Military Review

Day of Military Glory of Russia - the Day of the beginning of the counter-offensive of the Soviet troops in the battle of Moscow

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Day of Military Glory of Russia - the Day of the beginning of the counter-offensive of the Soviet troops in the battle of Moscow

By the beginning of December, the last assault on Moscow had run out, the German command had exhausted all its reserves and began to switch to defense. German 2nd Commander tank Army Guderian was forced to admit that the advance of Army Group Center on Moscow failed. The Soviet command correctly identified this moment and launched a counterattack. On December 5-6, 1941, a Soviet counter-offensive began in the battle of Moscow. The offensive was attended by troops of the Kalinin Front under the command of Colonel-General I.S. Konev, the Western Front under the command of Army General G.K. Zhukov and the right wing of the Southwestern Front - Marshal S.K. Timoshenko.

Fights from the very beginning took a fierce character. December 8 Commander-in-Chief of the German Armed Forces Adolf Hitler was forced to sign Directive No. 39 on the transition to defense throughout the Soviet-German front. The Red Army, despite the lack of superiority in manpower, tanks and guns, difficult environmental conditions, already in the first days of the counteroffensive broke through the defenses of the German troops south of Kalinin and north-west of Moscow, cutting off the railway and the Kalinin-Moscow highway and freeing a number of settlements. It should be noted that the Soviet troops achieved victory, yielding to the enemy in the number of soldiers and technical means. Personnel: Red Army - 1,1 million, Wehrmacht - 1,7 million (1: 1,5 ratio); tanks: 744 vs. 1170 (ratio in favor of the Germans 1: 1,5); guns and mortars: 7652 vs. 13500 (1: 1,8).

Simultaneously with the troops that were advancing north-west of the Soviet capital, they launched a counteroffensive in part of the left wing of the Western and Right wing of the South-Western Front. Powerful attacks of the Soviet troops on the flank groupings of the German Army Group Center, which were intended to reach and surround Moscow, forced the enemy command to take measures to save its forces from total defeat.

9 December 1941, the Red Army occupied Rogachevo, Venev and Yelets. December 11 Soviet troops liberated Stalinogorsk, December 12 - Solnechnogorsk, December 13 - Efremov, December 15 - Klin, December December 16, Kalinin 20 - Volokolamsk. December 25 Red Army on a broad front came to the Oka. 28 December, the enemy was knocked out of Kozelsk, 30 December from Kaluga, in early January 1942, Meshchovsk and Mosalsk were liberated.

By the beginning of January 1942, parts of the right wing of the Western Front made their way to the line of the Lama and Ruza rivers. By this time, the Kalininsky Front reached the line Pavlikovo, Staritsa. The troops of the central grouping of the Western Front 26 December occupied Naro-Fominsk, on January 2 Maloaroslavets was liberated, and on January 4 Borovsk. The offensive of the Soviet troops was developing successfully on the left wing of the Western Front, as well as in the Bryansk Front, under the command of General Y. T. Cherevichenko. In general, the 7 January counter-offensive near Moscow was completed.



As a result of the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow, the most important event occurred - for the first time in World War II, the invincible Wehrmacht was stopped and then defeated by the Red Army. German troops were driven back from the Soviet capital on 100-250 kilometers, the threat of the capture of the most important economic and transport center of the USSR and the Moscow industrial region by the enemy was removed. The success was obvious, and its significance went far beyond the limits of a purely military task.

It was near Moscow that the Germans for the first time in World War II began to lose their strategic initiative and received a strong blow, the “invincible” German soldiers flinch and run. The strategic plan of Berlin - “blitzkrieg”, was finally failed. The Third Reich was faced with the threat of a long, protracted war of attrition, for which the German command was not ready. The military and political leadership of the Reich had to urgently develop a new plan of war, rebuild the economy for a long war, and search for huge material resources. This was a serious miscalculation of Berlin. The USSR turned out to be much stronger than the Nazis thought. Germany was not ready for a protracted war. To maintain it, it was necessary to radically restructure the entire German economy, its foreign and domestic policies, not to mention military strategy.

