Military Review

Repression in the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

1
Part i here

Part II

The archives preserved a lot of documents testifying to the scale of personnel "cleaning" in the industry. Here is an excerpt from one such document:
Report of the Moscow Regional Department of the NKVD on the situation at the Aviation Plant-24 (powerful engines designed by A. A. Mikulin were produced there) in 1937:
'... 5 spyware terrorist and sabotage groups, with a total number of 50 people, opened and eliminated, including:
1. The anti-Soviet Trotskyist right-wing group comprised of the former plant manager, Maryamov, and the technical director, Kolosov.
2. Japanese intelligence spy group of 9 people.
3. German intelligence spy group of 13 people.
4. French intelligence espionage group of 4 people.
5. The terrorist and espionage and sabotage group of the Latvian intelligence service as part of 15 man, created and headed by a member of the Latvian fascist organization, was deputy Director of the plant 24 Gelman.
Also, the Trotskyite Tarakhtunov, the head of the technical department of the Quality Control Department of the plant, was arrested. The plant is still littered with anti-Soviet socially alien and suspicious elements of espionage and sabotage. According to the official data, the existing record of these elements reaches the 1000 man. ”


(The Russian State Archive of Economics - RGAE. F.7515. Op. 1. D. 153.)

Ivan Platonovich Grave - the founder of the national school of ballistics.

Repression in the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)


It was Grave who convinced Tukhachevsky of the reality of creating a combat missile weapons, and deputy chief in 1933g. issued an order to create a reactive research institute (RNII), where the development of jet engines and rockets. Ivan Platonovich “served” 3 times: in 1919, in 1937-38. - on the "plot" of Tukhachevsky, and in 1952. - in connection with another "conspiracy" in the Main Artillery Directorate. He was released only after the death of Stalin.

The work in the Jet Research Institute in 30's was carried out in two directions: the rockets were developed by the department, which was headed by Georgiy Langemak (IP Grave also joined this department); another department of RNII was developing liquid-fuel rockets, the leading specialists in it were Sergey Korolev and Valentin Glushko. Ivan Kleimenov was appointed director of RNII. Work in the departments was carried out successfully, but the development of rockets was most effective. In 1937, the creation of the first combat PC-82 and PC-132, as well as launchers for them, was completed. In the presence of Marshal of the Soviet Union M. Tukhachevsky, these PCs were fired from ground machines and from airplanes. The shooting was successful, and already in 1938g. The first domestic combat jet systems could be adopted. However, after the arrest of Tukhachevsky, practically the entire leadership of the institute and the most prominent experts were arrested. Any troubled time as the foam brings up the petty little people who, pursuing their selfish career interests, go up over the heads of their comrades. The reason for the arrests was the series of denunciations of the institute's employee A. Kostikov to various instances of "sabotage activity" in the RNII.
As a result, practically the entire leadership of the RNII and the most prominent designers were arrested. Kleimenov, Langemak and three more people were shot. Korolev was on the Kolyma; Glushko, Grave and some other employees were immediately sent to the sharashka. The creator of the high-explosive fragmentation variant of the missile Vasily Nikolayevich Luzhin, convicted in 1940 for 8 years, disappeared in the depths of the repressive system. A watchful comrade Kostikov in 1938g. became the head of the institute transformed into NII-3, received the Hero of Social Labor and for a long time he was considered the only creator of the Katyusha. After coming to Kostikov’s leadership at the institute, work began to boil: there was an intensive identification of 'enemies of the people'. Only at the end of 1939, the directive of the General Staff of the Red Army appeared, demanding to intensify work on the creation of rockets. NII-3 subordinated the People's Commissar of Weapons to Boris Vannikov, who replaced the director, secured the release of I.P. Grave, SP Korolev and other employees, and also involved three enterprises of his People's Commissariat in preparation for production. In a short time, the completion of rockets was organized, which received the names M-82 and M-132. Were also designed launchers for the use of rocket projectiles on airplanes and on the automobile chassis - installation BM-13 (which became famous 'Katyusha'). However, although the BM-13 installations and missiles for them were fully developed and successfully tested, the first production machines were assembled much later. The reason was another case of "sabotage" in the weapons commissariat, as a result of which the entire leadership of the people's commissariat and the people's commissar, Boris Vannikov, fell into the Lubyanka cellars. The work of the institute was once again frozen, and by the beginning of the war they were able to release only one Katyush battery, which was first used in the summer of 1941. under Orsha.



