Famous victims of "medicated bloodletting" and followers of Duremar

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Famous victims of "medicated bloodletting" and followers of Duremar

В previous article we talked about the humoral theory of Hippocrates, according to which the cause of any disease is an imbalance between the four fluids (humors) of the body - blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm or mucus. It was told about the attempts of treatment with the help of setting up clysters and bloodletting, which were prescribed not only for therapeutic, but also for prophylactic purposes. Today we will continue this story, talk about the sad consequences of bloodletting, as well as hirudotherapy, that is, treatment with medical leeches.

“It is said to the morgue - it means to the morgue”



Neer van der Fertig. Bloodletting. Engraving, XIX century.

The number of people whose death was at least hastened by strict adherence to the recommendations of Hippocrates and Galen cannot be counted. A big fan of bloodletting, for example, was Francois de Brouse, who headed the medical service of the Napoleonic army. In the spirit of the times, he argued that inflammation is the cause of all diseases, and any inflammation should be eliminated by bloodletting in combination with the use of emetics and laxatives, as well as fasting.



Later in Paris it was said that Brousset and his subordinates shed more French blood with their lancets than the enemy soldiers with bayonets and sabers. After the abdication of the emperor, Brousset was patronized by the Napoleonic marshal Nicolas Soult, who went over to the service of the Bourbons, and who was also the Minister of War of France, and even the chairman of the Council of Ministers. Under him, this doctor continued to hold high positions.

Let's talk about some of the most famous and famous victims of "medicated bloodletting".

We will talk about the "noble robber" Robin Hood and his possible prototypes in the next article. For now, let's say that the English ballads connect the death of the famous leader of the robbers of Sherwood Forest precisely with excessive blood loss during the bloodletting procedure. Robin Hood fell ill, and his arrows often missed the target. Therefore, he decided to receive medical treatment in the Kirkley monastery, the abbess of which was the sister of his beloved, the virgin Marian. From previous article we remember that in the monasteries of medieval Europe there was a tradition of "prophylactic" bloodletting (several times a year, without any illness), and often local peasants were also "bled" in them for free. So they knew how to “open blood” in monasteries.

The Mother Superior says to the hero:

“In the quiet monastery there is peace,
I will take you there.
And if you ask the blood to open,
I'll do you a favor."

She then:

“He takes a stranger by the white hand,
Leads to a distant cell,
And she opens blood to Robin -
Blood drops hot drop.
She left, ringing the keys,
And for a long time sharpened hot blood -
Until noon the next day."

And here is the result:

“At first thick blood ran,
Then it got thinner.”

In general, left in the cell, Robin Hood actually bled to death. By the time a worried Little John burst into the monastery, it was already too late.


The last shot of Robin Hood in an illustration for a collection of ballads translated by M. Gershenzon

According to another version, Robin Hood was so weakened by this procedure that he could not cope with his enemy - Sir Roger of Doncaster, who was brought to the monastery by the abbess who betrayed the hero. That is, in any case, his death is associated with blood loss.

Abundant bloodletting probably caused the death of Rafael Santi - they were prescribed to him about some kind of fever. Having killed the brilliant artist, the Aesculapius who used him announced that the cause of Raphael's death was "love excesses" with his mistress Fornarina - this version became official.

On the eighth day of his illness, Descartes, who had a cold, was prescribed bloodletting - the philosopher became worse, and three days later he died.

Dr. Klosse “opened the blood” to the sick Mozart – the patient lost his senses and soon died without regaining consciousness.

After a convulsive seizure, the English king Charles II was prescribed enemas with herbs, compresses from pigeon droppings and about 700 ml of blood was released from his veins - after which this monarch died.

Louis XIII, who was already not in good health, as we remember from first article, in the last ten months of his life, bloodletting was carried out as many as 47 times. This probably contributed to the development of severe anemia in him and greatly accelerated his death, which occurred at the age of 42.

George Washington caught a cold while inspecting farms he owned. The cause of his death was profuse bloodletting, during which he lost about two and a half liters of blood in two days.


Dying Washington by Junius Stearns

Also, George Gordon Byron, who caught a cold, lost “only” two liters of blood in a few sessions - but this was enough for the poet to die.

N. Bazhenov (at that time a Privatdozent of the University in the Department of Nervous and Mental Diseases of Moscow University) wrote in 1902:

“It’s a sin to condemn the doctors who treated Gogol, but our science was still so imperfect, and the methods of treatment were used so incorrectly that inept and irrational medical measures have to be considered one of the reasons for Gogol’s death.”

In his opinion, Gogol died from

"exhaustion and acute anemia of the brain, due both to the very form of the disease, and to improper debilitating treatment, especially bloodletting."

And this is how F. M. Dostoevsky describes the last minutes of Marmeladov’s life, who fell under a horse-drawn carriage, in the novel “Crime and Punishment”:

- He'll die now.
- Is there really no hope?
- Not the slightest! At the last gasp ... In addition, the head is very dangerous
injured... Hm. Perhaps you can open the blood ... but ... it will be useless.
In five or ten minutes he will surely die.
- So open the blood better!
“Perhaps ... However, I warn you, it will be completely useless.”

In general, you don’t know what to do - let blood out of a dying person: you won’t make a mistake, and your conscience will be clear.

Among the common people in Russia, bloodletting as a medical method was practiced until the end of the XNUMXth century, in the end, even illiterate peasants realized that something was wrong here. And there was a proverb:

"To let the ore (blood) go - to drive a nail into the coffin."

Meanwhile, as early as the XNUMXth century, Paracelsus opposed bloodletting. The idea of ​​the dangers of bloodletting was also promoted by his contemporary Flemish doctor Jan Baptist van Helmont.

In the XNUMXth century, the uselessness and even harm of bloodletting during a "fever" was proved by the French doctor Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis. But the authority of Hippocrates and Galen was too high, and it took a long time for their pseudoscientific theories to be recognized as false, and this barbaric method finally disappeared from medical practice.

"Very expensive leeches"



Leeches. Illustration from the book "Physicasacra" by Johann Jacob Scheuchzer. 1731–1733

An alternative to bloodletting was hirudotherapy, that is, the removal of "excess" blood by setting medical leeches.


Medical leeches. In hirudotherapy, three of their subspecies are used - pharmacy, oriental and medical.

We have already talked about the ancient Egyptian image of a leech, which dates back to the XNUMXth dynasty (and they can also be seen in some of the paintings by Sandro Botticelli). Dried leeches powder has been (and is) widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. There are indications of treatment with leeches in the writings of Hippocrates, Pliny, Galen and in the ancient Indian medical treatise Sushruta Samhita (this is part of Ayurveda). At a later time, Avicenna and Ambroise Pare wrote about leeches.

