbaijan, appointed heir
      throne and commander of the army. We can say that the Safavid state ceases to be
      Azerbaijani, but newly created by Shah Abbas Safavid Iran still remains, in
      heavily Turkic - Kyzylbash state (Memlekat-i Kyzylbash). Having established himself in Kazvin, Shah Abbas goes to his first of many
      victorious campaigns. In a short time he frees Khorosan from the Uzbeks and dreams of freeing
      native Azerbaijan. However, for this you need to gain time and in 1590, Shah Abbas concludes
      peace treaty with the Ottomans. Prior to this, he strongly restrains liberation speeches on
      occupied territory. So, before signing the agreement, the Kizilbash tribes of Qajar and
      others, led by Mohammed Khan Ziyad-oglu Qajar, seize Karabakh and besiege Ganja. By
      at the request of Shah Abbas, whom the Turks complain, the siege is lifted.
      Under the agreement, most of the country passes into the hands of the Ottomans. Shirvan falls into their hands,
      Karabakh, Tabriz and surrounding areas. Remaining in the hands of Shah Abbas, he
      calls "Azerbaijan", as one integral administrative unit. As famous
      XNUMXth-century Azerbaijani historian Iskender Munshi Shah Abbas retained "proud name
      "Azerbaijan!" - the hereditary possession of the Safavids. " The capital of Azerbaijan is declared
      Ardabil. Zulfugar Khan Karamanlu was appointed the first beggarback of Azerbaijan in 1592.
      A year later, after this, Shah Abbas himself solemnly enters Ardabil.
      In 1598, Shah Abbas transferred the capital to Isfahan, located in the center of the state. Before
      by this the shah receives news that the Uzbeks captured Mashhad and slaughtered over 40000 people there. On the
      the gathering of troops to Shah Abbas is not enough money and he gives the order to melt to the money available to
      him, magnificent golden and silver utensils, while saying: “My father, the blind king Mohammed
      Hudabend, often repeated the saying that a good payment will bring as many victories as it cannot
      bring the greatest luck. ”
      1. Yarbay
        Yarbay 10 December 2012 23: 18
        +1
        On September 14, 1603, Shah Abbas begins a military campaign to liberate Tabriz. Behind
        fourteen days a young commander unexpectedly for the Turks, leads his troops from Isfahan to
        Tabriz. On the way, the troops of Amirgun Khan Kajar and Zulfugar Khan Karamanlu adjoin him.
        With the approach of the troops to Tabriz, the population of the city rebels, which helps Shah Abbas quickly take the city,
        and a month later the citadel. After defeating the Ottoman forces west of Tabriz, Shah Abbas moves
        troops towards Araks. Nakhchivan and Julfa surrender without a fight. Soon joins them and
        rebel Ordubad. At the request of the first vezir of Shah Abbas, Ordubad Hatem-Bek city, in connection
        with this was exempted from all taxes.
        It was more difficult to take heavily fortified Yerevan, the siege of which began on November 16, 1603.Here, Shah Abbas first used large-caliber guns cast by the famous Azerbaijani
        master gunner Bahadur-bey Topchibashi. For the first time in almost a hundred years, the state’s army
        Safavidov is advancing, and the Turkish defending, while the head of the army is smart, energetic,
        a brave and ambitious sixteen-year-old youth who has set himself a noble task,
        restoration of the huge Safavid empire of Shah Ismail. The fortress was taken only in the summer
        next year. Amirgul Khan Kajar is entrusted with managing the region of Yerevan, and Nakhchivan is entrusted with
        Maksud-Sultan Kengerli. After that, Georgia recognizes its vassal dependence on Shah Abbas.
        It remained to free Karabakh and Shirvan. Huseyn was appointed Beglyarbek of Karabakh in advance
        Khan Musahib Kajar. Meanwhile, the main forces of the Ottomans still had to meet. Realizing
        the danger of the upcoming general battle for the fate of the whole country, Shah Abbas applies
        the traditional tactics of the Safavids is the tactics of “scorched earth”. In scale and cruelty,
        however, he surpassed everything, and all that has so far been done. Huge space dividing
        Osmanov and Shirvan were devastated, cities were destroyed, and the population was resettled in central
        areas of Iran. Julfa, Nakhchivan and Yerevan were destroyed. Turkish troops under command
        Jalal-oglu Sanan Pasha, reaching Yerevan, find themselves without provisions and dwellings and are forced to
        return to van
        Here Shah Abbas first used large-caliber guns cast by the famous Azerbaijani
        master gunner Bahadur-bey Topchibashi. For the first time in almost a hundred years, the state’s army
        Safavidov is advancing, and the Turkish defending, while the head of the army is smart, energetic,
        a brave and ambitious sixteen-year-old youth who has set himself a noble task,
        restoration of the huge Safavid empire of Shah Ismail. The fortress was taken only in the summer
        next year. Here Shah Abbas first used large-caliber guns cast by the famous Azerbaijani
        master gunner Bahadur-bey Topchibashi. For the first time in almost a hundred years, the state’s army
        Safavidov is advancing, and the Turkish defending, while the head of the army is smart, energetic,
        a brave and ambitious sixteen-year-old youth who has set himself a noble task,
        restoration of the huge Safavid empire of Shah Ismail. The fortress was taken only in the summer
        next year. Amirgul Khan Kajar is entrusted with managing the region of Yerevan, and Nakhchivan is entrusted with
        Maksud-Sultan Kengerli. After that, Georgia recognizes its vassal dependence on Shah Abbas.