Langemak Georgy Erihovich (1898-1938), photo from the NKVD archive.



Father - German, mother - Swiss. He graduated from the Elizavetgrad gymnasium and in 1916 entered the University of Petrograd. In October, 1916 was drafted into the army, in 1917 he graduated from the school of ensigns on the first category; served in the Russian and then in the Red Army. In 1928, Georgy Langemak graduated from the Military Technical Academy and was sent to the Gas Dynamics Laboratory, where he developed PC-82 mm and PC-132 mm rockets. In January, 1934 G.E. Langemak was appointed Deputy Director for Science (Chief Engineer) of the Jet Research Institute NKTP (with 1937 Research Institute number 3 NKOP). During his work at the institute, Georgy Langemak practically completed the finishing of the RS-82 and PC-132 rockets, which later became the basis of the Katyusha rocket launcher. During this period, G.E. Langemak corresponded with K.E. Tsiolkovsky, reflecting on the non-military use of missiles, on the possibility of their use in astronautics. The term "cosmonautics" itself was introduced by G. E. Langemak. In 1937, as the “brainchild” of Tukhachevsky, the Jet Research Institute underwent a 'purge'. The leadership of the institute was arrested. 2 November 1937 G. E. Langemak was arrested (warrant number A 810) by the Moscow NKVD. The indictment, dated 31 December 1937, is based on a single interrogation protocol. For "sabotage in the field of preventing new types of weapons" and participation in the "anti-Soviet terrorist organization", crimes under Art. Art. 58-7, 58-8 and 58-11 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR Georgy Erikhovich Langemak was sentenced to capital punishment - shot with the confiscation of all his personal property. On the day of the trial, the sentence was carried out. Rehabilitated in 1955g. By decree of the USSR President M. S. Gorbachev from 21, June 1991, G. E. Langemak was posthumously awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor.

Boris Viktorovich Raushenbakh is a Soviet mechanical mechanic, the greatest scientist in the field of jet systems, one of the founders of Soviet cosmonautics. In March, 1942 arrested him on orders from the NKVD to deport people of German nationality, and sent him to a labor camp in Nizhny Tagil to wave his pickaxe. Fortunately, the well-known aircraft designer VF Bolkhovitinov drew attention to him, and agreed with the NKVD on the use of the prisoner as a "calculated labor force." Then the new head of the RNII, Mikhail Keldysh, succeeded in returning Rauschenbach to the institute. Formally, the link Rauschenbach ended only in 1948g.

In the same years, naval engineers MA Ruditsky, who later created the first Soviet K-type cruiser submarine, were jailed; KV Starchik, who developed the first draft of a radio-controlled small submarine; the designer and builder of submarines G.M.Trusov; designer of dwarf submarines VL Brzezinski.
KV Starchik supervised the development of the project of a super-small submarine without the crew of the APSS. Operated from an airplane. Were built prototypes tested in 1935-1936's. In 1938, Mr. Starchyk was shot as "an enemy of the people and a pest."
Shipbuilding engineer FV Schukin in 1935-1936 developed an ultra-small submarine type "submarine", and then - more advanced submarine "Pygmy". Four boats were built, but they were not completed, as they were recognized as "wrecking". Released earlier from prison and re-arrested in 1937, Shchukin was executed the next year "for sabotage".

