One of the most important issues of modern Russia is the problem of the unity of our state, support by external and internal enemies of separatism (separate from the Latin. Separatus, the desire to separate, separate; the movement to separate part of the state and create a new state education), ethnic separatism. External and internal enemies of the Russian civilization want to continue the process of the collapse of the country (the first stage - the collapse of the USSR), to divide the territory, to destroy our armed forces, to cause chaos and civil war. This should solve the “Russian question” once and for all, destroy the Russian statehood and destroy the Russian people.
Among the first to raise the question of the dismemberment of Russia were those who are still considered "knights without fear and reproach," or, according to Herzen, "knights of freedom" —that. "Decembrists." Unfortunately, the myth that the noble nobles-conspirators who staged a military insurgency in 14 (26) of December 1825 of the year, tried to establish a more progressive, democratic social and political order in the country, without autocracy and serfdom, still prevails in public opinion in Russia. Interestingly, in Western Europe itself during this period there were no “democracies”, monarchies or republics, where the ideals of freedom, equality and fraternity, where a just constitution reigned, won. In Austria and Prussia there were absolute monarchies, similar to the Russian autocracy. Similar regimes were in other German states-principalities. In France, the victory of the Republicans turned into a terrible, mass terror, famine, economic ruin, civil war, and then led to a fierce war with all neighbors and the supremacy of the Directorate regime that was steeped in corruption, rampant oligarchy, the power of money - the "new French". As a result, most of the French gladly accepted the seizure of power by Napoleon Bonaparte, who quickly restored order in the country. A few years later, Napoleon actually restored the monarchical order, declaring himself emperor. And after the defeat of Napoleon, the monarchy was restored in France. The First Republic in France is gone, like a bloody nightmare. History France gave an excellent example of the fact that the seizure of power by a handful of “professional revolutionaries” and fanatics can lead to a very big blood and a catastrophic fall in the people's living standards.
Did the "noble" nobles know little of the story that passed almost before their eyes and wanted a repetition of the French nightmare in Russia? To the illusions about the nobility of the nobles-conspirators dispelled enough to look at their program documents. When we first met these documents, we would be surprised to find that there was no unity in their ranks, their secret societies were more like discussion clubs of sophisticated intellectuals who passionately discussed pressing political issues. In this regard, they are similar to modern Russian politicians, oppositionists who cannot find a common point of view on almost any important issue. The wishes of the nobles-conspirators were often the opposite. This is not surprising, since both monarchists (autocrats and supporters of the constitution), republicans, liberals, and nationalists joined the ranks.
The head of the Southern Society of the Decembrists, Colonel and Freemason Pavel Pestel wrote one of the program documents - “Russian Truth”. The full title of the document is Russian Truth or the Stately Conservation Letter of the great Russian people, serving as a covenant for the improvement of Russia and containing the correct mandate for both the people and for the provisional sovereign rule. ” Pestel expressed the interests of the most radical part of the conspirators and proposed to establish a republic in Russia. In his understanding, Russia should have been a united and indivisible state. But he proposed to divide it into 10 areas consisting of 5 provinces-provinces; I wanted to move the capital to Nizhny Novgorod (renamed Vladimir); transfer the highest legislative power to the unicameral Popular Assembly, consisting of 500 members; to transfer the executive power to the State Duma as part of the 5 man, who was elected for 5 years in the National Assembly; the supreme control authority was transferred to the Supreme Council from 120 people, its members were elected for life; Regional authorities were supposed to be transferred to regional, district, district and volost local assemblies, and local governments were to be exercised by local governments.
Pestel believed that it was necessary to abolish serfdom completely, transferring half of the arable land fund to the peasants, the other half was supposed to be left to the landlords, which should have contributed to the country's bourgeois development. Landowners had to lease land to farmers - "capitalists of the agricultural class", which should have led to the organization in the country of large commodity farms with a broad attraction of hired labor. “Russkaya Pravda” abolished not only the estates, but also the national borders - all the tribes and ethnic groups living in the Russian state were to merge into a single Russian people. As a result, Pestel actually wanted to create a “melting pot” in Russia, following the example of the American one. To speed up this process, a de facto national segregation was proposed with the division of the population into three categories - 1) the Slavic tribe, the indigenous Russian people (all Slavs were part of it); 2) tribes affiliated to Russia; 3) are foreigners (nationals and non-nationals), and tough measures against a number of nationalities. Thus, the peoples of Central Asia were supposed to be transformed into the Aral Cossacks; Gypsies forced to accept Orthodoxy or evicted from Russia; violent Caucasian tribes split into small parties and resettle in the country; Jewry had to change his attitude towards Russia and accept some kind of agreement or were subject to concentration in the ghetto, followed by eviction to Asia.