        It remained to free Karabakh and Shirvan. Huseyn was appointed Beglyarbek of Karabakh in advance
        Khan Musahib Kajar. Meanwhile, the main forces of the Ottomans still had to meet. Realizing
        the danger of the upcoming general battle for the fate of the whole country, Shah Abbas applies
        the traditional tactics of the Safavids is the tactics of “scorched earth”.
        1. Yarbay
          Yarbay 10 December 2012 23: 23
          +1
          In scale and cruelty,
          however, he surpassed everything, and all that has so far been done. Huge space dividing
          Osmanov and Shirvan were devastated, cities were destroyed, and the population was resettled in central
          areas of Iran. Julfa, Nakhchivan and Yerevan were destroyed. Turkish troops under command
          Jalal-oglu Sanan Pasha, reaching Yerevan, find themselves without provisions and dwellings and are forced to
          return to van. Shah Abbas’s troops make an unexpected raid on Van and defeat Jalal’s troops
          oghlu. Now the same scorched earth tactics are applied here. On the way from Salmas to Tabriz on
          at a distance of almost 250 km, the area turns into a scorched desert. Jalal oglu despite
          this, again gathers a huge army of almost 100 thousand people and moves towards Tabriz.
          November 7, 1605, one of the largest battles in the history of the Shah’s wars takes place here
          Abbas. Shah Abbas’s military talent manifested itself here especially vividly. The whole battle was fought under him
          command. He so distributed the main forces and reserves that he managed to cope with superior
          enemy forces. He used unexpected military tricks. Shah's troops managed to capture
          a huge number of trophies including about 100 guns.
          Immediately after the victory, Shah Abbas appears in Karabakh and besieges the fortress of Ganja. To take
          the fortress succeeded only four months later, in the summer of 1606. In place of the former ruler of Karabakh
          Huseyn Khan Musahib Kajar was appointed Muhammad Khan Ziyad-oglu Kajar. After that shah abbas
          takes Lori, Dmanisi and Tiflis and sends troops to Shirvan. The siege of Shemakha lasts almost half a year. AT
          during this time, the population of Baku and Derbent rebelled and killed the Turkish garrisons.
          Turkish historian Ibrahim Pechevi writes in despair: “Thus, everything that was conquered
          warriors of Islam for 10-12 years, was completely lost. This godless shah conquered everything within
          two years. ”Please pay attention to the beglarbeks and military leaders of almost all Turkic (Azerbaijani origin. Kadzhar, Afsharly, Tekkeli and others), as opposed to the author’s statement that all were completely destroyed and that the Armenians and Georgians became close to the shah!
          1. Yarbay
            Yarbay 10 December 2012 23: 27
            +1
            Turks do not accept the loss of the conquered territories and demand a return to the contract 1590
            of the year. This leads to continuous wars ending in the conclusion of a new peace treaty in
            1612, which, basically, secured the borders existing for the conclusion of the contract.
            In fact, the Ottoman government recognizes the conquest of Shah Abbas.
            Already after the conclusion of the agreement, Shah Abbas invades Georgia and ruins Eastern Georgia and
            stole 30 thousand civilians. In response to this, a huge 100 thousandth Turkish army
            headed to the Caucasus. Adhering to its traditional tactics of Shah Abbas in 1615
            orders the fugitive of Karabakh Muhammad Khan Ziyad oglu Qajar to destroy the fortress of Ganja, and
            move his residence and the capital of the region to the Tiflis fortress. Shah Abbas dodges battle
            and is content with overlapping ties between the Turkish army and the rear. Unable to endure hunger and started
            the Ottoman epidemics in the winter of 1616/17 are retreating, with huge losses. Next year Khalil-
            Pasha with a huge army consisting of Turks and Crimean Tatars goes to Tabriz, and then
            Ardabil. Shah Abbas leaves both cities without a fight, having previously evacuated the population.