The German army during the battle for Moscow suffered huge losses in personal strength and equipment. So, from the beginning of October 1941 to the end of March 1942, it lost about 650 thousand people who were killed, wounded, and who lost their lives. For comparison, during the entire military campaign in the West in 1940, the Wehrmacht lost about 27 thousand people. During the period from October 1941 to March 1942, German troops lost 2340 tanks near Moscow, while German industry was able to produce only 1890 tanks. Big losses, which could not be fully compensated by industry, suffered aviation.

During the battle for Moscow, the strength and morale of the German army were broken. From that moment on, the power of the German car began to decline, and the strength of the Red Army was constantly increasing. Of particular importance to this strategic success is the fact that victory was achieved with the superiority of the Germans in manpower, tanks and guns (the Red Army had an advantage only in aviation). The Soviet command was able to compensate for the shortage of soldiers and weapons due to the successful selection of the moment of the transition to the offensive. The German offensive was exhausted, units were drained of blood, exhausted by long battles, reserves were spent. The German command has not yet had time to go over to strategic defense and build defensive orders, to prepare well-fortified positions. Moreover, Moscow managed to achieve a surprise attack. The German command was confident that the Red Army was also drained of blood and could not deliver heavy blows. The Germans were not ready to parry an unexpected strike. As a result, the suddenness of the strike became one of the main success factors of the counteroffensive. In addition, the Soviet command in the difficult battle for Moscow was able to prepare the reserves. Thus, 2 armies, 26 rifle divisions and 8 cavalry divisions, 10 rifle brigades, 12 individual ski battalions and about 180 thousand marching reinforcements were attracted for the development of the counterattack.

Another factor that led to the victory of the Red Army near Moscow was the high morale of the Soviet soldiers. The courage, perseverance, perseverance of Soviet soldiers and commanders, the ability to emerge victorious in the most difficult conditions, allowed us to win over the Wehrmacht’s first-class combat vehicle.

Victory near Moscow was also of great political, international importance. All the peoples of the world learned that the Red Army was able to beat the German troops. There is no doubt that success near Moscow had a great influence on the further course of both the Great Patriotic War and the entire Second World War as a whole. This victory was the key to a systematic build-up of the efforts of the entire anti-Hitler coalition. The prestige of Nazi Germany and its European allies fell heavily. The defeat of the Wehrmacht near Moscow had a sobering effect on the Japanese and Turkish ruling circles, from which Berlin demanded an open statement against the USSR. Japan and Turkey were waiting for the fall of Moscow to take the side of Germany, but now they again began to wait.

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  1. Lech e-mine
    Lech e-mine 5 December 2012 09: 15
    +7
    how many such Fritz then thawed in the spring of 1942 - a beautiful still life.
    1. sefirs
      sefirs 5 December 2012 09: 34
      +4
      Yes, then the Fritz got it. About the same as the French in 1812 am
      1. boris.uryadkin
        boris.uryadkin 5 December 2012 09: 41
        0
        The Russian people are invincible, this has long been understood by the USA, the external debt is 17 trillion dollars, everything, bankrupt !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
        1. donchepano
          donchepano 5 December 2012 11: 27
          +1
          Quote: boris.uryadkin
          The Russian people are invincible, this has long been understood by the USA, the external debt is 17 trillion dollars, everything, bankrupt !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


          bankrupt ,, banknotes ...
          they will print another 50 trillion dollars for themselves and that’s it. Profit.
        2. orfo
          orfo 5 December 2012 22: 23
          +1
          when they themselves bankrupt the last creditor, there will be no one to repay debts
    2. Sasha 19871987
      Sasha 19871987 5 December 2012 12: 22
      +1
      yes, they gave a light to the bastards, and the whole world doubted that Moscow could resist, resisted)))) and the asshole got it very well ....
      1. bask
        bask 5 December 2012 12: 30
        +4
        GLORY TO THE RUSSIAN-SOVIET WARRIORS. ​​SAVING UNDER THE MOSCOW OF MY COUNTRY AND THE WHOLE WORLD FROM DESTRUCTION .. From this ,, brown plague, of the 20th century.
    3. vanya
      vanya 5 December 2012 23: 21
      0
      By December 1, Army Group Center had 1708 men, about 13500 guns and mortars, 1170 tanks and 615 aircraft. Soviet fronts covering Moscow had 1100 thousand. people, 7652 guns and mortars, 774 tanks (including 222 medium and heavy (34 tons and square meters)) and 1000 aircraft.
      taken from A.M. Samsonov "The collapse of the fascist aggression" Moscow 1982.
  2. strannik595
    strannik595 5 December 2012 09: 48
    +1
    Japan and Turkey were waiting for the fall of Moscow to take the side of Germany, but now they again began to wait. ..................... and the Japanese did wait wassat
    1. sefirs
      sefirs 5 December 2012 09: 56
      +1
      Quote: strannik595
      ............... and the Japanese did wait


