Military Review

The world's first underwater mine layer "Crab". Part 5. The first combat campaign of the underwater mine layer "Crab"

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When the First World War began, the Russian Black Sea Fleet was clearly superior in power to the Turkish Navy. But after 12 days after the war began (Turkey remained neutral at the time), 2 Germanic vessels arrived in Constantinople (Istanbul) - the light cruiser Breslau and the battle cruiser Geben, which broke through the ships of France and Great Britain into the Eastern Mediterranean . Then they entered the Black Sea through the Dardanelles and Bosphorus straits. The Goeben was a modern battlecruiser with speed in 28 units and armed with ten 280 – millimeter guns.
At the same time as part of the Black Sea fleet there were only outdated battleships armed with four 305 mm guns (the Rostislav battleship with four 254 mm guns), the speed of these ships did not exceed 16 knots. By the number of large-caliber guns, the entire Russian brigade of armored ships exceeded the artillery armament of the cruiser Geben, however, using superior speed, he could always avoid meeting with the squadron of the Russian fleet. Modern Russian ships were only being built in Nikolaev, and by the beginning of the war not one of them was ready. Therefore, the interest of the Russian command of the Black Sea Fleet in replenishing these ships is understandable.

Underwater minelayer "Crab", when built at the shipyard of the Naval plant in Nikolaev., 1911


In the summer of 1915, the first of these battleships - "Empress Maria" (armament: twenty 130-millimeter guns and twelve 305 millimeter guns) were to be operational. However, the first passage to Sevastopol from Nikolaev was to be made by the ship with untested gun turrets of the main caliber. Naturally, his transition could be considered secured only if the meeting between the “Empress Maria” and the cruiser “Goeben” was ruled out. To ensure the transition of the "Empress Maria" in Sevastopol, the idea to block the "Goeben" entrance to the Black Sea. To do this, it was necessary to secretly put a minefield at the Bosphorus. For such a statement of mines near the enemy's coast, the most suitable was an underwater mine layer. That is why the task was assigned to the submarine "Crab", which has not yet completed its tests.

In 07: 00 25 June 1915, the underwater mineslayer "Crab" under the commercial flag with 4 torpedoes and 58 mines and shot from the mooring lines on board.
In addition to the personnel, there were: a captain of the first rank, the head of the Underwater Brigade, VE Klochkovsky, lieutenant flagship navigator of the brigade Parutsky M.V. and lieutenant commissioning captain of the plant, mechanical engineer Lukyanov VS (the last campaign went on their own). The barrier was accompanied by new submarines "Walrus", "Seal" and "Nerpa".
The submarine "Crab", according to the instructions received, was supposed to put a mine barrier on the line of Bosphorus lighthouses (Anatoli-Fener and Rumeli-Fener) a mile long 1. The submarine "Nerpa" was supposed to block the Bosphorus from the east, being near the Shili lighthouse (Turkey's Anatolian coast, east of the Bosphorus); the submarine "Seal" was located to the west of the Bosporus, and the submarine "Walrus" - in a position against the Bosporus itself.
In 09: 20 the submarine "Crab", being on the parallel of Cape Sarych, headed for the Bosphorus. Subs "Seal", "Nerpa" and "Walrus" were walking in the wake column, while the lead submarine "Seal" was on the left traverse of the "Crab". It was clear weather, the wind did not exceed two points. Submarine "Crab" was under the two kerosene engines of the starboard. After a few hours of work had to go to the engines of the left shaft, to inspect the first and bring them in order.

From 10 to 11 hours, small-arms and artillery exercises were conducted: machine guns and an 37-millimeter gun were tested. By order of the brigade commander in 12.00, a pennant and a military flag were raised on submarines. In 20: 00 submarines began to diverge, in order not to hamper each other in the dark in maneuvering. In the morning they were to meet again.
The minelayer "Crab", having greater speed than other submarines, arrived at the meeting point on the morning of June 26 before the accompanying submarines. Therefore, for the use of free time, the engines stopped and made trimming and immersion of the layer Crab. During the dive, it was discovered that the Crab submarine was losing its buoyancy astern. It turned out that the aft trim tank was filled with water due to the fact that the neck of the tank let the water out of the setting. I had to surface and replace the rubber on the neck of the tank. The damage was repaired, after which the trimming was resumed.
During trimming, it was found that pumping water between trim tanks is impossible due to the low pump power. During the ascent of the layer, the remaining water in the superstructure descended through the pipes.
But it turned out that this was happening slowly, so it was necessary to open the neck of the aft trim tank and to pull some of the water into it, and then pump it overboard with a hose.