There is a famous Russian proverb:

"Piyavitsa is God's messenger for people."

However, for a long time, hirudotherapy was just Cinderella compared to the much more common surgical bloodletting. The situation changed in the second half of the 1790th century. One of the ardent supporters of hirudotherapy was, for example, Dr. Louis Vite, who in between times in 1792-XNUMX. Acting mayor of Lyon, and then was a deputy of the Council of Five Hundred (lower house of the French parliament). It got to the point that in many French hospitals, leeches were put on all incoming patients even before the doctor's examination.

On the one hand, it seems strange that people are ready to let some vile annelids suck their blood (I personally do not feel ready for such experiments). However, this method also had advantages.

First, leech bites are practically painless.

Secondly, the amount of blood removed from the body is easy to regulate - according to the number of leeches used.

Thirdly, leeches were planted in places where there are no veins - even on the scrotum and mucous membranes.

Fourthly, the ease of use captivated: anyone could put them on their own - as shown in the engraving from the book of Bosch Van den Guillaume, published in 1639.


And finally, most importantly, unlike bloodletting, medical leeches often really helped the sick. They are also said to be very effective for hangovers.

In addition, ladies often put leeches (behind their ears) before balls and secular receptions - it was believed that after their use, the eyes acquired a special shine. Ayurveda contains recommendations to use leeches before conception.

“Removal” of “excess” blood with a leech is just a side effect of hirudotherapy. The fact is that the saliva that they inject into the blood when they bite contains a unique complex of biologically active substances, the most famous of which is hirudin, a compound that has a powerful antithrombotic effect. British physician John Haycraft identified it in 1883. The first preparations containing hirudin were created in 1902, synthetic analogues were obtained in the 70s. of the twentieth century, but it was only in the 90s that they managed to establish their industrial production, making them available.

Currently, different sources call different amounts of substances contained in the saliva of leeches - from 100 to 200. Many of them have already been studied, some have even been synthesized. However, not a single pharmaceutical company has been able to create a drug that completely repeats the complex effect of this biological “cocktail”, which not only promotes the dissolution of blood clots and improves the rheological properties of blood, but also has analgesic, antispasmodic, immunostimulating, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects.

It is not surprising that in the 1829th century in Europe, medicinal leeches were almost completely exterminated, since in France alone in the period from 1836 to 33. about 80 million leeches were consumed, and then, according to some sources, up to 7 million pieces per year. And London's annual need for leeches was XNUMX million pieces.

As a result, leeches began to be imported from Russia, and in the most successful years, their trade brought our country up to 6 million silver rubles - this is comparable to the income from the sale of grain (Hungary was another major exporter of leeches).

It may seem surprising, but the export of leeches to France was not interrupted even during the war of 1812: convoys with them freely passed both opposing sides. In 1825, the first "factory" for the artificial breeding of leeches was opened near Moscow. Currently, the MedPiyavka enterprise is located in the Udelnoye village near Moscow, next to which a monument to a leech was erected in 2007 (another one can be seen in France).

And in the wild, the number of these worms was steadily declining, as reported by the famous doctor A. Voznesensky: in his “Monograph of Medicinal Leeches” published by him in 1859, he lamented that in places where thousands of leeches were previously harvested, now only hundreds are hardly collected. Currently, leeches that have existed since the time of the dinosaurs are endangered species and in 1984 were included in the Red Book.

During the Crimean War, leeches were actively used in the treatment of the wounded by N. Pirogov, who recalled:

“I put 100 to 200 leeches. Even in simple fractures, where only a significant swelling was noticed, leeches were immediately placed.

Just in case, let's clarify: Pirogov put 100–200 leeches per day, and not per patient.

Leech catchers


In 1895, the Parisian doctor Jacques Boulemard, a well-known supporter and promoter of hirudotherapy in Europe, arrived in Moscow. This doctor took his job very seriously and personally caught leeches in the ponds near Moscow to treat his patients - dressed in a funny hoodie and with a long net in his hand. Then he was seen by 12-year-old Alexei Bostrom, who later became known under the name Tolstoy. He and his friends altered the incomprehensible and strange-sounding French surname in their own way - Boulemard became Duremar. And then A. Tolstoy remembered him when he wrote the famous book about the adventures of Pinocchio.


V. Basov as Duremar, frame from the film "The Adventure of Pinocchio", 1975

Boulemarde apparently caught leeches by a method known as "snitching": he knocked on a snag and collected worms that floated to the sound with a net. But Duremar, although he had a net with him, preferred a different (much more common) method. Here is what he tells Karabas-Barabas:

“I caught leeches in a dirty pond near the City of Fools. For four soldi a day, I hired a poor man to undress, go up to his neck into the pond, and stand there until the leeches clung to his naked body. Then he went ashore, I collected leeches from him and again sent him into the pond.

It should be borne in mind that the wound at the site of the leech bite continues to bleed for quite a long time. And therefore, a person continues to lose blood for some time - especially if the leech is forcibly torn from the wound (until it is saturated), and there is no way to remain at rest.

In 1915, a terrible case was described of the death of an old Cossack woman in the water, who, while collecting leeches by this method, died on the shore from blood loss, being literally covered with these worms. The woman regularly obtained leeches for sale in this way and, probably, at the time of her death, she had already developed severe anemia, another loss of blood led to death.

This is how this method of extracting leeches looks like on the color aquatint of George Walker, 1814:


A more gentle way was to drive a herd of cows into a swamp or pond and collect leeches from them.

kinks


Hirudotherapy is still quite adequate and effective.
method of treatment, although not very common and popular. In 1990, the World Society of Hirudologists was created, at the initiative of which leeches were officially included in the list of medicines. However, reading the recommendations of doctors of past years, you understand that a completely “working” technique can easily be perverted and turned into torture. So, in the “Monograph of Medical Leeches” mentioned above, its author A. Voznesensky gives the following “guidelines”:

“The patient is put on a strait chair, tied, bloodletting is done, 10–12 leeches are placed on the head, ice towels are wrapped around the body, 50 buckets of cold water are poured on the head, and a good intake of laxative salt is given.”

And the life physician and editor-in-chief of the Military Medical Journal, F.F. Geyrot, recommended “in cases of need” to continue bloodletting until fainting:

“One should not feel sorry for leeches, distributing them around a shaved head in the manner of a whisk, it is also useful to pour powder from Spanish flies into skin incisions or rub antimony copper.”

And if this does not help, “it is necessary to start up the rotational machine” (a kind of scarifier already mentioned in the previous article).