In 1933, a group of design engineers and submariners, including SG Turkov, VN Peregudov, VF Kritsky, VV Perlovsky, Z. A. Deribin and AG Sokolov, was sent to Germany to check the drawings of the middle submarines, developed under a secret agreement with the company Deshimag. In addition to Germany, Soviet specialists also visited Spain, where a similar boat was already being built, and in Italy. After returning, this group, based on the drawings of the German company, developed a similar project of the average submarine of type "C" (IX series).
The project was headed by SGTurkov, the development was completed in 1934. When these submarines were built and successfully operated in 1937, the NKVD received a denunciation of Turkov about his "connections with foreign intelligence services". The following year, the Turks were shot. Together with Turkov, his friend V.N. Peregudov was also arrested on a similar charge. For some time Peregudov was sitting in the same cell with the future Marshal Rokossovsky. Fortunately, a year after his arrest Peregudov was released. He was appointed chief designer of the submarine type "C", developed by his friend Turkova.


By the way, it was on “C” that the most famous Soviet submariner Marinesko went to combat missions. Subsequently, VN Peregudov became the creator of the first Soviet nuclear submarine.

Vladimir Nikolaevich Peregudov:



Shipbuilder Sergey Konstantinovich Bondarevsky was arrested in 1937. as head of the production department of the shipyard 'Dalzavod' (Vladivostok). During a search in the drawer of his desk, he found a pistol clip with cartridges, which he never had. Employees of the NKVD immediately took away all the most valuable things from the apartment without any inventory and act. During interrogations, Bondarevsky demanded to give incriminating testimony to his colleagues and to confess to the standard set of charges of "right-Trotskyist, sabotage and sabotage activities." For the year of interrogations on the conveyor belt, he did not cooperate with the investigation, refused to sign the indictment. In absentia, he was convicted by the Military Collegium of the Armed Forces of the USSR to 10 years of imprisonment and 5 years of deprivation of rights. From the Vladivostok prison he was sent to Bolshevo, where there were many technical specialists who worked on various defense tasks. Then Bondarevsky and a group of specialists were transferred to the town of Molotovsk of the Arkhangelsk Region (the future Severodvinsk), where they worked as prisoners at a shipyard. Sergei Konstantinovich served as chief of the shop, which built the ships of the series 'Big Hunter'. Freed it in 1947. During his “time”, her daughter died, and her wife became disabled. In 1949, Bondarevsky was arrested again and sent into exile in Igarka (Krasnoyarsk Territory), where he worked in auxiliary works on a collective farm. He was released only in 1954, and in 1957 he received a certificate of full rehabilitation. Later he worked by profession in Nikolaev, participated in the construction of many ships, including in the position of chief technologist at the construction of the antisubmarine cruisers Moscow and Leningrad. When receiving a certificate from the KGB office, he was given to familiarize himself with his 'case', from the materials of which Bondarevsky learned that the charges against him were based on false testimony of his colleague Yegorov Ye.P. This subject was not convicted and later became the director of a large plant and received even the title of Hero of Social Work. Another colleague and friend of Bondarevsky - B.E. Klopotov - on the eve of his arrest I came to visit him and no one but him could put a clip with cartridges on the table. Klopot also made a good career. S.K.Bondarevsky wrote the most interesting memories called “So it was”, which are on the Internet.
Here is one of the episodes of Bondarevsky’s memories:
“In the cell was a military pilot Illes - Latvian. Recently arrested, he was summoned for interrogation once. He told about this:
“I did not understand whether the investigator played me off, or whether he was a rare fool who did not understand anything. After informing me that they received information that I, Illes, wanted to send Marshal Blucher to China by plane, he asked: "Is this true?" I answered him with a laugh: 'Of course, true! I, a military pilot flying a 1 local fighter, wanted to take Blucher with me and wave abroad with him. ' But he did not seem to understand humor and kept asking how I would do it. I replied: “It’s very simple: I would tie him up by the arms and legs under the fuselage and let him hang for an hour or two until we reach it.” And he, an eccentric investigator, wrote everything down in the protocol and, after asking me if I was not lying, gave me a sign. ”
We thought that he had signed in vain, but Illes laughed carelessly: they say, who would believe the nonsense he signed ?! ”