      Yeah, wait
      1. strannik595
        strannik595 5 December 2012 10: 32
        +2
        no, they are not christ, they don’t put an end to the hill .....
  3. Samovar
    Samovar 5 December 2012 10: 41
    +5
    "Let us bow to the great years
    To all glorious commanders and fighters
    And the marshals of the country, and ordinary
    Let us bow down to the dead and the living ... "
  4. kopar
    kopar 5 December 2012 10: 49
    0
    Heroic victory. But it was not easy for us either. That not only doesn’t belittle it, but also exalts it. FIVE months of retreat (small counterattacks of local significance do not count), and here is the FIRST BATTLE.
  5. mamba
    mamba 5 December 2012 12: 41
    +10
    This material was shown in full on 01.12.12 in the "PS" program of the TVC channel.
    My cousin Grandfather Vasily Rogozhin, born in 1913, before the war he served in the army in the Far East. In July-August 1938 he participated in the battles on Lake Hassan.
    I managed to trace his military path in the Great Patriotic War up to the place and time of death and find his grave. From the first days of the war he fought in the 35th Tank Brigade of the 30th Army. The military rank is sergeant. Escaped from the environment near Vyazma. He participated in the defense of Moscow and in the offensive of our troops near Moscow. He died on January 11.01.1942, XNUMX on the Kalinin Front. He was buried in a mass grave in the village of Shetnevo, Zapadnodvinsky district, Tver region.
  6. Egoza
    Egoza 5 December 2012 13: 55
    +2
    Glory to our soldiers who saved all of Europe! Eternal memory to the dead!
    And our task is to ensure that this memory is preserved and transmitted from generation to generation.
    And let no one dare today to spit in the direction of the Soviet Army and the USSR!
  7. Karlsonn
    Karlsonn 5 December 2012 16: 11
    +2
    Glory to the Soviet Army and all the people of the USSR!
    And many thanks to them and a bow.

    on the picture:
    Military parade on Red Square. The photo shows soldiers with self-loading Tokarev rifles of the 1940 model of the year CBT-40 in the “shoulder” position. Blade monocotyled bayonets are attached to the rifles. Behind the soldier are knapsack equipment of the 1936 model of the year, on the side are small infantry shovels.

    The original name of the photo: "After the parade - into battle!".
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 5 December 2012 16: 16
      +1
      on the picture:
      The Soviet ski battalion pushed to the front during the Battle of Moscow.


      They do not go into a white veil, they go into immortality ...
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 5 December 2012 16: 20
        +1
        on the picture:

        A woman embraces a Soviet soldier after the liberation of her village during the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow. Author's name of the photo: “In the liberated village”.
  8. JonnyT
    JonnyT 5 December 2012 16: 47
    +1
    My question is, Where did the rumors come from that one of the most bloody battles of the 2 World War was the battle of Moscow ??? Someone shouted for a long time that the losses in the Great Patriotic War were almost 50 million. And here is how it turns out. Seropogonniki, why are you silent?
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 5 December 2012 17: 42
      +3
      JonnyT hi
      Quote: JonnyT
      Where did the rumors come from?

      Mabut Solzhenitsyn read,
      Quote: JonnyT
      losses in the great patriotic were almost xnumx million

      and they have arithmetic like this:
      - Stalin repressed according to Solzhenitsyn's 67 000 000, but they also consider children who could be born from repressed people and therefore they have 100 000 000;
      - 40-50 000 000 died in the war.
      To the question:
      - and who actually built the country before the war, fought, rebuilt after the war and where we came from - as a rule do not respond. And this is taking into account the fact that the population of the USSR according to the census 1939 of the year was 170 000 000.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 6 December 2012 20: 23
        0
        Karlsonn "- and who actually built the country before the war, fought, rebuilt after the war and where we came from - as a rule do not answer. And this is taking into account the fact that the population of the USSR according to the 1939 census was 170 million." This is not important, the main numbers are to name, yours in their understanding are still small.
    2. 22rus
      22rus 6 December 2012 08: 24
      +2
      Quote: JonnyT
      Seropogonniki, why are you silent?