However, the doctors did not spare themselves either - they were treated in strict accordance with "scientific recommendations". So, the famous Scottish surgeon John Brown, who lived in the 18th century, fell ill with just a sore throat, put himself 450 leeches, which deprived him of about XNUMX ml of blood. This, as you probably guessed, did not lead to an improvement in the condition. But at least Brown survived.

In general, in the case of leeches, we see confirmation of the thesis that only a dose makes any medicine and any method of therapy either a medicine or a poison.
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  1. +15
    19 May 2023
    A curious and completely unknown topic to me!
    Thank you Valery, good day comrades!!!
    1. +17
      19 May 2023
      It's true. It was interesting for me to find out that one funny character had a real prototype. And the name of that hero of the film is Duremar. This is not from "foolishness", collecting all sorts of leeches, but from a well-known doctor from the Church. Thank you. the author was a revelation for me.
      1. 0
        19 May 2023
        Good night Dima!
        For some reason, I was sincerely sure that Durimvr from the word - “fool”. However, the film about Pinocchio did not impress me, unlike the book.
        1. +3
          20 May 2023
          the amount of blood removed from the body is easy to regulate - according to the number of leeches used

          Yeah ...
          My mother is fond of hirudotherapy, and I was not ignored.
          He keeps this dirty trick at home in three-liter jars.
          So, I will say, as a practitioner.
          Leeches secrete a substance that prevents blood clotting.
          The wound from them continues to bleed for another day, or even more.
          Although, I must admit, those who use leeches regularly develop immunity to this substance, and the blood coagulates in half an hour.
  2. +3
    19 May 2023
    the export of leeches to France was not interrupted even during the war of 1812: convoys with them freely passed both opposing sides

    Agree, now it becomes clearer why Putin continues to trade with "his partners" - gas transit through Ukraine, grain deals, and so on. Traders on both sides of the border have no homeland, but have common financial interests. And nothing changes, traders are the same everywhere - at all times.
    1. VLR
      +13
      19 May 2023
      Napoleon tried to overcome the merchants by organizing a blockade of England. But even he failed. The British conspired against Paul I, killing with his hands the suffering losses of Russian landowners - aristocrats who lost the opportunity to drive cheap grain to the British - the only source of currency that allows them to "lead a European way of life." The alliance with France, which was extremely beneficial for Russia, was broken, Alexander I obediently fought for British interests and received nothing after the victory over Bonaparte. His brother Nikolay has already "received" the Crimean War against the "liberated" and, as usual, very "grateful" Europe for this.
      I suspect that Putin, too, fears a "rebellion" by the oligarchs who have lost their super-profits. And the rebellion of the liberal ministers of their own government.
      1. +5
        19 May 2023
        Quote: VlR
        The British staged a conspiracy against Paul I, killing him with the hands of Russian landowners - aristocrats, who were suffering losses

        Y-yes ... in your opinion, Russians are so inferior that they cannot even make a conspiracy on their own?
        Quote: VlR
        received nothing after the victory over Bonaparte.

        Is it just "nothing"?
        1. VLR
          +16
          19 May 2023
          received nothing after the victory over Bonaparte.
          Is it just "nothing"?

          Well, yes, a piece of Poland, which J. de Maistre called for Russia "the burning shirt of a centaur" (a reference to the myth of the death of Hercules). And I. S. Aksakov called this addition "ingestion and poisoning." The autonomous kingdom of Poland brought nothing but losses and huge problems to Russia.
          1. +3
            19 May 2023
            Quote: VlR
            Well, yes, a piece of Poland

            In other words, exactly what Emperor Alexander wished. Would have wished for something else, got no options.
            Whether this wish was adequate is another question. The main thing is that
            Quote: VlR
            got nothing after defeating Bonaparte

            Not true request
            By the way, what do you think really useful could be obtained from the defeated France?
            PS I understand. nothing to say about the "conspiracy against Paul"? feel
            P.P.S. On the topic of the article +! winked
            1. VLR
              +15
              19 May 2023
              I have an article about Pavel 1 published in the journal "History" - number 24 for 2003.


              If you start a conversation about him - it's a long time and off topic.
              1. +17
                19 May 2023
                off-topic
                Inspired by a conversation about our happy Soviet childhood - Happy Pioneer Day, people!
                1. +10
                  19 May 2023
                  Quote: not the one
                  Happy Pioneer Day, folks!

                  I join. I didn’t even pay attention to the date as the fact that today is May 19th.
                  1. +10
                    19 May 2023
                    I join. I didn’t even pay attention to the date as the fact that today is May 19

                    Eshkin cat belay Only yesterday my wife and I were talking about this date before going to bed and recalled how we were accepted as pioneers. We sat at the same desk until the 5th grade. And woke up, spun - jumped out of my head. Thanks, comrades-commentators for reminding me. smile




                    Happy Pioneer Day to all former pioneers!! drinks
                    Oh pioneer! childhood nostalgia,
                    Memories are wonderful, alive!
                    Let my peers today
                    Remember those bright days
                    When they marched to the music
                    Scrap metal, waste paper collected,
                    "Zarnitsa" - a pioneer game,
                    Baked potatoes for a feast!
                    1. Fat
                      +10
                      19 May 2023
                      Pioneer is an extremely successful campaign of the Land of the Soviets. This is for you and a scout and a sapper... Very often in the detachment I was chosen as a flag bearer, this obliged me not to smoke or drink beer in a nearby thicket in a dubious company.... drinks laughing
                      The organization was good, sensible. Our current attempts to fight youth are, to put it mildly, resting ....
                    2. +7
                      19 May 2023
                      Happy Pioneer Day to all former pioneers!!
                      Seit bereit! Immerse yourself!
                      1. Fat
                        +2
                        19 May 2023
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Immerse yourself!

                        As a result of the correspondence, the option of the German "wanderers" appeared in me, I rested on 1:43 .... They sent in exchange ... one copy, plastic. the rest was bought in a store 1 to 25 .... I was very upset. I told him 403 Muscovite in metal in response to a light bullshit made of plastic. Immer bereit! ..
                      2. +3
                        19 May 2023
                        Borisych! Forgive your childish German comrade, he did not know what he was doing!
                      3. Fat
                        +3
                        19 May 2023
                        He never once understood what I was doing ... Tearing off the family budget into a collection of geeks .... Everything is like, and this will pass .... and passed
                      4. +2
                        19 May 2023
                        That's gone. In the USSR and the GDR, children's values ​​were different.
  3. +2
    19 May 2023
    Live healthy! smile Santi, Descartes, Mozart, etc. they died not from bloodletting, but from a complex of reasons. Incorrect diagnosis and treatment, respectively, or rather the absence of such. Recent studies say that Santi, Descartes, Mozart died of pneumonia.
    1. VLR
      +9
      19 May 2023
      Of course, not just from bloodletting. But the "healing" bloodletting of their deaths helped a lot. Even now, with pneumonia
      in the treatment of good antibiotics, it is unlikely that it will be useful to deprive a person of two liters of blood, like the same Washington or Byron. And then - it's just a method of euthanasia.
      1. +2
        19 May 2023
        Of course, not just from bloodletting.
        What is not written by me? laughing If suddenly the flu, but diagnosed with gangrene and as a result of operations fatal, the outcome? smile
  4. VLR
    +11
    19 May 2023
    By the way, has anyone tried to put leeches? How are the personal feelings?
    1. +14
      19 May 2023
      Greetings, Valery.
      Quote: VlR
      Has anyone tried leeching?