All submarines in 10: 50 were assembled. After de-diverting the Crab, the submarines Seal and Nerpa headed for the given positions, and the Walrus submarine, since it had to take a position against the Bosphorus, followed along with the minelayer Krab. Before the Bosphorus, 85 miles remained to pass. The captain of the first rank, Klochkovsky, planned to carry out a mine setting in the evening twilight, so that in the event of a failure or malfunction of the minelayer, a reserve of time would remain at night, either after or immediately after it. In this regard, he decided to make a mine statement in the evening the next day, that is, 27 June.
The motors started up in 14: 00, set in motion and at the same time charging the battery started. In 20: The 00 submarine Walrus is gone. At the same time she received an order to meet against the Bosphorus the next morning, but out of sight of a submarine from the shore. In 00: 00 27 June, the battery was charged (taken 3000 A-hours), the engines stopped, and the Crab submarine stayed in place until 04: 00, after which it took a slow turn. In 06: 30 opened the coast on the nose, in 07: 35 the Morges submarine appeared on the right up to the traverse. In 09: 00 light mist almost hid the shore. The Crab was from the Bosphorus Strait in 28 miles. The motors stopped, and then, after lunch, in 11: 40 was again allowed, but already on the screw and charging, so that the batteries for the upcoming mine setting were fully charged. In 11 miles from Rumeli-Fener in 16: 15 motors stopped, in 16: 30 began to dive. 20 minutes later, an underwater stroke was given at the 4 node. The head of the submarine brigade decided to put a minefield from the Anatoli-Fener lighthouse to Rumeoli-Fener, and not vice versa, since in the latter case, in case of an error in speed, the underwater layer Krab could jump onto the Anatolian coast.

Determining the location of the submarine was made in the periscope. However, in order not to find himself, the head of the submarine brigade in the wheelhouse took the bearings by the periscope, exposing it to the surface for only a few seconds, after which he passed the countdown around the flagship navigator, who was laying the course.
In 18: 00, the minelayer was located in 8 miles from Anatoli-Fener. The Crab walked at a depth of 50 feet (15,24 meters), counting from the keel of the submarine to the surface. Then the depth was increased to 60 feet (18,29 meters). In 19: 00, during the determination of the location of the minelayer opposite the strait, a Turkish watchdog steamer, located in the 10 cable from the minelayer, was discovered. However, the captain of the first rank Klochkovsky refused to attack the steamer, because he was afraid to find himself and disrupt the laying of a minefield. Depth increased to 65 feet (19,8 meters), in order to pass under the keel of the steamer, the minelayer "Crab" lay down on the course 180 degrees.
In 19.55, the haulier from the Anatoli-Fener lighthouse was located in the 13,75 cable. In 20: 10 started to mine min. After 11,5 minutes, the minelayer crab touched the ground. Since the head of the submarine brigade sought to put a minefield as close as possible to the lighthouses, he considered that the minelayer had touched the Rumelian bank. In this regard, Klochkovsky ordered to put the steering wheel on the starboard side, blow the high-pressure tank and stop the mine elevator. At that moment, the last mine was not signaled by the pointer.
In 20: 22 was followed by a strong push, and then a few more. The barrier has risen to 45 feet (13,7 meters), having a significant trim on the nose, but then did not pop up, probably hitting behind something with a nose. Then they stopped the course and blew through the middle tank to allow the submarine to free itself and not wind the minrepra on the screw (if the minelayer is on the minefield). A minute later, "Crab" rose to half felling, while on the course to the north. From left side into the window of the cabin at dusk was the lighthouse of Rumeli-Fener ...
Barrier in 20: 24 plunged again, gaining 5,25 nodes.
A minute later, during an attempt to deliver the “last mine”, it turned out that the pointer did not work correctly: this mine was placed just before contact with the ground. The speed of the minelayer was reduced, and the depth was increased to 65 feet (19,8 meters), in order to pass under the keel of oncoming ships and under possible minefields.