      We are here!
      Quote: JonnyT
      And why then the rumors that one of the most bloody battles of World War II was the battle of Moscow ???

      Where do rumors come from? From the camel.
      The losses of the Red Army (irretrievable and sanitary) in the battle of Moscow amounted to:
      - in the Moscow strategic defensive operation September 30 - December 5, 1941 - 658 people;
      - In the Moscow strategic offensive operation on December 5, 1941 - January 7, 1942 - 370 955 people.
      Total: 1 killed, missing and wounded.
      We can add here the Rzhev-Vyazemsky operation January-April 1942 with losses of 776 people.
      The total result is more than 1, 8 million killed, wounded and missing Soviet soldiers.
      This is the "question price" ....
      For comparison: the Wehrmacht lost only 650 thousand soldiers
      1. vyatom
        vyatom 6 December 2012 11: 05
        0
        Well, only in the Moscow battle did the Wehrmacht lose so much. And near Rzhev they also had large losses.
        1. 22rus
          22rus 6 December 2012 11: 20
          +1
          Quote: vyatom
          Well, only in the Moscow battle did the Wehrmacht lose so much. And near Rzhev they also had large losses.

          The article talks about the losses of the Wehrmacht near Moscow for the period:
          from the beginning of October 1941 to the end of March 1942

          So the Rzhevsky losses of the Wehrmacht are taken into account here.
      2. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 6 December 2012 12: 31
        -1
        22rus
        Quote: 22rus
        The total result is more than 1, 8 million killed, wounded and missing Soviet soldiers.
        This is the "question price" ....
        For comparison: the Wehrmacht lost only 650 thousand soldiers


        So what? Che wanted to say this? Or is it an educational program?
        1. 22rus
          22rus 6 December 2012 12: 46
          +1
          Quote: Karlsonn
          So what? Che wanted to say this? Or is it an educational program?

          Che wanted to say? Never mind. Just answered the question
          JonnyT'but about the losses near Moscow. Maybe for someone and an educational program.
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 6 December 2012 17: 09
            -1
            22rus

            You do not find what to call the feat of ancestors:
            Quote: 22rus
            This is the "question price" ....

            cynically?
            1. 22rus
              22rus 6 December 2012 19: 46
              +1
              Quote: Karlsonn
              cynically?

              Sorry for the Nazis?
      3. Ratibor12
        Ratibor12 6 December 2012 21: 12
        +1
        Our defeats 1941-42 more than offset by how much the defeat of the Nazis in 1944-45.

        Quote: 22rus
        For comparison: the Wehrmacht lost only 650 thousand soldiers


        For comparison: the Wehrmacht delayed the war and their country, the German leaders died or sat down for life. Well, 200 banners of the Wehrmacht played the role of panicles on Red Square. Parade 1941 - rehearsal for the Victory Parade.
  9. Garrin
    Garrin 5 December 2012 18: 10
    +3
    The article is good, but I would still call it "Day of Military Glory of the USSR ......"
    It is enough to look at the face in the picture with the anti-tanker.
  10. wax
    wax 5 December 2012 23: 31
    +1
    Who has the time, look at the chapter from Rokossovsky’s memoirs about the battle of Moscow:
    http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/rokossovsky/07.html
  11. dobry-ork
    dobry-ork 6 December 2012 01: 38
    +1
    I remember reading "Volokolamskoe Shosse" by Alexander Bek in my school years. The book really sunk into the soul and after it I read many memoirs, novels, stories and stories about the Second World War