      Childhood spent in the countryside, seasoned with the childish curiosity of a Soviet child, not spoiled by spectacles... smile
      After watching the film "The Adventures of Pinocchio" we were interested in the dispute between Karabas Barabas and Duremar about whether leeches "hurt" or "do not hurt". Well, it is clear that "there is only one way to check." laughing
      It doesn't hurt. smile
      But if you tear it off by force, then the wound hurts a little. If the leech falls off by itself (for this it needs to be given time, probably about half an hour), then there are no painful sensations at all.
      They hung leeches on themselves and several pieces as "decorations" on the shoulder or on the chest, such as chevrons or medals. It was fun to scare the girls. laughing
      By the way, many still do not believe me, but I personally saw how the same leeches naturally eat fish, leaving only a skeleton after their meal. And they do it with unexpected speed - in a few (several - this, in my understanding, no more than five) minutes, three leeches completely gobbled up a small bleak eight centimeters in size, leaving only the head, tail and spine.
      So I can say for sure - leeches can be not only parasites, but also predators. And they don't just feed on blood.
      1. VLR
        +10
        19 May 2023
        The question arose because I remembered the dialogue between Karabas and Duremar from a great Soviet film smile
        I will put this scoundrel, Pinocchio, on one palm, and slap the other, a wet place will remain from him.
        No, signor, first he needs to put a dozen beautiful leeches.
        No, no, no, it doesn't hurt. It doesn't hurt, does it?
        - Leeches - it hurts.
        Ah, well then. But first, I will take the Golden Key from him!
        1. +11
          19 May 2023
          It is this dialogue. laughing
          I can testify officially, with full responsibility: leeches do not hurt. smile
          1. +3
            19 May 2023
            I absolutely agree, at 90 serving in one garrison, we went with my family to fry a barbecue to one, a lake (pond) not far from the shooting range
            , shot rarely then. We climbed into the water for a few minutes, we leave, 2-3 pieces are sitting, no pain, no sensations, like a mosquito bites. You don't feel anything. It bled a little. Climb no more.
      2. +11
        19 May 2023
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        It doesn't hurt.

        It's disgusting when you see how they swell with blood.

        Quote: Trilobite Master
        But if you tear it off by force, then the wound hurts a little. If the leech falls off by itself (for this it needs to be given time, probably about half an hour), then there are no painful sensations at all.

        They say that if you sprinkle salt, it will immediately fall off by itself, but there was never salt at hand, so I can’t confirm it, as well as the statement that leeches from a hangover help. Haven't tried. sad
        1. +7
          19 May 2023
          Haven't tried salt either. And to watch them swell is rather cool. But here, who cares. We had lovers of pumped leeches to throw into the fire and watch them burst. I didn't love. I let mine go. smile
          1. +7
            19 May 2023
            In a previous article, I already wrote how we handed over caught leeches to a pharmacy in childhood. In my area, the leech lives only in fresh water - large puddles in floodplains, ruts, overgrown ponds and lakes. In childhood, we used two methods to catch them!
            The first one (in clear water) - you pour a little bull's blood into the water, hitting the swamp slurry with a stick - they imitated the entry of cattle into the water. Stupid leeches mistook this for the sound of a dinner gong and hurried to the meal, then - an aquarium net
            The second: (overgrown ponds) "on live bait" - a catcher: he went into the water above his knees, and his legs immediately stuck around the bloodsucking ones. Of course, it was more effective to drive real cows or horses into the pond - at least for half an hour. And then pick off those who stick to them. The "catch" turned out to be notable. wink
            1. VLR
              +12
              19 May 2023
              Both methods are described in the article, the second one is just horror, even Duremar paid money to the "live bait" for it, and you - voluntarily! Still, what desperate children were in the USSR! I suspect that many of the current ones would faint at the mere sight of a sucking leech.
              1. +10
                19 May 2023
                Greetings, Valery hi
                it's just terrible, even Duremar paid money to the "live bait" for him, and you - voluntarily!

                Rural children in the 70s were not particularly spoiled, and for ten leeches handed over to a leech pharmacy, you could get a choice of ascorbic acid or mint tablets - chills smile

                The girls also traded in "pharmacy commerce", but at a higher paid level - they handed over dried medicinal plants there smile
        2. +8
          19 May 2023
          There was an important moment for young "duremars" smile . It was not always necessary to catch leeches and not all. So, fishing was prohibited during their breeding - in May, June and July. At this time, pharmacies did not accept them.
        3. +13
          19 May 2023
          They say that if you sprinkle salt, it will immediately fall off by itself.
          Mlyn. But where did you all find them on your head!? I remember fishing in rivers and lakes, standing waist-deep in water. I don't remember the leeches! Or we didn’t have them, or we were tasteless for them. But I couldn't remember a single case! The only bloodsuckers whom I could remember from a happy childhood were horseflies with mosquitoes.
        4. +5
          19 May 2023
          Leeches are usually fairly easy to remove and do not cause serious harm. You just stick your fingernail under the suction cup of the leech, and with your other hand you stretch the skin near the suction cup. A cotton swab dipped in the pomace of chikhir (local young wine), or cologne, was applied to the strongly attached head of a leech, although adults cursed for such an "inappropriate" use of cologne
        5. +8
          19 May 2023
          They say that if you sprinkle salt, it will immediately fall off by itself, but there was never salt at hand, so I can’t confirm

          Fall off. I don’t know how much is the minimum, I never spared salt. But they begin to squirm instantly, a couple of seconds and unhook. From fire even faster.
      3. +12
        19 May 2023
        After watching the film "The Adventures of Pinocchio" we were interested in the dispute between Karabas Barabas and Duremar
        How interesting. And after watching the film about Malvina, a girl with blue hair, we sighed, and not about Karabas Barabas and Duremar with his leeches, we thought. conversations to talk.
      4. +4
        19 May 2023
        By the way, many still do not believe me, but I personally saw how the same leeches naturally eat fish

        My respects, Michael hi This is a "fish leech" widespread in our reservoirs, which swims beautifully, unlike the medicinal leech. Leeches of this species feed on the tissue fluid of fish.