In general, it should be said that these measures split the empire along a number of “fronts” and guaranteedly led to civil war. In particular, the mechanism of the great redistribution of land was not described in detail, which led to a conflict between the many millions of peasants and the landowners of the time. Segregation on a national basis led to conflict between the peoples of the empire. And this is all in the conditions of a radical break of the state structure, the transfer of the capital. Obviously, this “perestroika” led to the death of historical Russia.
Similar provisions we find in the draft program document of the Northern Society of the Decembrists - "The Constitution" by Nikita Muravyov. He proposed to establish a constitutional monarchy, with the possibility of introducing a republic, if the imperial family does not adopt the Constitution. In the sphere of the device of the state, Muravyov proposed to divide Russia into 13 powers and 2 regions, creating a federation of them. It was proposed to create the Bothnian (Finnish) capital with Helsingfors (Helsinki), Volkhov — Petersburg, Baltic — Riga, West — Vilna, Dnieper — Smolensk, Black Sea — Kiev, Ukrainian — Kharkov, Caucasus — Tiflis, Zavolzhskaya — Yaroslavl, Kamskaya — Kazan, Grass - Saratov, Tobolsk - Tobolsk, Lena Powers - Irkutsk; The Moscow region with its capital in Moscow and the Don region is Cherkassk. Powers received the right of separation. The capital of the federation, as well as in the Pestel program, was proposed to be moved to Nizhny Novgorod. It is not by chance that the conspirators entered into clear lines of death sentences not only the “intent on the regicide”, but also the intent on the “rejection of regions from the Empire”. As a result, we see that the separatists of 1990-2000-. very often, they simply repeat the project of Nikita Muravyov, who planned to divide Russia into “powers” on 13. For example, announced the creation of the Petersburg (Ingermanland), Kazan and Siberian republics.
Muravyov proposed to establish a bicameral "People's Chamber" ("The Supreme Duma" - the upper chamber and the "House of Representatives of the People" - the lower chamber), where the deputies were elected for 6 years on the basis of a large property qualification. This naturally led to the creation in the country of a regime of power by the rich — large landowners and representatives of the bourgeoisie. While maintaining the regime of constitutional monarchy, the emperor received executive and supreme military power. Muravyov was a supporter of preserving the land holdings of landowners, the liberated peasants received only two acres of land, that is, not land allotment, which made them independent, but only a personal plot. This site, with a low level of agricultural technologies, could not feed a large peasant family. For comparison, the emperor Pavel I planned to give state peasants land at the 15 standard tithe per yard.
It is clear that such radical, controversial programs with a full guarantee led the empire to very disastrous consequences. Another example of the "creativity" of noble conspirators is the activity of Count Dmitriev-Mamonov. One of the richest men of his time, with his own money, formed a Cossack regiment, whose chief was then appointed - “Moscow Cossack” (“Mamonovtsy”), Hero of the Patriotic War 1812 of the year, awarded with a golden saber for bravery. He was a Freemason, a poet and a publicist, the founder of the pre-Decembrist secret organization "Order of Russian Knights". After retirement, he closed in on himself, and in 1817 — 1823. lived in his estate near Moscow Dubrovitsy, occasionally visiting Moscow and meeting members of secret societies. Mamonov actually became the first individual separatist - he built a castle on his estate, bought guns, placed serfs under his gun, refused to comply with the requirements of the authorities. It is clear that he was suspected of preparing a rebellion, and shortly before the Decembrist uprising, the count was forcefully brought to Moscow and put under house arrest. Mamonov refused to swear allegiance to the new emperor and recognize the legitimacy of his power; he even began to challenge the rights of the Romanov dynasty to the throne. As a result, the count was declared insane and custody was established over him.
In the papers of Count Dmitriev-Mamonov, investigators will find very interesting documents. In particular, the graph offered to destroy the name of Poland and the Kingdom of Poland in circulation, to convert the Polish territories into Russian provinces. Moreover, it was supposed to "withdraw" the Polish territories from Austria and Poland, also turning them into Russian provinces. The count offered to add Hungary, Serbia and all Slavic countries to Russia. And also to expel the Ottomans from Europe and establish a Russian protectorate over the restored Greek republics. All these proposals led to a heavy and bloody war with numerous opponents on a huge front from the Baltic Sea (Prussia) to the Caucasus (Ottoman Empire). It is clear that not only Poles, Turks, Austrians, Prussians, but also England and France, who would never agree that Russia will annex all Slavic peoples, would establish control over the Balkan peninsula, Greece, would have come out as opponents of Russia. In fact, Mamonov offered to start a war with the whole of Europe.