The Crab in 20: 45 increased the speed to 4,5 nodes in order to move away from the Bosphorus as quickly as possible, since there were great differentials, and it was assumed that the submarine had suffered hull damage. Captain first rank Klochkovsky in 21: 50 gave the order to surface. After the ascent, the chief of the submarine brigade, together with the commander, went up to the bridge. It was dark. Nothing was visible: only on the black strip of the coast, near the strait could be seen flashes of fire, and to the west of it - a faint flickering light ... The ventilation of the submarine was turned on and allowed to go upstairs to people in need of fresh air, and there were such, especially in the mine office of mine layer, where there were kerosene engines ... Here's what the submarine commander, Senior Lieutenant Fenshaw LK, recorded in his report: "Due to the lack of time left before the dive, I could not cool the kerosene engines properly and went ramie under water.
During the long 6-hour submerged course, high emissions of oil and kerosene arose from the high temperature emanating from the electric motors, so strong that the majority of the crew was angry not only in the stern of the submarine, but also in other parts of the vessel. Even in the cockpit, where the head of the submarine brigade, the flagship navigator, the commander of the submarine and the vertical helmsman were, his eyes were very watery and his breathing was difficult. As a result, after the submarine emerged, part of the crew went on deck, and midshipman Ivanov, and so on. senior mechanical engineer, carried out in a semi-conscious state. "
In 23: 20, the starboard kerosene engines were launched, and after 25 minutes - the left side. The brigade commander was supposed to give an agreed radiogram to the commander of the Morges submarine, but this could not be done, because the barrier line’s antenna was torn during the underwater stroke.

Further navigation of the submarine "Crab" to Sevastopol passed without incident. They were afraid only because there was not enough lubricating oil, because its consumption turned out to be much more than expected. The latter was not unexpected, since the 8 of April, during a surface test of the underwater mine layer, decided to change the thrust bearing lubrication device and install a refrigerator to cool the flowing oil, however, they did not have time to do this.
29 June in 07: 39, when approaching Sevastopol, the minelayer “Crab” dispersed from the squadron of the Black Sea Fleet, which left Sevastopol. The submarine brigade commander told the fleet commander that the minelayer had completed the combat mission. In 08: 00 raised the commercial flag again. In 09: 30, the underwater mine layer "Crab" dropped off in the South Bay near the base.

The first hike showed that the barrier had a significant number of design flaws, such as: the complexity of the dive system, due to which the dive time could be up to 20 minutes; the clutter of the submarine mechanisms; high temperatures in the rooms caused by the work of kerosene engines and harmful evaporation from them, making it difficult for the mine-layinger team to work. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the personnel did not have time before the march to properly study the structure of such a complex ship. Only an important and urgent task forced the command to send the not fully completed underwater minelayer to such a responsible march.
Thanks to the complete peace and resourcefulness, as well as the dedicated and hard work of the personnel of the submarine, which has eliminated many shortcomings, the given operation was carried out. Indeed, when during the mine setting on the evening of June 27, four strong blows to the bow and a current of the mine elevator increased significantly, they feared that the auxiliary circuit fuses would blow, causing all auxiliary mechanisms to stop, and if the elevator continued to work, the mines would installed under the stern of the submarine. Lieutenant Kruzenshtern V.V. immediately stopped the elevator, thereby avoiding this danger. During the strikes, the maximum control of the horizontal rudders also stopped working. Botsmanmat Tokarev N., the helmsman, instantly realized why the rudders were not shifted, turned on the open maximum switch, which made it possible to keep the minelayer from dangerous and large differentials. Fearing that the ballast tank and torpedo tubes would be damaged as a result of the blows, the midshipman Monastyrev N.A. took the necessary measures: ordered to keep the pump ready for pumping water and compressed air. Despite the severe headache and fatigue - signs of burnout - midshipman Ivanov MP, a mechanical engineer, was always with the team and encouraging everyone.
Mechanical engineer Lukyanov VS, the deliverer of the plant, at the right moment, appearing in the compartments and giving instructions, helped the normal operation of the fence-layer mechanisms.