        1. +4
          19 May 2023
          Greetings, Dmitry.
          No, they were real medical leeches, as long as my finger, black or very dark brown with a light belly. Like these ones:

          I even had pictures somewhere, I'll have to look.
    2. +12
      19 May 2023
      Good morning!
      I was treated for 2 courses. A very effective tool. I could continue, but the place where they were put closed. I found a private trader -1 time normally, and after the second I stopped - he put a bandage on badly and I got smeared with blood.
      It is necessary to add about gerudin. The leech is placed on the projection of the organ on the skin. And when it sticks, a direct connection is established between the leech and the organ. Such a flow of gerudin to the organ.
      And what is important, the leech itself finds the right point on the skin.
      He put leeches on the area of ​​the knee joint and in the area of ​​the liver.
    3. Fat
      +11
      19 May 2023
      hi Greetings, Valery. They gave me leeches, several sessions, long and boring. But much better than heparin injections, from which all underwear in bloody marks. And the mood improves, why I didn’t understand ... Nothing extraordinary in general. smile
    4. +3
      20 May 2023
      By the way, has anyone tried to put leeches? How are the personal feelings?

      Jungle leeches will instantly appear in the gap between the sleeve and the glove, you won’t even notice. If torn off, the jaws remain in the wound = suppuration.
      Smokers burned with a cigarette (in the jungle there is always a cigarette in their mouth), non-smokers with iodine (wool is wound around the tip of the ampoule, you need to have 10 such "cartridges"), then they fall off on their own.
  5. +14
    19 May 2023
    ,,,ugh stop they are so disgusting.

    caught fishing, instead of fish. sad
    1. +15
      19 May 2023
      I join with a feeling of deep disgust! As Comrade Vodyanoy from the animated film "Flying Ship" quite rightly said: "Fu, how disgusting!"
      1. +4
        19 May 2023
        wow, they are so ugly. stop

        In the novel by A. N. Tolstoy Peter 1, there is a description of the dish - fried leeches with goose blood. The recipe is simple, leeches are hooked onto a lean goose and this goose is put in the oven. When heated, the leeches fall off and then simply fry in a pan.
        1. +2
          19 May 2023
          Hello Dima!
          In childhood, they caught leeches and baked them at the stake. Very tasty!
          1. +6
            19 May 2023
            Hello Sasha. Leeches have not been tried. Our favorite taste of childhood is baked potatoes in a fire, sprinkled with coarse salt on a bite of bread and homemade milk from a bottle with a paper stopper. And if a piece of bacon, boiled carrots, boiled eggs, and a young cucumber were also added to this camping childish meal - it was a real feast for the whole world wink They also baked bread over a fire, and brewed "forest tea"
            1. +5
              19 May 2023
              a real feast for the whole world

              Saliva profusely stood out until the moment with boiled carrots laughing feel
              1. +7
                19 May 2023
                My respect, Timur hi
                Everyone carried from home what they could grab. All provisions were combined into a common heap. And everyone took what they wanted. Unless, of course, they went in a herd "on crayfish". From the girls and small fry there was a bucket, salt and nettle extraction, and from the boys a fire and fishingwink Stones were tied to dead crows and drowned near the crustacean burrows. They caught it with their hands, walking along the shore, watching the crawling out crayfish and diving until they were blue in the face.
                And then they cooked kulesh. Yes uh. Today's children cannot understand this, today you cannot force them out of the computer because of the computer. request
                1. +4
                  19 May 2023
                  Greetings Richard.
                  Everyone carried from home what they could grab. All provisions were combined into a common heap. And everyone took what they wanted

                  Yes, everything is familiar. But the finished product was delicious, but not interesting))) Therefore, self-cooking caused more emotions. Up to completely savage options with fried snakes and lizards, in comparison with which, baked pichugs, which were previously mined with a slingshot, are just a trifle
                2. +6
                  19 May 2023
                  Quote: Richard
                  They caught it with their hands, walking along the shore, watching the crawling out crayfish and diving until they were blue in the face.

                  It is good to catch crayfish with your hands at night with a lantern. You walk in shallow water, shine into the water and grab with your hands. And better with pastry tongs. For three, in a couple of hours, they somehow collected two-thirds of the bucket.
                  1. +4
                    19 May 2023
                    Interesting, Vladimir, did not know.
                    The son will come to visit, it will be necessary to go with him - try it. In our local rivers crayfish reappeared after a long absence.
                    Thanks for the tip!
                    1. Fat
                      +8
                      19 May 2023
                      Crayfish can be caught with a fishing rod! you remove all the frills ... and in the evening, when there is no wind on a dead frog - a bucket of crayfish for two shellssmile
                      Success!
                    2. +5
                      19 May 2023
                      Quote: Richard
                      Interesting, Vladimir, did not know.

                      I myself learned about this method only at the age of forty. And ofigel, how easy it turned out. Cancers do not react to the light of a lantern. Live and learn. A more powerful flashlight is desirable, rechargeable.
                  2. VLR
                    +9
                    19 May 2023
                    This is how they catch crabs in the UAE - in one single hotel, where they bring tourists from all the Emirates who want to do this. They sail in the evening, when it is already dark, in shallow water on a boat, jump overboard, in one hand - a powerful lantern connected with a thick cable to the boat, in the other - a trident. They go, dragging the boat behind them and shining a lantern on the bottom, hooking the found crabs with tridents. Then they are cooked for dinner. Emirate of Umm al-Quwain, this "attraction" is called "crab hunting.
                    1. VLR
                      +10
                      19 May 2023
                      Here's what it looks like during the day:


                      And this is the loot:



                      The crew of the boat: the Swedes are sitting, the Russians are standing

                      1. ANB
                        +4
                        19 May 2023
                        . And this is prey

                        Some small ones.
                        I let them go.
                        It is correct to catch crabs on crabs. Moreover, it turned out that they go better with fresh or frozen pink salmon than with rotten ones.
                        6 crabs, 3 hours, 2 bags of stinger. But this is if the season has come.
                      2. VLR
                        +5
                        19 May 2023
                        Well, crab fishing is not "romantic", tourists need action - for 20 minutes on a boat, then it's dark, the water is waist-deep, scattered in a semicircle, like barge haulers we pull the boat behind us, look out for crabs, beat with tridents - excitement. And all around, small fish, pursued by large ones, jump out of the water. Ladies periodically squeal.
                      3. ANB
                        +3
                        19 May 2023
                        . Well, crabs aren't "romantic"