The largest specialists in the field of communication organization in the country and the army were methodically destroyed:
Major organizer of a communications system in the USSR, who held leading posts in the Commissariat of Communications with 1919 to 1934, Artymiy Lyubovich, shot by 28.06.1938
Major organizer of the communications system in the USSR, who held leading posts in the Commissariat of Communications and the Red Army Communications Directorate from 1919 to 1937. Commander Khalepsky Innokentiy Andreevich, shot 29.07.1938g.
Head of the Communications Department of the Red Army (1924-1935) Commander Nikolai Sinyavsky, shot by 29.07.1938.
Head of the Communications Directorate of the Red Army (1935-1937), Commissar Longva Roman Voitsekhovich, shot by 8.02.1938.
Head of the Communications Directorate of the Red Army (1937-1938), Commander Aksenov Alexei Mikhailovich, shot by 22.08.1938.
In 1939 the chief of the Communications Department of the Red Army was IT Peresypkin, who in 1932. commanded the squadron, and in 1937g. graduated from the Electrotechnical Academy and received the title of captain.

Pavel Kondratievich Oschepkov - an outstanding Soviet scientist, founder of domestic and world radar and introscopy, the 'father' of the first Soviet radar.


On the initiative of M.I.Tukhachevsky, January 16, 1934. Oschepkov presented his scheme for detecting various objects at a considerable distance using an electromagnetic beam at a meeting of the Academy of Sciences. At the personal request of Tukhachevsky, S.M. Kirov, with whom Tukhachevsky was on friendly terms, provided Oschepkov with the necessary conditions for R & D in Leningrad, which resulted in the creation of the same 1934. first domestic radar 'Vega' and 'Cone'. As acknowledged by many foreign scientists, including American, the USSR’s priority in creating the first operational radar station belongs. However, in 1937g. Oschepkov was arrested in the Tukhachevsky case and served exactly 10 years. The country met the Great Patriotic War with a small number of radar stations. Serious attention to this area was paid only in the second half of the war, when 4 July 1943g. A working body on radar problems was formed - the Council on Radar at the State Defense Committee. Meanwhile, British scientists have made significant progress in this direction and adopted the radar workers with the best characteristics in the world, which lend-lease entered service in the USSR during the war.

Designer Taubin Yakov Grigorievich



invented an automatic easel grenade launcher for fire support of infantry units. In addition, in OKB-16, he and his co-author M.N.Baburin developed a 23 mm aviation the MP-6 gun (BT-23) and the 12,7mm AN-12,7 aviation machine gun. May 16, 1941 Taubin and several OKB employees were arrested on typical charges (anti-Soviet activities, sabotage). October 28, 1941 Yakov Taubin was shot in the village of Barbysh together with a large group of prominent military personnel on the orders of Beria.

Automatic grenade launcher AG-2 Taubin design:



In 1931 Spetsmashtrest received technical assignment GAU for the development of a number of self-propelled guns. The main calibers were: 107, 152, 203 and 305mm. K 1934g. A prototype ACS appeared under the code name SU-14 with a 203mm tool developed by designer Syachinov. During the subsequent years 3, work was under way to eliminate numerous technical problems, the engine was replaced, and instead of 203mm guns, a more successful 152mm with a unique range was installed: 27km. In February, 1937. 2 prototypes SU-14 and SU-14-1 successfully passed the full cycle of state tests and it was possible to begin their mass production. However, on December 31, 1936 was arrested by P.Syachintov, who was convicted under article 58, paragraph.6, 7, 8 and 11. The chief designer of Soviet self-propelled guns was accused of "espionage, sabotage, terrorist acts, sabotage and subversive work in a team." The trial of Syachintov took place on May 5 of the year 1937, and the next day he was shot. The same fate befell the creator of the B-4 howitzer Bolshevik plant director Magdisiyev - the accusation of sabotage and execution. In the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army entered without “harmful” ACS, the release of which was adjusted only in 1942, that is, 5 years later than it could be under normal approach to business.

