Robin Hood: the time of the hero and his possible prototypes

58
Robin Hood: the time of the hero and his possible prototypes
Illustration by N. Wyeth, 1917


Robin Hood is by far the most famous robber in the world. stories, and not a simple robber, but a “noble” one. His very name has become a household name and is on a par with such names as Don Quixote, Don Juan, Shylock, Manilov, and some others. Far from England CaliforniaMexican Robin Hood” was called Joaquin Murieta, who “traded” there during the Gold Rush (in the middle of the XNUMXth century), became the hero of numerous books, films and the famous rock opera by A. Rybnikov. Of course, this “Ghost of Sonora” did not share the stolen goods with the poor, but it robbed only the rich - and that was enough. After all, you see, many in Russia would be happy to read news about the fact that somewhere in Tel Aviv or Haifa in a dark alley "they took on a gop-stop" one of the crooks who escaped from Russia - Khodorkovsky, Abramovich, Chubais and the list goes on. It is quite possible that in the case of Robin Hood there was a similar situation. The popularity of the “robber from Sherwood Forest” is also evidenced by the fact that on the sea coast of North Yorkshire there is Robin Hood’s bay, where, according to a XNUMXth-century ballad, he defeated French pirates and gave half of the treasure he obtained to the local poor to build a house.




Robin Hood's Bay in an 1842 engraving

Hero time


Since the publication of Walter Scott's Ivanhoe, the vast majority of people have been convinced that Robin Hood was a contemporary of King Richard the Lionheart.


Greg Hildebrandt. King Richard the Lionheart and the Robbers of Sherwood Forest, illustration for Walter Scott's Ivanhoe

And through the efforts of Western filmmakers, Robin Hood also became a nobleman, a sort of Dubrovsky, who went to Sherwood Forest due to life circumstances. To what extent are these points of view justified? First, let's try to determine the lifetime of the alleged prototype of this charming character.

It has long been noted that the romanticization and glorification of all kinds of robbers usually occurs against the backdrop of a sharp deterioration in the financial situation of the common people. Therefore, the time of the reign of Richard the Lionheart seems quite suitable for creating the legend of the noble robber and the "good fellow" Robin Hood. Going on a crusade, this king pretty much robbed all the English. On the advice of William de Longchamp, he even put up for sale all the public offices of the kingdom, giving out some brilliant jokes (although the British were not funny then). So, having sold the County of Norampton to the Bishop of Durham, Richard declared that “made a young earl from an old bishop". His phrase went down in history:

"Find me a buyer and I'll sell him London."

Nobody bought London from him, but there was a buyer for Scotland, which was conquered in 1174 by his father Henry II, who captured the local monarch in the battle of Alnwick. The future Scottish king William wished to buy it in 1189. The new English king sold him an entire country for a cheap price of 10 silver marks. Later, for Richard himself, who was captured by the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand upon returning home, a ransom of 150 thousand marks was paid - so Richard robbed the British for the second time, and again on a grand scale - where is Robin Hood. But the same archery competitions described in the ballads only became popular in England in the 1378th century. And the first mention of Robin Hood in a written source was recorded only in XNUMX - in the literary work of William Langland "The Vision of Peter Plowman". The illiterate priest says:

"I don't speak Latin and I can't read prayers to the Lord, but I know lines of poetry about Robin Hood."

That is, already in the second half of the XIV century, ballads about this robber were not only known in England, but also very popular. The middle of the 1381th century is also a good time for the appearance of the legend of Robin Hood - in this case, he turns out to be a contemporary of Wat Tyler, who led the rebels who captured London in XNUMX. It is curious, by the way, that among the rebels then pardoned by King Richard II, there was a certain Robert Hode (Hode), also called Robert Dore (Dore) of Wadsley. It seems that around this time, stories about an atypical robber who robs the rich and distributes the booty to the poor began to actively spread in England (and he, apparently, “lives on interest”). However, the robbers have chosen Sherwood since time immemorial, and the government managed to deal with them only at the very end of the XNUMXth century. So Robin Hood could have several prototypes.

Prototypes of some associates of Robin Hood


At the end of the XNUMXth century, the ballad "Robin Hood and the Sheriff" was recorded, in which the monk Tuk appears.