The officers were promoted or rewarded for successfully completing the combat mission of setting up a minefield at the Bosphorus. The commander of the submarine "Crab" FK Lers was promoted to captain of the second rank, flagship navigator of the submarine brigade Parutsky M.V. produced in the rank of lieutenant, Monastyreva N.A. fired as lieutenants, Ivanova MP - To a mechanical engineer - lieutenant.

Orders awarded: Klochkovsky V.E. - Order of Vladimir of the third degree with swords, Kruzenshtern V.V. - Order of Anna of the third degree, Ivanov MP - Order of Stanislav of the third degree. Later, by order of the Black Sea Fleet Commander from 26 September 1915, etc. Senior Protector Officer Lieutenant Kruzenshtern V.V. awarded St. George weapons for the fact that "in setting the minefield, by selfless and valiant activity, he brought the submarine out of a critical situation, thereby contributing to the successful accomplishment of its combat mission." The sailors were also awarded for this trip: 8 man - St. George's crosses, 10 man - St. George medal, 12 man - Medal "For diligence".

The next day, after the mines were laid, the Turks, on surfaced mines, discovered a barrage set up by the submarine "Krab". Raising one of them, they realized that the mines were delivered by a submarine. Immediately the minesweepers' division began the trawling, and the commandant of the Bosphorus 3 July reported that the minefield had been cleared.
However, this conclusion was very hasty: the gunboat Isa Reis was blown up by the nose part of the "etched" barrier. She was towed to the beach and decommissioned.

5 July 1915, the cruiser Breslau sailed towards four Turkish steamers of coal. From Cape Kara-Burnu Vostochny in 10 miles to the north-east, it hit a mine and took in tons of water (at a tonnage of 642 tons) inside 4550. This minefield was fielded in December 1914 by minelayers of the Black Sea Fleet - "George", "Alexey", "Xenia" and "Konstantin". The cruiser "Breslau", under the protection of minesweepers, entered the Bosphorus and stood in Stenia at the dock. It took several months to repair it, and it was not until February 1916 that it entered service. For the German-Turkish fleet, this was a significant loss, considering that of the light cruisers only the low-speed Hamidia remained in its structure. During this period, the cruiser "Goeben" did not leave the Black Sea, since it was decided to use it only in extreme cases. The reason - the lack of coal, which was caused by the fighting of the Russian ships in the coal area of ​​the Anatolian coast.

The battleship "Empress Maria" 23 July 1915, safely arrived in Sevastopol from Nikolaev.
After the return of the underwater mine layer “Crab” to Sevastopol, on August until the August they removed and repaired the deficiencies remaining in connection with the urgent exit to the military campaign.

20-21 August 1915, after the repair, he went to sea. At the beginning of December, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet received an order for the minelayer "Crab" to mine setting in favorable weather, and then blocking the port of Zunguldak.
On December 10, the mine crab "Crab" came out to fulfill the order of the commander of the Black Sea Fleet at sea, but on December 12 was forced to return to Sevastopol because of stormy weather. Thus, "Crab" in the last months of 1915, did not conduct mine settings. Captain second rank Fenshou LK In August, he was appointed Chief of the first submarine division, which included the "Crab", "Seal", "Nerpa" and "Walrus". In October 1915 was appointed Lieutenant Parutsky Mikhail Vasilyevich as Commander of the Crab (born in 1886, graduated from 1910 in the year of diving) - flagship navigator of the Underwater Brigade, who had previously held the position of submarine commander, and in 1912 - position of the submarine division submarines for those. parts. Instead of the mechanical engineer lieutenant Ivanov MP A mechanical engineer, midshipman, Nikitin, PI, who served as a senior mechanical engineer in February-October 1916, was appointed to the "Crab".
The "Crab" in February 1916 was given the assignment to mine mines from the Bosphorus. From Sevastopol, he went to 17: February 10 25 under the pennant of the head of the Underwater Brigade of the captain of the first rank Klochkovsky. But due to stormy weather in two days, February 27 in 20.45, the minelayer was forced to return to Sevastopol.