                        But practical :)
                        Gabozero in Karelia. Fork on a stick, 30 minutes at sunset and without a lantern a bucket of crayfish :)
                        As a child, angling was my favorite pastime.
                        But having caught the season on the fishing season with a net, when you pull out a ton of fish a day, I no longer perceive the bait.
                  3. 0
                    21 May 2023
                    In childhood, crayfish were caught with a "gallows" - a thread was tied to a twig, there were several knots on it. Seeing a crayfish, they lowered the twig into the water and twisted the tip of the twig around the cancer, the thread entangled it and pulled it out of the water. Hands in cold water in autumn are more difficult, and sometimes it was deep, and they got it from a meter with a twig, the main thing is to see it.
          2. +5
            19 May 2023
            baked on the fire
            ,,, river shells on a fire with salt norms. Yes
          3. +7
            19 May 2023
            They didn’t eat leeches, it just didn’t occur to them, otherwise they would certainly have tried it.
            They ate river mussels, so, raw, with salt, but not completely, but only a leg. You catch a roach or a bleak on mashed bread, and a larger perch is already coming to her eye. The fish was fried on a fire. They ate reeds and arrowhead roots - delicious, like a cucumber. Sorrel, sorrel, mushrooms, berries - they knew what to eat and what not. They took bread from the house, water from springs, and like this, on pasture, they could disappear for days in the forest ...
            I also remember that burbots were caught by hand near the spring under snags. There was still an old boat flooded. It was cold there - brrr! smile
            Ah, life...
            A river, a pine forest, a fire on the shore, we tell horror stories to each other all night, in the morning you just fall asleep on a hillock in the sun - it's warm there. Then, when the sun rises, you crawl into the shade. You wake up like that by noon, swim and again go to the forest or to the fishing rods - to get food for yourself ... And you don’t need anything but good weather ... smile
            1. +4
              19 May 2023
              But they didn’t eat leeches, it just didn’t occur to them, otherwise they would certainly have tried it.

              good + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
              I subscribe to every word. Yes
              1. +5
                19 May 2023
                He spent his preschool childhood on the Srednyaya River. No need to delude yourself with the name - in fact, a stream one and a half meters wide and knee-deep.
                Fish were caught on a fork, jar or gauze. In the first case - You pick up a stone and poke it with a device from a fork screwed to a stick.
                The second method required a two-liter jar with a plastic lid and a piece of bread. A hole was made in the lid, bread was placed in the jar. More patience, patience, patience! In the third case, a piece of gauze was stretched across the river. Upstream, one of the fishermen in boots was driving the fish.
                As a catch, they mainly came across: bald eagles, loaches, mulga and roach. The fish was mainly used for breakfast by domestic cats, who were not too lazy to watch the process.
                From the forest menu of childhood, “liver” is beyond competition, although they ate, chewed and tasted literally everything - from tar to pine resin.
                Leeches - did not eat !!!!
  6. +5
    19 May 2023
    François de Brouse, head of the medical service of the Napoleonic army

    François Joseph Victor Brousset never headed the medical service of the Napoleonic army. In the Napoleonic army, he was a simple surgeon.
    1. VLR
      +9
      19 May 2023
      Yes, I'm sorry, it was he who "rose" later. This fact has not been verified. But in France he really had many followers, a whole "physiological school".
  7. +9
    19 May 2023
    About Robin Hood is very interesting, I hope the article will be released soon enough.
    1. +9
      19 May 2023
      Agree. The cycle is interesting, fresh)
      1. +11
        19 May 2023
        I agree, very interesting topic!
        All who are driven, restless,
        They run into this free forest,
        Because the owner is here
        Good boy Robin Hood!
  8. +5
    19 May 2023
    For now, let's say that the English ballads associate the death of the famous leader of the robbers of Sherwood Forest precisely with excessive blood loss during the bloodletting procedure.

    For some reason, there are a lot of significant inaccuracies in the article. The death of Robin Hood from bloodletting is mentioned in only one ballad of the XNUMXth century, which is called: "Robin Hoode his Death" (Death of Robin Hood). More of this is not mentioned in any of the nearly fifty ballads about Robin Hood.
    1. VLR
      +10
      19 May 2023
      Well, let's say this then: several versions of a 17th century ballad tell about the death of Robin Hood. How there are different versions of the same Russian epic, recorded in different places.
      1. +5
        19 May 2023
        Dr. Klosse “opened the blood” to the sick Mozart – the patient lost his senses and soon died without regaining consciousness.

        According to his daughter-in-law Sophie Weber, Dr. Klosse applied cold compresses to the sick Mozart, from which, allegedly, Mozart died.
        In fact, Mozart died of hemorrhagic vasculitis. With that level of medicine, he had no chance of recovering.
        1. VLR
          +8
          19 May 2023
          Dr. Nicholas Klosse and Dr. Matthias von Sallaba, who was involved in the treatment of Mozart, used emetics, cold compresses and bloodletting.
          1. +3
            19 May 2023
            In the literature, and medical, not popular, the following probable causes of Mozart's death are found:
            - poisoning with antimony contained in the medicines he takes;
            - trichinosis;
            - rheumatic fever;
            - pneumonia;
            - smallpox;
            - hepatitis
            - streptococcal infection;
            - hemorrhagic vasculitis;
            - head injury resulting from a fall while drunk.
            All these diseases, taking into account the level of medicine of the XVIII century, were incurable. Emetics, cold compresses, and bloodletting simply hastened the exitus lethalis, but were not the direct cause of death.
            1. +7
              19 May 2023
              According to some reports, Mozart himself associated his illness with the poisoning of the notorious "Tofana water", the secret of which was passed on to her daughter by her inventor, the Italian Teofania di Adamo, but then it was lost. It was a colorless and tasteless liquid, after drinking a small amount of which the poisoned people developed symptoms similar to those found in the abdominal type. But this is one of the legends, of course. And again the question arises - who poisoned? Certainly not Salieri, who later began to talk about this in old age, but no one believed him - because by that time Salieri was a senile cleaner than Biden.
              1. +7
                19 May 2023
                And again the question arises - who poisoned?