Robin Hood and Brother Took in the illustration by A. Itkin

This is by no means a parody character. The morals that reigned in medieval English monasteries can be judged by the scandalous story that happened at the beginning of the XIV century. In 1306-1315. the hotel of Sherwood Kirklees Monastery was turned into a brothel, and even the names of the nuns who “worked” in it have survived: Ellis Raggedy, Elizabeth Hopton and Joan Heaton. So Brother Took's "joie de vivre" did not surprise anyone in England.


Brother Took illustrated by A. Itkin

Some believe that the prototype of Took was the priest from Sussex, Robert Stafford. In one of the sources it is reported that in 1417 this "holy father" joined the robbers.

In the ballad "Robin Hood and the Monk" recorded in the same XNUMXth century, such a colorful character as "Little John" appears. He was the best with a club (or staff) and he even managed to defeat Robin Hood.


Robin Hood and Little John illustrated by Louis John Reid

Its prototype may be John Le Little, which, according to the "Chronicle" of the Scot Andrew Winton (compiled around 1420) in 1283-1285. robbed with a certain Robin Hude (Robyne Hude).

It is curious that one actor - Alan Hale, managed to play the role of Little John three times: as a young man (1922), a mature man (1938) and an old man (1958).

In the alleged grave of this "Kid" at the end of the XNUMXth century, the remains of a man about two meters ten centimeters tall were discovered.


Supposed grave of Little John, Hathersage

But you never know in the centuries-old history of England there were thugs in this country with the ironic nickname "Little John", "Little John", "Little John" and so on?

Now let's talk about the possible prototypes of Robin Hood himself.

Prototypes of the "noble robber"



T. Buick. Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne, woodcut, 1832

The first assumption that Robin Hood has a real prototype was put forward by Joseph Ritson in 1795. I must say that the question of the origin of this hero is very complex and has not yet been resolved. There are different versions, which we will try to consider in this article.

First, let's try to determine what the name Robin means. The easiest way is to assume that it is a diminutive of Robert, and Good is “good”. But according to one version, the name of the Sherwood robber is a nickname and comes from the name of the robin bird (“Robin”). Some even believe that the well-known children's song "Who Killed Cock Robin?" can be associated with it. It is curious that a dove acts as a mourner in it - a symbol of the Virgin Mary, who in this case is identified with the beloved of the hero - Marian. But why exactly a robin? Not an eagle, not a hawk, not a kite? They try to explain this by the fact that in England a robin that flew into a house foreshadowed trouble, even a dead person in the family - as well as a visit to this house by a gang of robbers. But meeting this bird on the street during the cold months of the year was a good omen - a hint of the help that Robin Hood provided to the poor?

Supporters of another version also consider the name of the hero to be a nickname, but they believe that the leader of the Sherwood gang was originally called Robber in hode - "The robber in the hood." However, the word "hode" can also mean a knight's helmet. Moreover, it has been noticed that in the early ballads the “hooded Robin” (or even in a helmet) hiding his face acts, and in the later ones, the cheerful yeoman Robin Hood.

However, the word yeoman (yeoman - from youngerman) is also “with a double bottom”. Previously, it was often used in the meanings of "young man", "younger member of the family", "servant". And only since the reign of Elizabeth "yeoman" began to unambiguously call a peasant who owns a small plot of land. But even under this queen, bodyguards were also called "yeomen of the guard", and the guards of the Tower -"prison yeomen».

That is, Robin Hood could be the youngest son of a noble family, who, according to Salic law, was forced to serve the eldest in the family or look for a patron on the side. It was on these grounds that a version of the "noble" origin of Robin Hood appeared. Supporters of this version most often call the Scottish earl David Huntington, who was not a “youngerman”, the prototype of Robin Hood. It is known that David Huntington (1144-1219) was a hostage for several years at the court of King Henry II. And in the “Robin Hood Gesture” written around 1450, it is said that the Sherwood robber spent 15 months at the royal court.

(The gesture, Chanson de geste, "The Song of Deeds" is a genre of French medieval literature, the most famous gesture is the "Song of Roland").


The first sheet of the "Small gesture about Robin Hood", XVI century.

In another ballad, the name of the king who then ruled England is called Edward. There were three monarchs with this name, and they ruled from 1272 to 1377. And David Huntington was a supporter of Richard the Lionheart, went on a crusade with him, actively supported him after returning to England. Later, in 1194, David participated in the siege of Nottingham, where his brother John (Landless) was hiding from the returning Richard. However, this earl has nothing to do with Sherwood Forest.