Vice-Admiral AV Kolchak was appointed Commander of the Black Sea Fleet 28 on June 1916 of the year. (instead of Admiral Ebergardt AA), on whom the king and headquarters pinned great hopes.
In pursuance of the Stakes directive, it was decided at the Bosphorus to set up a minefield. To perform this task, it was supposed to use the barrier Crab and the four newest destroyers of the first division - “Shrill”, “The Bold”, “Wrathful” and “Restless”. The first to expose the mines was the "Crab", and then the destroyers - at the nearest approaches to the strait. The last barrier was supposed to be put in the 3 line in the 20-40 cable from the entrance to the Bosphorus. Before the military campaign to the Bosphorus in June, the Krab, the minelayer, made six exits at sea, in July - two exits (July 11 and July 13). In 06: 40 17 July underwater mine layer "Crab" under the command of Senior Lieutenant Parutsky M.V. and under the pennant of the head of the Underwater Brigade, Captain First Rank Klochkovsky V.E. went to the Bosphorus from Sevastopol, having on board 4 torpedoes and 60 min. The duties of the senior mechanical engineer were performed by the conductor Pusner Y. It was clear weather, the wind from the north-east did not exceed the 1 score. In the afternoon, the batteries were recharged. The haulier's hike, as always, was accompanied by accidents: on 00: 30 18 July, the shirt of the second cylinder of the aft kerosene engine of the starboard broke. The damage under the guidance of Pusner was repaired, and all 4 of the motor in 03: 00 were running. Two hours later, a new damage was revealed: a mine-machine conductor, Kolenov P., discovered that he had broken a nite of a steel cable for antimine mine nasal taps. The knees on the move grabbed these taps, thus eliminating this damage. The barrier was approaching the Bosporus. Its shores opened in 12: 30. When 18 miles remained to the strait, the captain of the first rank, Klochkovsky, decided to sail further in a positional position. Kerosene engines stopped. Submarine ventilated. The minelayer plunged and became differentiated in 13: 45. We tried horizontal rudders and checked the submarine control underwater.
In 14: The 10 was blown through the middle tank and the submarine moved to its positional position. After 5 minutes, the right kerosene engine started up. When 12 was left for the Bosphorus for miles, the engine was again stopped; submarine re-ventilated. The motors were cooled, and in 16: 00 at a depth of 12 meters was given an underwater course. Approaching the time of setting min. The weather was favorable: white scallops, wind northeast with 3-4 points. In 19: 50, when the minelayer was away from Rumeli - Fener in 4,5 cable, Klochkovsky ordered mine to proceed, and the submarine gradually left to the left with the expectation of being drifted to the right.
The staging of all 60 mines was completed to 20: 08. The fence was set south of the line that connected the capes of Yum-Bourne and Rodighet, that is, on the way of the enemy's military ships, the fairway of which ran from the north to Cape Poiras, according to the latest intelligence data. The barrage of the western wing touched Rumelian bank, and the eastern one did not reach the Anatolian coast of 6 cable. Only the fairway of the commercial ships of the enemy remained open. Mines put at a depth of 6 meters from the surface.
After the setting of the mines, the minelayer "Crab" lay down on the opposite course, moving in a submerged position. When it was dark enough, in 21: 30, the middle tank was blown through, and the minelayer moved to the positional position. In 7 miles from Anatoli-Fener, 22: 15 blew all the main ballast, and the underwater minelayer moved to a cruising position. Kerosene engines started in 15 minutes. In 06: 00 19 July started charging batteries, an accident occurred in 13: 00: the shirt of the 4 th cylinder of the right-side kerosene engine broke. Were forced to stop the starboard engines and complete charging of batteries. However, the misadventures did not end there: at the left-hand nose engine in 21: 00 the circuit of the circulation pump broke.
Motor began to cool autonomous pump. In 08: 00 20 July, kerosene engines stalled: water began to flow from the fuel tanks ... I had to send a radiogram to the fleet headquarters with a request to send a tug. However, an hour later the stern engine of the left side was launched, and the submarine "Crab" went under its own power. Finally, on the nose opened the shore. A new radiogram was sent to the fleet headquarters that the Crab would reach the base under its own power. In 11: 30 minelayer lay down course on the Chersonese lighthouse. The rapid elimination of damage allowed to put the second kerosene engine.