            Shah Abbas, evading the general battle, finally decides to give battle at the place
            Kerp sons. Tired by the long transition, the Ottomans and Tatars suffer crushing
            defeat. Hasan Pasha, the commander of the Ottoman army, dies in battle. After that, the Turks go to
            the signing of the next peace treaty (September 1618). The world does not last long. Breaks it
            this time shah Abbas.
            In the years 1622-1623, Shah Abbas conquered Iraq with the cities of Baghdad, Karbala, Nejef,
            Mosul, Kirkuk et al. And Akhaltsikh in Georgia. Just a year later, Georgia under the command of George
            Saakadze, who had undergone good military training under Shah Abbas, rose to fight
            Safavids. Saakadze’s troops clear eastern Georgia and capture and smash Ganja. On the
            suppression of the insurrection the shah sends a huge army that defeats the Georgians at
            Gyumyushlu June 30, 1625. Shah Abbas dies on January 19, 1629 in the city of Ashraf in the Mazandaran region at the age of 58.
            Famous Azerbaijani historian, poet and public figure of the XNUMXth century Abbas-Kuli-Aga
            Bakikhanov, summing up the reign of Shah Abbas, in his famous work on the history of Azerbaijan
            “Gulistan-i Iram”, writes: “Shah Abbas, known for his wise governance and state structure,
            instituted civil and military rules and laws that govern the Persian shahs and
            to this day. Even in European stories, where the dignity of sovereigns is strictly understood, Shah Abbas,
            patron of sciences and arts, earned the name of the Great. The peoples of Asia, for whom the memory
            this great man has become the ideal of justice and wisdom, idolize him. He erected
            so many public buildings that no sovereign of the East in this regard can not with him
            compare. Mosques and schools in cities, and in deserts caravanserais and water pipelines scattered across
            all of Persia and the Transcaucasian Territory, for a long time will testify to his good deeds. Shah Abbas
            lived in friendship with all modern writers and scholars of Persia, who in large numbers
            appeared in his time, and he himself sometimes wrote poetry, which until now is appreciated in Persia. ”
            1. Yarbay
              Yarbay 10 December 2012 23: 33
              +2
              The popularity of Shah Abbas is so great that he becomes a constant hero of Azerbaijani
              dastans and fairy tales. He writes poetry and patronizes scientists, doctors, poets, artists and
              poets. Suffice it to say that at his court, at different times, there are such prominent figures
              Azerbaijani culture, like the poets Mesekhi and Saib Tabrizi, calligraphers and artists Sadig-bek
              Afshar, Ali Rezi Tabrizi, Mir Muhammad Kazvini, nicknamed "Imad ul Muluk" ("support of the state") and
              a lot others. At the palace there is a palace orchestra, led by the “bashki bashki”.
              The “Shah” library of Abbas contains a huge number of books of religious and secular
              content. It is called the "Blooming Kitabhana." Kalantar - the trustee of the library was at first
              prominent Azerbaijani artist, poet and historian Sadig-bek Afshar, who received the title Sadig
              Kitabdar, and after him the calligrapher and poet Ali Rezi Tabrizi, awarded the title of “Abbasi” and
              nicknamed, "Shah Navaz" ("Shah's Smoothie"). The latter, moreover, becomes an approximate shah,
              obviously due to his active participation in the design of mosques and palaces erected by the Shah in
              Isfahan masterpiece of the Safavid school of architecture.
              Under Shah - Abbas, Isfahan is completely redeveloped. On straight and wide streets
              beautiful palaces, mosques, caravanserais, residential buildings decorated with brilliant color
              with glaze and mural painting, parks. A huge rectangular square is created in the city center -
              "Shah Meidany", which overlooks the Shah's mosque, palace and park. Shah's mosque ("Masjid-i
              Shah ”), completed in 1616, is one of the best architectural monuments in the world. Whole building
              the mosque is covered with glazed slabs of different colors. Under Shah Safi, the mosque was decorated
              silver gates and lined with marble. Military parades and games are held in the square
              chovgan (polo). According to its layout, the composition of buildings and even the names of objects located on
              square, this square repeats the metropolitan square of the Azerbaijani capitals - Tabriz and Qazvin,
              also called "Shah Meidan." Here, as well as in these cities are
              the Shah’s mosque “Shah Maschidi”, the palaces of “Ala Gapa” and “Haft Behisht”, “Chelsheutun”, etc.
              Architects, calligraphers and builders from
              Azerbaijan Shamsaddin Muhammad Tabrizi, Gasim Tabrizi, Abdul-latif Tabrizi, Ali Rza Tabrizi,
              Molla Abdullah Tabrizi and others.
  5. bart74
    bart74 15 December 2012 01: 57
    0
    Interesting article. Thanks to the author. I would also like to mention Yarbai. Also read with interest. This also resonates with the history of Central Asia. In any case, the influence of the Persians in this region was always significant until the end of the 19th century.