Another candidate for the role of Robin Hood is called the son of David Huntington - Robert, who allegedly did not die at a young age, but fled to Sherwood Forest. Over time, he allegedly intended to declare his rights to the Scottish throne. But it wasn't until the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603) that Anthony Munday wrote two plays that portray Robin Hood as Earl Robert of Huntington.

In 1697, thanks to the antiquary Thomas Gale, a grave located in the forest 650 meters from the gatehouse of the former Cistercian Kirklees monastery mentioned above (West Yorkshire) became widely known. The epitaph on this grave read:

“Robert, Earl of Huntington, rests under this stone. There was no better archer than him, and for his wildness he was nicknamed "Robin Hood". For more than 13 years, he has plagued the inhabitants of these northern regions. Criminals like him and his people will never be reborn in England again. November 8, 1247."

This monastery is called the place of death of the hero in the mid-XNUMXth century “Gesture of Robin Hood” and the ballad “Death of Robin Hood” recorded in the XNUMXth century. There are two versions of the death of this hero. According to the first, the insidious abbess of the monastery, to whom the ill hero turned for help, simply allowed him to bleed after the bloodletting procedure (this was described in detail in the article Famous victims of "medicated bloodletting" and followers of Duremar). According to another, she brought the killer - Sir Roger of Doncaster. Some versions of the ballad say that this woman was the sister of Marian - the beloved of Robin Hood.

A later version of the ballad, recorded as early as 1786, claims that Robin Hood ordered Little John to be buried in the place where the arrow he fired would fall.


Dying Robin Hood illustrated by N. Wyeth, 1917

Modern historians consider the inscription on this grave to be fake, since its language clearly does not correspond to the time, and local peasants have never associated this burial with the name of Robin Hood, popular throughout England. In addition, this inscription was not known until the end of the XNUMXth century. Yes, and it is difficult to expect virtuoso possession of a bow from an aristocrat - this weapon free peasants who learned to handle it from childhood.

Ballads are known in which Robin Hood appears as the illegitimate son of the daughter of a non-existent Richard Huntington and even an unnamed English king.

William Stukeley suggested that Robert fitz (son) Odo of Loxley, who was deprived of his estate in 1196, could be hiding under the name Robin Hood. This knight was a contemporary of Richard the Lionheart, but kept the side of his brother, John (John) Landless, for which is likely to have been damaged. Other candidates for the role of the "noble robber" were Robert Hood, Robert Hobbehod and Robert Smith, nicknamed Robhoud. All of them were outlawed: the first - and in 1213 the second - in 1255, the third - in 1261. And Roger Hodberd was captured in 1272 not just anywhere, but in Sherwood Forest. A certain Robert Hoad, a supporter of Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, was hiding from the authorities in this forest in 1322. His candidacy was proposed in 1852 by Joseph Hunter.

All these assumptions do not look very convincing. Against the versions of the “noble” origin of Robin Hood, the fact that in the aristocratic and noble environment this hero of popular ballads becomes popular only at the beginning of the 1510th century speaks against the versions. So, they say that in XNUMX King Henry VIII dressed up as Robin Hood, his courtiers - other robbers. All together, for fun, they broke into the bedroom of Queen Catherine of Aragon. Aristocrats, naturally, wanted the "noble robber" to be their equal, and not some kind of rootless peasant. Contradicts the version of the "noble" origin of Robin Hood and the original image of the maiden Marian. In the earliest ballads, she also appears as Clorinda or Matilda and is called either a maid, or a shepherdess, and even the mistress of the monk Took. Only in later times did Marian turn into a noblewoman and lover of Robin Hood. Probably, court writers, as usual, conscientiously fulfilled the “state order”, correcting the images of popular heroes in the right direction.


T. F. Hafey. Robin Hood and Maid Marian, 1866

By the way, in the last quarter of the XNUMXth century in Naples, the Frenchman Adam de la Alem wrote the pastoral “The Game of Robin and Marion”. Here we see a simple coincidence of names: in this work there are no robbery or heroic storylines. However, it is believed that the image of the girl of this pastoral could have influenced the image of Marian in later English ballads. So, Marian in the form of Clorinda is sometimes called the "queen of shepherds."