    I also advise you to read the memoirs of AP Beloborodov "Always in battle", the commander of the 9th Guards Division (316th Infantry Division). It was they who began the liberation from the Nazis in the Istra region
    1. Dikremnij
      Dikremnij 6 December 2012 09: 07
      0
      The 316th infantry division of the 8st formation later became the XNUMXth Panfilov Guards Rifle Division, and it arrived near Moscow not from Siberia, but from Kazakhstan, so this monument is not to its soldiers.
      And as for the true heroism of our soldiers, I advise everyone to take an interest in the Mozhaisk landing, - this really was courage and heroism of the highest standard, but they just forgot about it.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 6 December 2012 20: 29
        0
        Dikremnij "The 316th Infantry Division of the 8st Formation later became the XNUMXth Panfilov Guards Infantry Division, and it arrived near Moscow not from Siberia, but from Kazakhstan, so this monument is not to its soldiers." And ... what's the difference? How is this not a monument to them? By the way, for a long time Northern Kazakhstan was called Siberia and vice versa. Do not fucking share the contribution of all to the overall victory was equal! Everyone was starving, they were waiting for their relatives from the front, they were waiting for victory!
  12. 22rus
    22rus 6 December 2012 09: 57
    -1
    Quote: Dikremnij
    I advise everyone to take an interest in the Mozhaisk landing, - that really was the courage and heroism of the highest standard, but they just forgot about it.

    It seems that we are discussing serious topics, and you are trying to fool us here ...
    1. Ratibor12
      Ratibor12 7 December 2012 17: 31
      0
      Quote: 22rus
      It seems that we are discussing serious topics, and you are trying to fool us here ...


      Oh well. For you, the multiplication table is also a fairy tale, just not to admit that 2x2 = 4.
  13. datur
    datur 6 December 2012 14: 29
    -1
    SIBERIA-RULIT !!!! maybe today it will raise RUSSIA !!!!!! otherwise we have a khan !!! got the chocks !!!!
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 6 December 2012 21: 52
      0
      Your post here looks somehow even insulting, especially next to the mention of Panfilov’s!
    2. Beck
      Beck 7 December 2012 13: 23
      0
      Quote: datur
      SIBERIA-RULIT !!!! maybe today it will raise RUSSIA !!!!!! otherwise we have a khan !!! got the chocks !!!!



      Correctly say Datur, got the chocks. Unbearable already. All of them to the nail lump of filth. Crush and grind.

      And especially those chocks which, consisting of 316 pages of divas formed in Kazakhstan, subsequently 8 guards divas fought near Moscow in October-November 1941. Which held back the very tip of the German wedge of the offensive. In the defense zone of 316 divisions the German attacked - 35 infantry div. 2, 5, 11 tank divisions of the Wehrmacht.

      And those chocks, which included 312 and 314 divisions formed in Kazakhstan, defended Leningrad and broke through the blockade.

      To the nail and sniper Aliya Moldagulova Hero of the Soviet Union, who had on her personal account 78 annihilated fascists. Which died in hand-to-hand combat with the Nazis, having managed to kill a German officer.

      Crush twice Hero of the Soviet Union, attack pilot Talgat Bigeldinov, who was the first to shoot down a fascist "Messer" on the Il-2

      Grind the reconnaissance platoon commander, Lieutenant Rakhimzhan Koshkarbayev, who, with his comrade-in-arms Grigory Bulatov, was the first to hoist the red flag on the Reichstag. When attaching the flag Bulatov stood on the shoulders of Koshkarbayev. (And only for political reasons and Stalin’s personal ambitions, primacy was given to the Georgian Kantaria and Yegorov)

      And why are lumps dying in the vastness of Russia? They got it.
      1. Ratibor12
        Ratibor12 8 December 2012 21: 59
        0
        Quote: Beck
        And why are lumps dying in the vastness of Russia? They got it.


        There was a time when all nations lived together. Now our community is destroyed. New generations do not know and do not want to know and remember that friendship.

        "Churki" ... Well, as I understand it, this is talking about that brainless evil biomass, which is not at all going to die for Russia. She does not consider Russia her country at all, and does not consider the Russians (and each other) brothers. This biomass is uneducated, vicious, thinks with instincts, infected with nationalism.
        And there is no worthy idea to bring people together again.
  14. Beck
    Beck 7 December 2012 13: 56
    +1
    [img] http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WWII_Monument_Feat,_Almaty.jpg?usela




    ng = ru [/ img]


    Monument in Almaty. The wars of the 8th Guards Division (316 pages div.) Defending Moscow.

    The words are carved in gold on a pedestal.

    GREAT RUSSIA, AND THERE IS NO NEED TO STAY BACK MOSCOW.