                Here, as in the case of causes of death, a whole list. Mozart's student Franz Xaver Sussmayr, who allegedly was, concurrently, and the lover of Mozart's wife, Franz Hofdemel, a freemason who took revenge on Mozart for revealing some Masonic secrets in the opera "The Magic Flute", Dr. William Palmer, the famous villain, the famous like the Prince of Poisoners, Dr. Edward William Pritchard, who also made a name for himself in the field of using poisons, for which he was publicly hanged. Well, Salieri.
              2. VLR
                +6
                19 May 2023
                Tofana was invited to Woland's ball. Remember?
                The most charming and respectable lady,” Koroviev whispered, “I recommend to you: Madame Tofana, was extremely popular among young charming Neapolitan women, as well as among the inhabitants of Palermo, and especially among those who were tired of their husbands. After all, it happens, queen, that a husband is tired ... Mrs. Tofana entered into the position of these poor women and sold them some kind of water in bubbles. The wife poured this water into the soup for her husband, who ate it, thanked for the kindness and felt great. True, after a few hours he began to feel very thirsty, then he went to bed, and a day later the beautiful Neapolitan woman, who fed her husband with soup, was free as a spring wind.
          2. +1
            21 May 2023
            Quote: VlR
            used emetics, cold compresses and bloodletting

            Fanatics! Dr. Guillotin has already made his invention.
  9. +5
    19 May 2023
    "And they say they were very effective for a hangover." (C)
    I wonder where they should be placed?
    1. VLR
      +7
      19 May 2023
      I can assume that on the back of the head or behind the ears. By the way, they say that Potemkin, after drinking too much, was always treated with leeches and it helped him a lot.
      1. +5
        19 May 2023
        More like in the temple area. Relieve a headache
        1. +4
          19 May 2023
          I heard that some private narcologists put leeches behind the ears with withdrawal symptoms in the area of ​​the mastoid process, that is, in fact, they put leeches behind the ears.
          1. +10
            19 May 2023
            Come to your senses, people! I appeal to you! What leeches, they knock out a wedge with a wedge. The best cure for a hangover is a glass of vodka.
            1. +5
              19 May 2023
              If a person is "from a hangover", firstly, it's really bad, and, secondly, he desperately needs to quickly come to his senses - otherwise he's full at work ... (and private narcologists usually turn to people with a good job that they don't want to lose ), then he is ready to agree even to leeches.
              1. +10
                19 May 2023
                You can’t argue here. But if it’s a weekend morning, then I will insist on my way of “coming to my senses”.
                1. Fat
                  +8
                  19 May 2023
                  hi Come on! More brandy? Are you bad at drinking? laughing laughing
        2. Fat
          +1
          19 May 2023
          Nope, they placed it behind the ears. Helps relieve pressure headaches...
    2. +7
      19 May 2023
      "And they're also said to be very effective for hangovers."
      I wonder where they should be placed?

      Good afternoon Alexander. The site https://hirudofarm.ru/stati/girudoterapiya-v-narkologii.html writes that
      Apply leeches with a hangover on the mastoid processes (behind the auricle). Up to 1 leeches are taken for 4 session. Set symmetrically. The procedures are carried out after 1 day, but this is individual and depends on how you feel. A hangover is also treated with a prefix of leeches on the zone 6 and 7 of the cervical vertebrae. The zones of the mastoid processes and the cervical vertebrae are the main zones. It must also be borne in mind that alcohol has a negative impact on all the activities of the body. Leech attachments are very effective in the areas of the liver, coccyx, and sacrum. (With)

      For me personally smile - the best remedy for a hangover - "the old fashioned way": a glass of cold beer, or cold brine of cabbage, or cucumber and hot rich broth, which will cover the stomach with a film and prevent further absorption of alcohol decay products. Young people today prefer effervescent hangover tablets and alkaline waters, such as Essentuki No. 4 and No. 17, which start the digestive system and make up for fluid deficiency.
      1. +4
        19 May 2023
        That's right, hash and a glass of vodka.
        Although Bulgakov had his own method
        1. 0
          19 May 2023
          Dish - stunned! But with a hangover, you can’t cook khash yourself. It takes five or six hours to cook it. During this time, you will sober up more than once. It's easier to get drunk again smile
  10. +11
    19 May 2023
    Quote: not the one
    What was interesting from a practical point of view was how Pinocchio could hold his breath for so long under water in order to have conversations with the Turtle Tortilla.


    So he's an android ... just wooden.
    1. Fat
      +7
      19 May 2023
      hi Well, yes! In that Tantooine bar, the mechanisms were not serviced. smile
      1. +5
        19 May 2023
        "If they don't let me into Disneyland, I'll build my own with blackjack and hookers!" (WITH)
        1. Fat
          +2
          20 May 2023
          Now figure out how it sounds on the "binary" from R2D2 winked
    2. +5
      19 May 2023
      What was interesting from a practical point of view was how Pinocchio could hold his breath for so long under water in order to have conversations with the Turtle Tortilla.

      From a purely practical point of view, it is more interesting how he could linger under water for a long time. request
      Although there are speculations winked
      1. +5
        19 May 2023
        An old, bearded joke about Pinocchio: smile
        Pinocchio asks dad Carlo
        - Dad, tell me, why are you an ordinary person, and I'm made of wood?
        - I'm sorry, son, that I hid this from you for a long time, the point is that your mother drank.
        - Saw?
        - Saw.
        - Saw on wood?
        - Saw on black!
      2. +3
        19 May 2023
        Some types of wood, such as backout or "ironwood", have negative buoyancy.
        1. +5
          19 May 2023
          Some types of wood, such as backout or "ironwood", have negative buoyancy.


          As the author of The Golden Key himself points out, the material for the creation of Pinocchio was a pine log.
          Although if we assume that the log was a bakout. then the character would probably be called Don Diego Pinocchio wink
          Greetings Anton hi drinks
          1. +2
            19 May 2023
            You may not be a log
            But you have to be a pinocchio!
            My respect, Ditri!
            Happy Pioneer Day!
            1. +2
              19 May 2023
              Mutually, Anton drinks
              Administration: The text of your comment is too short and, according to the site administration, does not contain any useful information.

              What can you do? You have to do so. Anton does not like long and ornate congratulations smile
              1. +2
                19 May 2023
                Anton does not like long and ornate congratulations
                "I'm an old soldier, Donna Rosa,
                I don't know the words of love, donna Rosa" (C)
                ))))
              2. Fat
                0
                20 May 2023
                Harsh and indecent insinuation! Anton quite allows himself long and uninformative ... ahem. Words
                I like....
          2. Fat
            +2
            19 May 2023
            Don Diego Pinocchio, this is cool! There was definitely evidence...
          3. +2
            19 May 2023
            name was Don Diego Pinocchio
            Because Saint James stumbled on a stone?
            1. Fat
              +2
              19 May 2023
              We'll figure it out, no doubt. Who came, why did they come... laughing laughing
      3. +2
        19 May 2023
        Quote: Richard
        Although there are speculations

        That's what I did as a kid. I took a heavier stone, and sat under water for a minute and a half.
    3. +1
      19 May 2023
      Quote: Illanatol
      So he's an android ... just wooden.