Returning to the question of the origin of Robin Hood, we still have to admit that the version seems more reliable, according to which he was a yeoman, a free peasant who, for some reason, was forced to leave his house and go into the forest. And, probably, the features of several successful and popular leaders of Sherwood robbers merged in his image. Gradually, new stories were added to the legends, possibly compiled already in the XNUMXth century, or they were corrected in accordance with the changing socio-political situation - until the well-known "canonical" image of the "noble robber" was formed.

In the next article, we will continue and finish the story about this hero.
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  1. +9
    21 May 2023 03: 58
    Robber in Hode - Hooded Robber

    Robber in hood
    1. +11
      21 May 2023 06: 02
      Here you are (plural) suffocating buffoons! Author, thanks for the interesting topic! I look forward to continuing tomorrow, and today the comments from the members of the forum! Have a good day everyone!
      1. +3
        21 May 2023 21: 22
        Quote: not the one
        Here you are (plural) suffocating buffoons! Author, thanks for the interesting topic! I look forward to continuing tomorrow, and today the comments from the members of the forum! Have a good day everyone!
        NOBLE robber = Raubritter = robber knight, robber baron
        Eppelein von Gallingen 1311-1381 escapes from the Nuremberg fortress.
        Rogue Knights raubritter - appeared in German chivalric romances of the 18th century. They had real prototypes from the Middle Ages.
        Black Krzysztof (Pole) from the Principality of Legnica (Silesia) - robbed in 1500-1512, captured and executed in Legnica.
        Robber knight Katarzyna Skrzyńska coat of arms Swan (Polish) 15th century, the owner of the castle on the Grojec hill in Barwald, Zywiec.
        The largest number of "noble robbers" appeared during the Hussite wars, in remote mountainous areas where the central government was weak.
        hi
    2. +7
      21 May 2023 06: 33
      In those days, the language was different, and even more so, the grammar.
      1. +6
        21 May 2023 08: 17
        Quote: U-58
        In those days, the language was different, and even more so, the grammar.

        In the opinion of scientists, the English language is dynamically changing in oral speech, in writing it is archaic. Hence the troubles of all our students.
        Canonical English is formed by the 14th century. In practice, it is very close to writing. For example, the written “time” was read that way, and not like “time” today.
        The ballad is very close to the tradition of our epics and the original material is a product of oral folk art.
        So Robin is a product of the collective composition of the masses, ennobled by time and the authors of ballads, songs, movie scripts and even computer games.
        A similar situation with our heroes! If anyone is interested, google about "the negative impact of popular illustrations on the heroes of epics." In Soviet times, there was even a separate direction for philologists who wrote scientific papers on this topic.
        1. +1
          21 May 2023 23: 19
          Hurry to the street, good people,
          Listen to my song.
          About the glorious shooter, the daring Robin Hood,
          I will sing for you today. (With)
          S. Marshak
        2. 0
          25 May 2023 19: 09
          Dear, the word "scientists" is spelled with one "n". And yes - the influence of popular painting and all that ...
      2. +5
        21 May 2023 09: 05
        Quote: U-58
        In those days, the language was different, and even more so, the grammar

        In those days, thanks to Alfred the Great, who lived long before the events described, the English language had already become similar to the modern language ...
        1. +1
          21 May 2023 13: 32
          Quote: Luminman
          thanks to Alfred the Great, who lived long before the events described, the English language has already become similar to the modern language

          Alfred spoke Old English, a purely Germanic language. Modern English is a mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Norman-French with a significant admixture of Celtic languages ​​such as Gaelic and Welsh.
          More or less similar to modern, English became only a century to the XV.
          1. +3
            21 May 2023 14: 36
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            Alfred spoke Old English, purely Germanic

            Alfred began to create schools, where at first education was conducted in English (old). Of course, this language does not look like a modern one, but it was an attempt to somehow unify the language, in any case, its written version ...

            Quote: Trilobite Master
            a mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Norman-French

            Norman-French, as you call it, is nothing but North Germanic (the language of the Salic Franks, plus a touch of Norse), with a little bit of Lythic as well. Quite small

            Quote: Trilobite Master
            with a significant admixture of Celtic languages, such as Gaelic and Welsh

            That wasn't exactly...