The first Soviet ACS "SU-14" of Syachinov's design:



Miraculously avoided the fate of many prominent defense industry workers destroyed by the NKVD, the chief designer tank T-34 M.I. Koshkin. The NKVD authorities arrested Koshkin’s colleagues: designers A.O. Firsov, N.F. Tsyganova, A.Ya. Dick The post of chief designer became deadly - for any mistake and failure he was threatened with prison and execution.

NKVD document:
report "On design defects and delayed production of the production of new A-34 tanks at plant No. 183 in Kharkov."
"When designing the tank A-34, under the leadership of the chief designer of the plant No. 183 engineer Koshkina, a number of defects were found that affect the fighting qualities of the vehicle ...
KOSHKIN and his deputy MOROZOV, instead of working in the direction of creating a structure with a hatch and side view, posed the question: either with a hatch without a view, or a side view, but without a hatch ...
Koshkin, instead of taking into account these remarks and instructing an experienced designer-designer to make a project without the indicated defects, ordered to urgently detail the driver's booth according to the project of designer BARON. Pointing to the drawbacks of the construction of the booth, the engineer TARSHINOV himself proposed to develop the project last, but was sent to CATSHOW on a business trip to the mountains. Mariupol, although it was not he who needed to go ...
In order to cover up the squandering of funds, Koshkin is preparing for launching a series of a driver’s booth according to the project of designer BARONA, and for some reason, according to the project of engineer TARSHINOV, production will be carried out as a prototype ...
KOSHKIN believes that there will be places in the finished car where they can supposedly be able to place an additional number of machine-gun disks, although there is no such space in the design data of the areas ...
Essentially notified to the NKVD of the USSR for the adoption of appropriate measures through Narkomsredmash and ABTU RKKA. "


Deputy Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR Gorlinsky "7" February 1940, the number 551 / SN of the GDA SS Ukraine. Typewriting, F. 16. - Op. 33 (1951 p.). - Ref. 90. - Ark. 213-217. Copy.

Two times Alexander Aleksandrovich Porokhovshchikov, the “father” of the first in stories Russian tracked armored car (1914) and the native grandfather of the popular film actor Alexander Shalvovich Porokhovshchikov. A.A.Porohovschikov became an aircraft designer, as a prisoner he worked on the construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal, was engaged in the construction of locks. After several years of camps, he was released, but in 1940g. arrested again and shot.

In November, 1936 was arrested the head of the department of tanks and tractors at the Military Academy of Mechanization and Motorization of the Red Army, non-partisan professor V.I. Zaslavsky, the author of the first Russian book on tanks. According to the well-known specialist in the field of tank building of the American professor M. K. Christie, Zaslavsky was a prominent Soviet scientist in the field of tank building, who set the tone in the science of tank and tank design. A number of other well-known specialists characterized him as a major Soviet scientist and theorist who initiated the development of tank business in the Soviet Union. 19 November 1936 arrested. Signed for repression in the first category (shooting) in the list "Moscow Center" from 14 June 1937 to 56 people. on the presentation of the beginning. 4 of the Department of the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD M. I. Litvin. Signatures: “For” - Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov. Sentenced by the WCF 20 Jun 1937 on charges of participating in an anti-Soviet sabotage organization. Shot 21 Jun 1937. The ashes are buried on the territory of the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow. Rehabilitated 5 Nov. 1955.