      Wooden transistor WECT (Wood electrochemical transistor) - a wood electrochemical transistor, it exists for itself and works in the laboratories of electronics scientists. It turned out to be interesting with him in general - if at one time people knew a little better chemistry, they could have all-wood transistor radio equipment on wooden ships of the sailing fleet; well, radar, hydrophone and automation - since there are transjuks, then this can also be built.
  11. +6
    19 May 2023
    They are also said to be very effective for hangovers.
    +++++++
    Well, with a hangover, all means are good to get through the checkpoint.

    :))))
    1. Fat
      +2
      19 May 2023
      Well, I like it ... How are you feeling, Holtof?
  12. +5
    19 May 2023
    Quote: Illanatol
    android...

    Upgraded version of Pinocchio with increased top weight
    1. Fat
      +3
      19 May 2023
      Saber - bullshit! Even to kill yourself like this requires a certain art wassat
  13. +1
    20 May 2023
    Quote: Richard
    Although if we assume that the log was a bakout. then the character would probably be called Don Diego Pinocchio



    If only not "Burato".
    Burato is Pinocchio of the postmodern era.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ijZCOWJwQc
  14. +1
    20 May 2023
    Quote: Kolin
    Upgraded version of Pinocchio with increased top weight


    Um. And what connects this anime girl with Pinocchio?
    From "Genshin" or "DOA"?
    I have more associations with "Princess Kaguya", she also appeared from a tree. Although bamboo is not like a tree, but a perennial grass.
  15. +1
    21 May 2023
    Quote: VlR
    I suspect that Putin, too, fears a "rebellion" by the oligarchs who have lost their super-profits. And the rebellion of the liberal ministers of their own government.


    It is unlikely. The reason is different. We do not affect the interests of local businessmen, they also leave loopholes for us to circumvent sanctions. Turkey remains the biggest "loophole", thanks in part to the grain deal, which is usually scolded here for how much in vain.
    And Putin is definitely not afraid of the oligarchs. Rather, on the contrary. If the Kremlin deems it necessary, all these oligarchs will be finished off in a week, at most. Fortunately, there is really no public support and an oligarchy, and Putin has all the power trump cards. He and the people will warmly support him, there is no doubt.
    1. VLR
      +2
      21 May 2023
      From love to hate ...
      In Ukraine, where the people still remembered a good life in the USSR, a few years after the Euromaidan, people's consciousness was completely reformatted. But there is an even stronger example.
      Remember the leaders of the French Revolution - everyone admired them and bowed before them. Murat asked to change his last name to Marat. The future Swedish king Bernadotte got the "Death to Kings" tattoo, which was then very
      shy. But, as soon as Robespierre and his associates were overthrown and executed, in just a few days all love suddenly disappeared somewhere. Yesterday's "fiery sans-culottes and republicans" denounced "fanatics and murderers" in unison.
  16. +1
    21 May 2023
    In general, in the case of leeches, we see confirmation of the thesis that only a dose makes any medicine and any method of therapy either a medicine or a poison.


    And not only this. It is unlikely that in modern conditions "wild" leeches are used for herudotherapy. Rather, they are bred artificially, under controlled conditions. Since the "wild" can carry pathogens and parasites, which is very unpleasant.
  17. 0
    21 May 2023
    Quote: VlR
    From love to hate ...
    In Ukraine, where the people still remembered a good life in the USSR, a few years after the Euromaidan, people's consciousness was completely reformatted. But there is an even stronger example.
    Remember the leaders of the French Revolution - everyone admired them and bowed before them. Murat asked to change his last name to Marat. The future Swedish king Bernadotte got the Death to Kings tattoo, which he was very shy about later. But, as soon as Robespierre and his associates were overthrown and executed, in just a few days all love suddenly disappeared somewhere. Yesterday's "fiery sans-culottes and republicans" denounced "fanatics and murderers" in chorus.


    And this is not love, but a much more pragmatic and therefore stable feeling and attitude. Our people remember too well what kind of life the reformers arranged for them, these "Foxes of Alice and Cats of Basilio" in the 90s.
    Repetitions - do not want categorically. And they no longer believe that the next generation of liberals in "500 days" will arrange "a European life with lace panties." This option worked itself out.

    And in Ukraine, such illusions are still alive. However, consciousness was formatted there more diligently, Western funds, using the achievements of PR and sociotronics, succeeded more. And in the 90s, the people there lived more satisfyingly, so it was easier to fool them.

    Come on, run into the French revolutionaries. They branded them, as you yourself noticed, their own comrades-in-arms. Banal anti-PR in the struggle for power, nothing more. The "Robespierres" shed a lot of blood, I do not argue, but History nevertheless gave them a positive assessment of their deeds. No matter how they tried to re-implant the monarchy in France, it didn’t take root, in the end. The legacy of the Republicans remained incorruptible, France is still a republic, not a kingdom. The heirs of those who stormed the Bastille govern the state, and the Marseillaise is the national anthem. So the people's love for the ideals of that Revolution has not gone away and calls for repentance "for the innocently murdered King Louis" are not heard in the French parliament ...
  18. +1
    23 May 2023
    The author is well done. But the topic is not fully disclosed. Along with leeches, there is Hijama. Both methods have a positive effect in two directions, 1. Vascular system - both methods release stagnant blood from the capillaries and improve blood circulation. 2. The nervous system of the body sends signals about severe injuries, thereby increasing the production of hormones that contribute to cell renewal, increased immunity and rapid healing of wounds.
    Therefore, Hippocratic bloodletting is more like Hijama, opening of the veins - the followers have already gone too far.
    1. VLR
      +1
      23 May 2023
      About Hijam a little was told in the previous article.
  19. 0
    October 26 2023
    I myself, and for quite a long time, have been using the hirudotherapy method. The article is verbose, but generally true. The thing is. that I have due to the characteristics of my body. increased (hereditary) blood clotting, which is confirmed by laboratory tests. I am prescribed blood thinners. As an addition and alternative - the use of medicinal leeches. I recommend it to those who are predisposed to the formation of blood clots. However, I want to warn against amateur activities. First: the best option. when the procedure is prescribed and performed by a doctor. The number of leeches depends on body weight. On average, I (125kg) get 3-4 leeches in one go. This is enough for a week or two, provided that you are constantly taking blood thinning medications. Besides.. God forbid using non-medical leeches! They can and often are carriers of all sorts of rubbish. There are examples of this. So only a pharmacy or a special farm for breeding medicinal leeches. You can try it yourself. but it's better with help. The safest place for this is the cobbler. In other places only a doctor! I wish everyone good health!

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