            This linguistic map depicts the rapid disappearance of the Celtic languages...
            1. +2
              22 May 2023 01: 49
              Quote: Luminman
              This linguistic map depicts the rapid disappearance of the Celtic languages...


              Perhaps this is what the British crown would like, but this is not entirely true. In Ireland, yes, English is now widely used, but from the Atlantic Ocean, Celtic, or rather Gaelic (Gàidhlig [ˈkaːlikʲ]; English Gaelic) is very much in use. There, English inscriptions are much less common than on Gàidhlig.
  2. +10
    21 May 2023 04: 49
    I’m reading, and right before my eyes there are shots from the film “The Return of Robin Hood”, which was played in cinemas in the Union in the mid-seventies.
    During the fight with Sheriff Robin in leather armor, the Sheriff is wearing chain mail armor.

    Many thanks to the author for an excellent, as always, article!
    1. +10
      21 May 2023 05: 11
      And I associate Robin Hood exclusively with Khmelnitsky. drinks
      1. +12
        21 May 2023 05: 55
        The same story! And what was the cast in the film "Arrows of Robin Hood" .. Viya Artmane, Regina Razuma ..
        "Hot women," said Ostap, "a poet's dream." Provincial immediacy. In the center of such subtropics have long been gone, but on the periphery, in the field - they are still found.
      2. +4
        21 May 2023 09: 07
        "And I associate Robin Hood exclusively with Khmelnitsky."

        In 87, they showed an English series, where the actor was not bad. And so - yes, only Boris Khmelnitsky.
        1. +1
          21 May 2023 13: 44
          Quote: Van 16
          English series

          "Robin of Sherwood". How, I remember.
  3. +11
    21 May 2023 05: 32
    Grigory Ivanovich Kotovsky - our domestic Robin Hood. Judging by the film about him.
    1. +12
      21 May 2023 05: 57
      Today such a hero would not hurt
      Oh, my brave Robin Hood!
      What an honor it would be
      Kohl in our era right here
      You to be - wealth can not be counted!
      You would rob our noble persons,
      big officials,
      shook the church units,
      Bankers would be, what ...
      Gathered more good than
      You're in Sherwood Forest!
      We need Robin Hoods here
      We need a fair trial!
    2. AAK
      +9
      21 May 2023 12: 17
      and there was just a confrontation between the corrupt head of the Nottingham district police department and the leader of the Sherwood organized crime group ...
    3. +2
      21 May 2023 18: 02
      Stepfather said that Kotovsky was filmed in 1967?, and Uncle Daud claims that there was no such film
      1. +1
        21 May 2023 19: 33
        The film "Kotovsky" was created in 1942. I saw it in the early 60's.
  4. +10
    21 May 2023 05: 56
    And let's discuss the prototypes of another noble robber, much closer to us. His name is ... Dubrovsky!
    He is no worse and exactly the same literary character as Robin Hood.
    ps Dubrovsky is not only a literary hero, but also the hero of many school essays and presentations, as well as gems from them.
    What is the famous quote from one of the works worth:
    Dubrovsky had sex with Masha through a hollow

    wassat
    1. +13
      21 May 2023 06: 29
      More poetic, more poetic
      I'm proud of your find -
      How sweet and loving it is to me:
      “Dubrovsky had sex with Masha
      Through the hollow of an old oak."
      And what do you want, youth, hormones .. All thoughts are about one thing only.
      Anna agreed with Vronsky in a completely new way unacceptable to the country.
      The milkmaid came down from the podium and the chairman immediately climbed onto it.
      Thus, Pechorin took possession of Bzla, and Kazbich - Karakez.
      Children-s.
      1. +8
        21 May 2023 08: 43
        Kazbich is excusable - a wild man, a child of the mountains! laughing
      2. +4
        21 May 2023 19: 36
        and Kazbich - Karakez.
        Actually, "Karagez" is black-eyed. Gozlari - eyes in Turkic.
        1. +1
          21 May 2023 22: 53
          Why are the Turks here? Both Kazbich himself and, accordingly, the name of his horse have nothing to do with the Turkic language group.
          Lermontov Kazbich is a Circassian from the Shapsug family, and this is the Abkhaz-Adyghe (West Caucasian) language group.
          By the way, Lermontov's Kazbich has a real prototype - Kizbech (Kizilbech) Tugozhuko Sheretluko (1777-1839), Kabardian commander, leader of the Shapsug detachments in the Russian-Kabardian war, known in the Caucasus as the "Circassian lion". Killed during one of the raids on Russian fortifications in the Kuban. Lermontov only slightly changed his name.
          a photo. Monument to Kizbech Sheretluko. Republic of Adygea, Takhtamukaysky district, Afipsip village
          1. +2
            22 May 2023 08: 01
            Why are the Turks here? Both Kazbich himself and, accordingly, the name of his horse have nothing to do with the Turkic language group.
            I did not write anything about Kazbich. As for the horse - so what to do with the fact that "kara" is black, and "gozlari" are eyes. Again, throughout the story, Lermontov calls Chechens Tatars. I guess. which is solely due to the proximity of languages. Suggest another explanation.
            1. -1
              22 May 2023 11: 32
              Throughout the story, Lermontov calls the Chechens Tatars. I guess. which is solely due to the proximity of languages