The most interesting and important is the third programmatic document of the conspirators - the manifesto of Prince Sergei Trubetskoy, who was chosen as a dictator before the uprising. It was this document that was to be signed by the surrendered emperor or Russian senators. This document was created literally on the eve of the uprising, without lengthy preliminary preparation and comprehensive discussion. And it was he who would determine the fate of Russia in the coming years if the rebellion succeeded, until the Constituent Assembly was convened. Steingel, Bestuzhev (they wrote the introduction destroyed after the failure of the insurgency), Trubetskoy and Ryleev (the manifesto itself) participated in the creation of the document. The manifesto eliminated the "former government" and replaced it with a temporary one, until the Constituent Assembly elections. Then came the standard set of democratic values: the elimination of censorship, serfdom, recruitment and military settlements, freedom of religion, equality of all before the law, publicity of the courts and the introduction of a jury trial, reduction of military service for privates up to 15 years. It was proposed to abolish all taxes and duties, to destroy the state’s monopoly on salt, on the sale of wine, etc. Obviously, this measure deprived the state of a significant portion of the proceeds to the treasury, making it simply incapable. The Decembrists also offered to declare the right of every citizen to "do what he wants." And this is the simultaneous introduction of regional, district, county and parish local assemblies and boards. It is clear that this would lead to anarchy. What will the millions of peasants liberated almost without land, without disciplining, sacred royal power? A similar example, we know from the history of 1917 of the year in Russia, when almost all the counties after the fall of royal power, were covered by agrarian unrest, and this is before the start of the Civil War! This was after the serf system had already been destroyed in 1861, and the peasants had more substantial allotments than the conspirators wanted to allocate.
Excellent characterizes the plans of "Decembrists" and such a point of the manifesto, as the elimination of the standing army. And this is in the conditions when Russia for centuries waged a war with its neighbors for a place under the sun and a recent battle with practically the whole of Europe, united under Napoleon’s banner. Immediately I recall the efforts of the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Council in 1917 on the "democratization" of the army, which actually destroyed it. In fact, Trubetskoy's "manifesto" nullified Russian statehood. Considering the connection of the “Decembrists” with the Masonic circles, which were supervised from Europe, it is clear that in the West there were action plans in case the distemper began in Russia. Following the example of the Time of Troubles at the beginning of the 17 century and the Civil War of 1917-1920, we know that any serious weakening of Russia leads to intervention.
And such people wanted to seize power in Russia. The French Revolution and its consequences could become “flowers” if Emperor Nikolai Pavlovich were from another test and the Decembrists could take power in Russia. Unfortunately, in 1917, the situation was different, and the Februarylists seized power. The result was very sad - a bloody civil war, chaos and blood, a ruined economy, a lost war, the loss of territories, millions of dead and fled from the country, crippled destinies of tens of millions of people. Russian civilization and statehood were literally saved by a miracle - “Stalinism”.
"Decembrists" wanted to seize power, having a real "mess" of the most different ideas in their heads. There was simply no clear and coordinated follow-up program. In this regard, the nobles-conspirators are very similar to the current "swamp" opposition. There is no one among them — nationalists, radical liberals, simply liberal democrats, radical communists, social democrats, unprincipled ones, etc. The coming of these companies to power in Russia will be more terrible than a nuclear explosion.
Nikita Muravyov and his associates planned to establish a limited monarchy in Russia. Another conspirator leader, Pavel Pestel, stood firmly behind the republic. Moreover, he spoke not only for the destruction of the institution of autocracy itself, but also for the total extermination of the entire imperial family, all members of the Romanov dynasty without exception. It is not difficult to imagine what the authority of the Supreme Government would have spilled (for the transitional period in 10-15 years it was supposed to establish a dictator in fact), having a similar atrocity at the base. Pestel believed that at that time “merciless severity” was necessary against all troublemakers.
The only thing that united the nobles-conspirators, this desire to overthrow the existing power. If they had won, the struggle for power between the radicals and the moderates would almost start right away - one question about the complete annihilation of the royal family, splitting the “Decembrists” and leading to a struggle between them. This led to a civil war, a catastrophe that occurred almost a hundred years earlier than in reality. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the distemper was supported from abroad. No wonder Tsar Nikolai Pavlovich will write to brother Konstantin: “The testimony that Pestel just gave me is so important that I consider it a duty to notify you about them without delay. You will clearly see from them that the matter is becoming more and more serious due to its ramifications abroad, and especially because everything that is happening here seems to be only a consequence or rather the fruits of foreign influences ... ”
We all need to remember that the Decembrist uprising is the first major attempt to crush the Russian empire from the inside, dismember it, and not the insurrection of the “heroes” dreaming of the ideal structure of Russia.