In August 1937g. arrests began at the largest Soviet automobile plant GAZ. At first they arrested specialists and shop managers, by April 1938. got to the director S.Dyakonov. According to the NKVD, the director was a real devil: he worked for the intelligence services of Japan, Germany and several other states, "sabotaged the work of the plant", "specially appointed" anti-Soviet elements for leadership positions, etc., etc. Through 5 months, the investigators shot the director. At the same time, it turned out that the 'public enemies' were the chief accountant Chuiko, 19 senior accountants, almost all the engineers, designers, technologists, heads of the kindergarten and film and photo department, the head physician of the district. All the experts who completed training in the USA and the American experts who helped to build the plant were exterminated: I.Tuchelsky, D.Sigler, M.Kadaryan and others. According to the NKVD, only for the first half of 1938. at GAZ, 407 'spies of foreign intelligence services' from such countries as Germany, Japan, the USA, Italy, Latvia, France, Romania, Bulgaria were "exposed". Many of them worked on intelligence services of several states at once. Interestingly, it was the experts of GAZ of the NKVD GU who were instructed to develop and release a batch of special vehicles for the transport of prisoners, which the people later called the “black raven”. In these "funnels" specialists later transported. A similar situation developed in another automotive giant, the ZIS plant in Moscow. The chief designer of the ZIS plant was Vazhinsky E.I., under whose leadership such famous models as ZIS-5 and ZIS-6 were created, were arrested in 1938, and then shot, like the head of the design bureau of ZIS Bondarev DD. ; the same fate befell the director of the Yaroslavl Automobile Plant Elenin V.A. and many other prominent industry workers.

In 1940, massacres began in the People's Commissariat of Ammunition, arrested in the fall: 2 Chief of the Main Directorate, Boris Efremov, Deputy Commissar Nikolai Khrenkov, Vasily Shibanov and Mikhail Inyashkin SNK USSR Alexander Hodyakova. Summer 1941g. they took three more responsible workers of the People's Commissariat of Ammunition: Sergey Gorin, Daniel Irlin and Georgy Tolstov. In their testimony, they all accused each other of sabotage and other standard crimes of the time. To save time, investigators organized a cross-accusation: Inyashkin convicts Sergeev, Sergeev convicts Inyashkina. This method was widely used and was considered a sufficient basis for the execution of executions.

Conclusion

Brief summary of the repression in the defense industry: at the end of 1939. on average, only 35-40% of factory directors had a higher education, about half of the directors had senior management experience of no more than 1 a year. It is not surprising that when incompetent management was added to the technological backwardness of the industry, the release of quality products was a big question. The numbers also fell: for example, on GAZ in 1938. 139 thousand cars were produced, in 1939. - 110 thousand, and in 1940g. - total 65 thousand. In total, 1937 thousand cars were produced in the automotive industry for 200, and 1940 thousand for 145. In general, it cannot be denied that a lot was done for the development of the Soviet defense industry and the USSR entered the Great Patriotic War by no means with the worst examples of weapons and military equipment. However, it is absolutely clear that many of the most urgently needed industry experts were destroyed, and the repression could not but have a negative effect on defense works.

Sources:
Zefirov MV, Degtev DM, 'Everything for the Front', AST-Moscow, 2009.
Mozokhin O., 'Cheka - OGPU. On the protection of the economic security of the state and in the fight against terrorism ', M., 2004.
Kerber L.L. 'Tupolevskaya Sharaga'
http://www.urantia-s.com/library/kerber-tupolevskaya_sharaga
“RUSSIA, XX CENTURY. DOCUMENTS. LUBYANKA. STALIN AND THE MAIN DEPARTMENT OF STATE SECURITY OF THE NKVD IN 1937-1938. ”Compiled by: VN Khaustov, V.P. Naumov, N.S. Plotnikov. MOSCOW, 2004.
Bondarevsky S., "So It Was"
http://www.memorial.krsk.ru/memuar/Bondarevsky/0.htm
Sobolev DA 'Repression in the Soviet aircraft industry'
http://www.ihst.ru/projects/sohist/papers/sob00v.htm#doc2
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  1. Black
    Black 10 December 2012 22: 21
    +1
    Article plus. This is a bitter truth. Russian industrialism was not born in time, and in a natural way, but was pulled out of the bosom of the patriarchal peasantry by forceps, because the leadership of the country did not have to carry it out on time.