              In the story "Bella" there is not a single Chechen character. Bella and Azamat in the work are the children of the Kabardian prince. Abrek Kazbich is a Kabardian. He naturally named his horse in his own language. Caucasian Tatars in those days were called Kumyks, Nogais, Karachays, Balkars and Azerbaijanis with Turkic roots. Chechens are not Turks, they are Vainakhs. Here the claims are not against you, but against Lermontov, who, with his absolute ignorance in this matter, misled you. Somewhere I heard a name, remembered it, and, out of thoughtlessness, called it my character. Yes, if he was the only one. Remember the song "Khas-Bulat daring". The junker of the Lublin Jaeger Regiment N. Amosov, who arrived to serve in the Caucasus, wrote her words. For insulting the memory of their legendary ataman, by the way, a Kabardian by nationality A. Bekovich "Khasbulata", the Grebensky Cossacks declared a "blood feud" to the "poet". In the Caucasus, this is strictly.
              But L. N. Tolstoy did not suffer from such ignorance - his story "The Cossacks" is the standard of knowledge of Caucasian customs, cultural traditions and the situation of that time
              Sincerely, "Richard" (Dmitry)
              PS. old Cossack song:
              My aunt went to Khiva with Khasbulat
              And only his saber returned to the kuren
              The godfather spoke, hiding tears in his beard,
              That my father was chopped in Samarkand city
              Oh, you're my saber, done by hand
              Grebensky Cossack village Chervlennaya...
              1. +1
                22 May 2023 18: 29
                Richard, "all this is very noble" (don Sera), but there are very, very many Turkic roots in the Caucasus. Even Mount Mashuk (Mushuk) is translated from Uzbek as "cat". Of course, there have never been Uzbeks in the Caucasus, they had enough to do in Turkestan.
                1. 0
                  22 May 2023 23: 01
                  The origin of the name is from the Kabardian Mashuko, where “mash” is millet and “ko” is a valley, that is, a valley where millet was sown. The surname Mashukovs is still common among Kabardians.
                  My village is three hours drive from Mashuk
                  1. +1
                    23 May 2023 08: 03
                    Kabardian Mashuko, where "mash" - millet and "ko" - valley,
                    It, of course, is all true, but they call the mountain that way, not the valley. Did they sow millet on the mountain? Again, you probably won’t dispute the presence of Turkic languages ​​from Chechnya to Yakutia?
                    1. 0
                      23 May 2023 18: 16
                      Did they sow millet on the mountain?

                      I don't know how it used to be. Today, Mashuk is overgrown with forest, but there are a lot of wild millet in its open areas.



                      the presence of Turkic languages ​​from Chechnya to Yakutia, you probably will not dispute?

                      Of course I won't. The Turkic language group is one of the largest language groups. In Chechnya itself, of course, it is not. And the Caucasus is full
  5. +12
    21 May 2023 06: 03
    Returning to the question of the origin of Robin Hood
    Others sing about green grass
    Others are about white linen.
    And others sing about you, Robin Hood,
    Not knowing where you were born.

    Not in the father's house, not in the native tower
    Not in the colored rooms, -
    Robin Hood was born in the forest
    Under the chirping of forest birds.
  6. +8
    21 May 2023 06: 20
    I remember in the 60s at one of the reading competitions I read a poem about Robin Hood:
    "About a brave guy will be discussed
    His name was Robin Hood
    No wonder the memory of the daredevil
    The people cherish.
    He hasn't shaved his beard yet.
    And there was a shooter
    And even a hefty bearded man
    I couldn't compete with him..." etc.