The port ship "Dneprovets", which served as the escort of submarines, approached the minelayer in 10 minutes. "Dniprovets" followed from the "Crab" to the Chersonesus lighthouse. The minelayer in 14: 45 was moored at the side of the submarine-based vessel in Sevastopol. Thus, the second combat campaign of the first underwater mine layer was completed.

The preparation of the underwater mine layer "Crab" for a new march began on August 18 of the year 1916. K 13: 00 loaded 38 mines, but unexpectedly one mine gave a skew, jammed in a mine elevator. In this regard, part of the elevator had to be disassembled. The elevator was assembled overnight, and the next day loading of mines resumed on 08: 00. On the landlord, all 60 mines were sunk to 13.00.
In 00: 50 20 August 1916, the "Crab" left Sevastopol, heading for Varna. Initially, there was a quiet weather, but in the evening it began to shine, and by midnight a strong storm broke out. The waves hit the underwater minelayer, the propellers began to bare. Kerosene engines as always began to break down. The 01: 40 starboard kerosene engine had to be stopped to inspect and repair damage. At this time, wind power increased to 6 points. The submarine set a wave to the wave. Side roll to 04: 00 reached 50 degrees. The acid from the batteries began to spill out, the insulation resistance in the batteries decreased, some electrical mechanisms failed. In the mess room, the table was torn off. Began to rock the team. People at the engines worked in rather difficult conditions: the smell of burned-out oil, kerosene evaporation and high temperatures ... Due to the uneven load during rolling, the circuit of the circulation pump weakened. I had to continue the path under the electric motors. Kerosene engines managed to restart in 05: 35. But in 06: 40 broke the circuit of the circulation pump - the starboard engine finally broke. The submarine continued to move at low speed under the stern engine of the left side. The submarine "Crab" at that time from Constanta was in 60 miles.
Due to clogged oil pipe in 09: 00, the thrust bearing of the left shaft overheated. On the battleship "Rostislav", which stood in Constanta, sent a radiogram asking for help. The strength of the wind reached 8 points. In 12: 00, the mine crab "Crab" was located from Cape Shabla in 11 miles. I had to abandon the mine installation, and a second radiogram was sent to Rostislav stating that the minelayer was being sent to Constanta for repair. Despite enhanced cooling in the 13: 00, the left-side kerosene engines heated up. They had to turn off. The sub went under the electric motors. At the Tuzla lighthouse in 15: 30, the minelayer "Crab" met with the destroyer "Zavetny", sent to him for help, and moving behind him in the wake, overcame the Romanian minefield, entering the port of Constanta.
During the stay of the mine layer "Crab" in the port of Constanta, enemy seaplanes made raids. The first raid was made between 8 and 9 in the morning on August 22. "Crab" managed to plunge and lay on the ground during the raid. However, during the second raid on 25 in August 1916 of the year, the minelayer did not have time to go under water. Fortunately, everything worked out.
On August 27, the “Krab” was given the task to set up a minefield in the southern approach to Varna (near the Galata lighthouse). Experience has shown that kerosene engines can refuse at any time, so it was decided: "Crab" towing the destroyer to a point located in 22 miles from the coast. Then the minelayer will follow to the place of mine setting independently with the expectation to arrive at sunset at a given point. After the mine setting "Crab", first underwater, and then, at nightfall, will arrive at the meeting place with the destroyer. The Crab was supposed to tow the destroyer Wrath.
Barrier "Crab" 28 August 1916, the year was differentiated in the harbor. To 22: 30 The Crab was ready to take a tug from the destroyer. Since there was no tug device on the "Crab", the tug was brought through the anchor line of the submarine.
In 01: 00 29 August, the submarine "Crab" in tow of the destroyer "Wrath" departed from Constanta, accompanied by minesweepers. In 05: 30 the minesweepers released, and the destroyer with the minelayer followed to the destination on his own. It was a beautiful sunny weather, conducive to the campaign. In 06: 00, Senior Lieutenant Parutsky, MV, the commander of the Krab, a minelayer, asked the destroyer to stop the towing vehicle. When the crew of the submarine chose the cable, "Wrathful" gave full speed. The towing cable jerked aside, he leaned over, cutting the deck of the superstructure onto the 600 mm. The destroyer opened fire. It turned out that there were two enemy aircraft in the air. One of them began to move to the mine layer “Crab” and tried to descend, but the destroyer “Wrath” did not allow him to do this with his own fire.
But the "Crab" could not dive, because this was prevented by the cable that hung on the nose of the submarine. A seaplane dropped 8 bombs on it, but none of them hit the minelayer. Thanks to the well-aimed fire of the Wrath, one of the airplanes was shot down. Having spent a supply of bombs seaplanes flew away. The attack of the enemy's planes failed, however, the mine installation was disrupted, since the enemy found our vessels. Now the "Crab" was moving independently. The enemy aircraft, having taken a new stock of bombs, reappeared above the minelayer, however, the Crab plunged, and the attack of the enemy was again unsuccessful.
In 15: 30, the Crab underwater minelayer dropped off at Constance.
By the 16: 30, the port forces repaired the superlayer of the Krab, and installed a large hook for towing. To avoid the attacks of the aircraft, it was decided to leave Constanza in the evening. Now the minelayer was accompanied by an older destroyer "Voiced". When the "Crab" in 17: 50 31 August came up to the "Bells", to establish a tug, it was not possible, because the hook broke. The hike was postponed until the next day.