    Thanks to the author for an interesting article.
  7. +11
    21 May 2023 06: 27
    Thanks to the author. But how beautiful is the legend of Robin Hood! And it does not matter when, by whom and for what he was born. The important thing is that the people believed in him. And "Robin Hood" was in Sherwood Forest for about 400 years.
  8. +3
    21 May 2023 06: 58
    And it is also likely that there was no Robin Hood at all. Perhaps, in the old days, dashing and successful robbers lived in Sherwood Forest, which became the basis of the collective image. Maybe one of them even helped the local peasants, giving rise to a legend about the defender of the poor and oppressed.
    1. +9
      21 May 2023 07: 09
      Quote: parusnik
      Perhaps, in the old days, dashing and successful robbers lived in Sherwood Forest, which became the basis of the collective image. Maybe one of them even helped the local peasants, giving rise to a legend about the defender of the poor and oppressed.

      Maybe. But legends do not arise from scratch.
      1. +12
        21 May 2023 07: 36
        I will paraphrase one well-known comrade: “If there was no Robin Hood, he should have been invented.” This is the personification of the eternal folk dream of some kind of justice..
      2. +1
        21 May 2023 08: 51
        But legends do not arise from scratch.
        And where in my comment does it say that the legend arose from scratch? smile
    2. +4
      21 May 2023 10: 20
      Quote: parusnik
      Maybe one of them even helped the local peasants, giving rise to a legend about the defender of the poor and oppressed.

      Quite possible. Reality is usually more prosaic than legends.
  9. +10
    21 May 2023 07: 39
    Edward Pavuls is remembered for the role of the monk Took in the film Arrows of Robin Hood. He also played Martha's father in Long Road in the Dunes. He was a colorful and memorable actor.
    THE SONG OF FATHER TOOK
    Fadey Maximov
    Cut the monk, whip with an ax
    Red-sided paradise fruit.
    There will be cider in a month
    Song to please the arrival.

    Pound big barrels
    Stuffing a hoop.
    Beware of Eva's daughter
    Do not for the first time take communion.

    Rub the mugs to a shine,
    Polish the oak table.
    What are demon traps to us?
    Well, them to the woman under the hem!

    Clean out mold in basements
    Sweep away the anguish of hearts.
    There will be cider - there will be fun
    And the bishop and the black man.
  10. +7
    21 May 2023 07: 49
    After the movie "Robin Hood: Men in Tights" it is very difficult to take this story seriously))
  11. +5
    21 May 2023 09: 10
    Regarding Robin Hoods on domestic landscapes ...
    Stepan Razin is a completely historical character and, at least in some sources, it is precisely that a fighter against injustice, a defender of the poor, and so on and so forth ...
    True, there are others in which he is a sorcerer and a warlock.
  12. +3
    21 May 2023 09: 27
    Quote: Luminman
    Robber in hood


    There was no single English then. The Saxons spoke their own, the elite - the so-called. "Old French" (Norman), the Celts (Wales) - had their own dialect. So the "hood" could turn into a "good" one, bypassing the intermediate forms.

    I liked the version in the Ridley Scott film that GG is a commoner crusader who pretended to be a Saxon aristocrat, and when the deception became clear, he went into the woods.
  13. +3
    21 May 2023 09: 31
    Quote: not the one
    A sort of personification of the eternal folk dream of some kind of justice.


    ... which has remained in the distant past. "Good old England", huh.
    As we move into the future, our past becomes brighter and brighter.
    Some kind of Roman captain becomes "King Arthur", and the leader of the local gopota - a fighter for the people's happiness and justice.

    "And then, we've been together since the first class... "brigade"!"
  14. +3
    21 May 2023 09: 57
    Thanks Valery as always!
    The comment is of course insignificant in the opinion of the administration.
  15. 0
    21 May 2023 10: 54
    The first assumption that Robin Hood has a real prototype was put forward by Joseph Ritson in 1795.

    For the first time about Robin Hood, as a real person, Richard Grafton wrote in the chronicle Chronicle at Large in 1569, although he limited himself to general phrases about his probable noble origin.
    In 1644, Edward Coke, the most famous lawyer of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras, describes Robin Hood as a particular brigand active during the reign of King Richard I in Yorkshire.
    The easiest way is to assume that it is a diminutive of Robert, and Good is “good”.