In 18: September 30 1 underwater mine layer "Crab" is already in tow the destroyer "Wrath" out of Constanta. Ships in 20: 00 passed two miles from Tuzla Lighthouse at 10 speed nodes. Getting fresh. Towline burst in 21: 00. He was brought back again after 2,5 hours.
K 06: 00 the next day the wind subsided. Towing cable given. Having arranged a meeting with the landlord, the destroyer Gnevny left. By cape Emine "Crab" approached at noon. At 3 one o'clock in the afternoon prepared for the dive The weather turned bad again: a fresh wind blew from the north-north-west, a small wave with scallops appeared. Having sunk, the minelayer "Crab" walked at the speed of the 3,5 node under the periscope. In 16: 30, to shorten the path, Senior Lieutenant Parutsky made the decision to pass under the enemy’s minefield, which, according to available data, was delivered. He did not succeed. "Crab" in 19: 10 was from the Galata lighthouse on the 16 cable. In the evening mist began to hide the shore. Approaching the 5 cable to the lighthouse, the minelayer proceeded to mine. After the mine elevator began to work, there was a clang of iron in the superstructure, and the elevator stopped working. He was turned on the other way, and again on the setting of mines. Sharply increased load - 60 A instead of 10 A, and then the elevator continued normal operation. In 19: The 18 pointer showed that 30 mines had been delivered, the production was interrupted, and resumed again after half an hour.
According to the index, all the mines were exhibited in 19: 28. The air in the sub was completely spoiled. It became hard to breathe. In this regard, a high-pressure tank was blown through, and the submarine was vented through a manhole. It was completely dark.
In 21: 15, three miles from the coast, the main ballast tank began to be drained, the minelayer began to emerge, but at the same time its roll constantly increased and eventually reached 10 degrees. While ascertaining the causes of the roll, it was found that the right mine store remained in place, since the mine of this store was wedged when it left the superstructure at the door of the aft embrasure. In connection with the accident of the right elevator, not all mines were exposed, as the pointer showed, but only 30. The mines were put in two lines at intervals of 200 feet (61 meter), instead of relying 100 feet (30,5 meters). The lurch on the starboard in 10 degrees and the iridescent water in the superstructure caused the Crab commander to fill the left side displacer. Mina stuck in the right elevator before dawn decided not to touch. The minelayer under the kerosene engines with a speed of six knots departed from the coast, heading for a meeting with the destroyer Gnevny. Mina in the right elevator at dawn wedged with great caution and closed the door of the embrasure.