    In English, Robin Hood is called Robin Hood. There is no "gut". Hood - hood.
    1. VLR
      +1
      21 May 2023 11: 18
      The next article will:
      many researchers paid attention to the similarity of the names of Robin Hood and Robin Goodfellow (Robin Good-fellow, literally - Robin the Kind or Glorious Small), and so they called the cheerful and mischievous forest spirit Pak.
      Perhaps one of the leaders of the Sherwood robbers specifically took such a “pseudonym” for himself? For what? Perhaps to emphasize his connection with the elements and spirits of the forest. But maybe he also wanted to hide his real name. Over time, "good-fellow" could be shortened to "good".

      This is one of the hypotheses, of course.
  16. +2
    21 May 2023 12: 54
    Robin Hood, probably, is still a "drain", synthetic" image. But, it seems to me, there must be a person who launched this legend. Some leader of "desperate people" who is popular and sympathetic to the people is not evil by nature, who in a fit of spirit he could throw a purse at a widow, or give an orphan girl a cut of expensive fabric from the prey to sew a dress.
  17. +4
    21 May 2023 16: 53
    Colleagues, Valery, good afternoon.
    For me, "Robin Hood" is like: "a ray of light", probably tomorrow I will write: "on my own" the main bluntly said:
    - You, the team and management do not like it. Already filed an application.
    I've been looking for a place for a week, but .... There are a lot of places, but to travel "for three nine lands" "?! Thank you, I'd better go to the" exchange ". Although there are not fifty yet, I need to think about a future pension
    1. +3
      21 May 2023 18: 10
      "I will write" do not boil, we'll think of something. There is one idea
  18. +3
    21 May 2023 17: 43
    Valery, you probably have your own version of who was Robin Hood? Personally, I believe that there were several prototypes:
    Robber Hode, Hude and possibly Robber Obo.
    Gradually, they transformed into one person. The names are similar, the spelling and pronunciation of the surnames are close.
    It can be assumed that the leader of the gang, for various reasons, did not want to be recognized, and therefore wore a mask.
  19. +3
    21 May 2023 18: 34
    In 1306-1315. the hotel of Sherwood Kirklees Monastery was turned into a brothel, and even the names of the nuns "working" in it were preserved

    Now I accidentally came across a medieval saying on one resource:
    "Augustian always wants to have two heads on her pillow at night."

    And this:
    "He chases women like a Carmelite, gorges himself like a Bernardine, drinks like a Franciscan, stinks like a Capuchin and cunning like a Jesuit."
    1. Alf
      +4
      21 May 2023 19: 17
      Quote: vet
      And this:
      "He chases women like a Carmelite, gorges himself like a Bernardine, drinks like a Franciscan, stinks like a Capuchin and cunning like a Jesuit."

      Drinking and swearing like a Templar.
  20. +4
    21 May 2023 19: 15
    Good evening everyone.
    Valery, at the school, I came across, a reprint from the English edition.
    A certain Robert Hoad had a conflict with the Sheriff of Nottingham, who juggled the facts Robert was forced to hide. Everyone wants to eat and Robert began to "shake their wallets." Part of the "proceeds" was given to local peasants.
    Further, either he died, or left the "craft". Later, the sheriff was killed. After that, Robber also disappeared.
    Lots of drinking with Robin Hood
    In 1984(?) Hoad was officially acquitted. Probably with the formulation: "connections with newly discovered circumstances"?
  21. Alf
    +3
    21 May 2023 19: 16
    children's song "Who killed

    "Good" children's song...
    1. VLR
      +1
      22 May 2023 06: 35
      The English children's rhyme about Negro children is also "funny" and "optimistic". However, our rhyme about the Moon, which "comes out of the fog" and takes out a "knife from his pocket" - is from the same series.
  22. 0
    30 May 2023 14: 26
    Mark Twain knew best about monasticism. He wrote that in one locality a monastery for nuns was built and a monastery for monks was built a few hundred meters away. And less than a year later, a monastery was built between them for abandoned children. All this was written in Mark Twain's book "A Yankee (or maybe Yankel) from Connecticut in the court of King Arthur."

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