In 06: 00 3 September, the submarine "Crab" met with the destroyer "Wrath" and took a towline from it. The Crab, seven miles from Constanta, was attacked by enemy seaplanes, who dropped the 21 bomb, but they did no harm to him.
In 18: September 00 4 both ships arrived safely in Sevastopol.
Giving an estimate of the last operation carried out by the Krab, the Black Sea Fleet commander reported on fleet operations from 1 to 15 September 1916 of the year: “On the difficulty of setting, which required accuracy of calculation, since the distance between the Bulgarian obstacle and the coast does not exceed the 1 mile and in the event of a malfunction of the submarine’s mechanisms I consider the fulfillment of the task entrusted to the Crab commander, despite previous setbacks, an outstanding feat.
On July 18, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet issued an order from 15.11.1916 to the commander of the minelayer, Senior Lieutenant Parutsky, MV. for putting mines at the Bosporus by the St. George Cross of the Fourth Degree, and the Acting Senior Officer Lieutenant Monastyreva N.A. order from 01.11.1916 - St. George weapons. And about. the miner's officer of the midshipman Przysecki MF made a lieutenant and awarded the Order of Vladimir of the fourth degree with swords and bow. The chief of the submarine brigade by order from 27.06.1916, Captain First Rank Klochkovsky V.Ye. awarded St. George weapons.
26 man of the team of the underwater minelayer "Crab" was awarded the order of the commander of the Black Sea Fleet from 06.10.1916: 3 - St. George of the Third Grade; 7 - the fourth degree of St. George; 3 - St. George Medal of the Third; 13 - St. George Medal of the fourth degree. Previously, by order of the commander of the 3 fleet, he rewarded a man with the medal "For Diligence", 9 with a medal on the Stanislav ribbon.
The commander of the Black Sea Fleet after this campaign ordered "to begin overhaul and rework the mine-laying system of the underwater minelayer" Crab "due to many design flaws and damage to the mechanisms creating the insecurity of the submarine's mission."

At this combat activity of the world's first underwater mine layer and ended.
In the fall - winter of 1916, there were some changes in the officer of the minelayer. Machine conductor Y. Pusner was fired as a second lieutenant for the Admiralty. By order of the Black Sea Fleet Commander, he was appointed a ship-builder, midshipman Nikitin PI, a mechanical engineer, was assigned to the Orlan submarine. Senior Officer Lt. Monastyreva N.A. 28 September was appointed to the same position on the submarine "Kashalot". After sailing on it he was transferred to the command of the submarine "Skat".

During the civil war Monastyrev consisted in the white fleet. He suffered the fate of other former officers who spoke out against his people: Monastyrev was in Bizerte. Here, in the period from 1921 to 1924, Monastyrev was engaged in the release of the "Bizertek Sea Collection" and history Russian fleet. The service of Monastyrev in the white fleet ended in November 1924 of the year after the recognition of the USSR by France. During the emigration Monastyrev N.A. Wrote several books and articles on the history of the Russian fleet, submarines, Arctic exploration, and other issues.
Undoubtedly, the last commander of the submarine "Crab" captain of the second rank (this rank was made in 1917 year) Parutsky MV was also an outstanding submarine officer, however, he also later turned out to be in emigration.
It is necessary to note the captain of the first rank (from rear-admiral 1917) Vyacheslav Evgenyevich Klochkovsky, the head of the submarine brigade who served in the submarine fleet with 1907. He commanded a submarine, and then submarine connections. Klochkovsky, like Monastyrev, served in the white fleet. Subsequently moved to the Polish bourgeois fleet, in recent years was the Polish naval attache in London. He retired in 1928 year.

Also, the courageous, selfless and skillful service of conductors, noncommissioned officers and sailors during heavy military campaigns contributed to the success of the underwater mine layer "Crab". Awarding medals and crosses of St. George are convincing evidence of this.


All parts:
Part of 1. New project of underwater mine layer
Part of 2. The second and third variants of the underwater layer
Part of 3. Fourth, the latest version of the minelayer Naletova MP.
Part of 4. How was arranged underwater mine layer "Crab"
Part of 5. The first military campaign of the underwater mine layer "Crab"
Part of 6. "Crab" becomes in repair
Part of 7. The end of the first underwater mine layer "Crab"
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