Military Review

Decembrists against Russian statehood

35
Decembrists against Russian statehood

One of the most important issues of modern Russia is the problem of the unity of our state, support by external and internal enemies of separatism (separate from the Latin. Separatus, the desire to separate, separate; the movement to separate part of the state and create a new state education), ethnic separatism. External and internal enemies of the Russian civilization want to continue the process of the collapse of the country (the first stage - the collapse of the USSR), to divide the territory, to destroy our armed forces, to cause chaos and civil war. This should solve the “Russian question” once and for all, destroy the Russian statehood and destroy the Russian people.

Among the first to raise the question of the dismemberment of Russia were those who are still considered "knights without fear and reproach," or, according to Herzen, "knights of freedom" —that. "Decembrists." Unfortunately, the myth that the noble nobles-conspirators who staged a military insurgency in 14 (26) of December 1825 of the year, tried to establish a more progressive, democratic social and political order in the country, without autocracy and serfdom, still prevails in public opinion in Russia. Interestingly, in Western Europe itself during this period there were no “democracies”, monarchies or republics, where the ideals of freedom, equality and fraternity, where a just constitution reigned, won. In Austria and Prussia there were absolute monarchies, similar to the Russian autocracy. Similar regimes were in other German states-principalities. In France, the victory of the Republicans turned into a terrible, mass terror, famine, economic ruin, civil war, and then led to a fierce war with all neighbors and the supremacy of the Directorate regime that was steeped in corruption, rampant oligarchy, the power of money - the "new French". As a result, most of the French gladly accepted the seizure of power by Napoleon Bonaparte, who quickly restored order in the country. A few years later, Napoleon actually restored the monarchical order, declaring himself emperor. And after the defeat of Napoleon, the monarchy was restored in France. The First Republic in France is gone, like a bloody nightmare. History France gave an excellent example of the fact that the seizure of power by a handful of “professional revolutionaries” and fanatics can lead to a very big blood and a catastrophic fall in the people's living standards.

Did the "noble" nobles know little of the story that passed almost before their eyes and wanted a repetition of the French nightmare in Russia? To the illusions about the nobility of the nobles-conspirators dispelled enough to look at their program documents. When we first met these documents, we would be surprised to find that there was no unity in their ranks, their secret societies were more like discussion clubs of sophisticated intellectuals who passionately discussed pressing political issues. In this regard, they are similar to modern Russian politicians, oppositionists who cannot find a common point of view on almost any important issue. The wishes of the nobles-conspirators were often the opposite. This is not surprising, since both monarchists (autocrats and supporters of the constitution), republicans, liberals, and nationalists joined the ranks.

The head of the Southern Society of the Decembrists, Colonel and Freemason Pavel Pestel wrote one of the program documents - “Russian Truth”. The full title of the document is Russian Truth or the Stately Conservation Letter of the great Russian people, serving as a covenant for the improvement of Russia and containing the correct mandate for both the people and for the provisional sovereign rule. ” Pestel expressed the interests of the most radical part of the conspirators and proposed to establish a republic in Russia. In his understanding, Russia should have been a united and indivisible state. But he proposed to divide it into 10 areas consisting of 5 provinces-provinces; I wanted to move the capital to Nizhny Novgorod (renamed Vladimir); transfer the highest legislative power to the unicameral Popular Assembly, consisting of 500 members; to transfer the executive power to the State Duma as part of the 5 man, who was elected for 5 years in the National Assembly; the supreme control authority was transferred to the Supreme Council from 120 people, its members were elected for life; Regional authorities were supposed to be transferred to regional, district, district and volost local assemblies, and local governments were to be exercised by local governments.

Pestel believed that it was necessary to abolish serfdom completely, transferring half of the arable land fund to the peasants, the other half was supposed to be left to the landlords, which should have contributed to the country's bourgeois development. Landowners had to lease land to farmers - "capitalists of the agricultural class", which should have led to the organization in the country of large commodity farms with a broad attraction of hired labor. “Russkaya Pravda” abolished not only the estates, but also the national borders - all the tribes and ethnic groups living in the Russian state were to merge into a single Russian people. As a result, Pestel actually wanted to create a “melting pot” in Russia, following the example of the American one. To speed up this process, a de facto national segregation was proposed with the division of the population into three categories - 1) the Slavic tribe, the indigenous Russian people (all Slavs were part of it); 2) tribes affiliated to Russia; 3) are foreigners (nationals and non-nationals), and tough measures against a number of nationalities. Thus, the peoples of Central Asia were supposed to be transformed into the Aral Cossacks; Gypsies forced to accept Orthodoxy or evicted from Russia; violent Caucasian tribes split into small parties and resettle in the country; Jewry had to change his attitude towards Russia and accept some kind of agreement or were subject to concentration in the ghetto, followed by eviction to Asia.

In general, it should be said that these measures split the empire along a number of “fronts” and guaranteedly led to civil war. In particular, the mechanism of the great redistribution of land was not described in detail, which led to a conflict between the many millions of peasants and the landowners of the time. Segregation on a national basis led to conflict between the peoples of the empire. And this is all in the conditions of a radical break of the state structure, the transfer of the capital. Obviously, this “perestroika” led to the death of historical Russia.

Similar provisions we find in the draft program document of the Northern Society of the Decembrists - "The Constitution" by Nikita Muravyov. He proposed to establish a constitutional monarchy, with the possibility of introducing a republic, if the imperial family does not adopt the Constitution. In the sphere of the device of the state, Muravyov proposed to divide Russia into 13 powers and 2 regions, creating a federation of them. It was proposed to create the Bothnian (Finnish) capital with Helsingfors (Helsinki), Volkhov — Petersburg, Baltic — Riga, West — Vilna, Dnieper — Smolensk, Black Sea — Kiev, Ukrainian — Kharkov, Caucasus — Tiflis, Zavolzhskaya — Yaroslavl, Kamskaya — Kazan, Grass - Saratov, Tobolsk - Tobolsk, Lena Powers - Irkutsk; The Moscow region with its capital in Moscow and the Don region is Cherkassk. Powers received the right of separation. The capital of the federation, as well as in the Pestel program, was proposed to be moved to Nizhny Novgorod. It is not by chance that the conspirators entered into clear lines of death sentences not only the “intent on the regicide”, but also the intent on the “rejection of regions from the Empire”. As a result, we see that the separatists of 1990-2000-. very often, they simply repeat the project of Nikita Muravyov, who planned to divide Russia into “powers” ​​on 13. For example, announced the creation of the Petersburg (Ingermanland), Kazan and Siberian republics.

Muravyov proposed to establish a bicameral "People's Chamber" ("The Supreme Duma" - the upper chamber and the "House of Representatives of the People" - the lower chamber), where the deputies were elected for 6 years on the basis of a large property qualification. This naturally led to the creation in the country of a regime of power by the rich — large landowners and representatives of the bourgeoisie. While maintaining the regime of constitutional monarchy, the emperor received executive and supreme military power. Muravyov was a supporter of preserving the land holdings of landowners, the liberated peasants received only two acres of land, that is, not land allotment, which made them independent, but only a personal plot. This site, with a low level of agricultural technologies, could not feed a large peasant family. For comparison, the emperor Pavel I planned to give state peasants land at the 15 standard tithe per yard.

It is clear that such radical, controversial programs with a full guarantee led the empire to very disastrous consequences. Another example of the "creativity" of noble conspirators is the activity of Count Dmitriev-Mamonov. One of the richest men of his time, with his own money, formed a Cossack regiment, whose chief was then appointed - “Moscow Cossack” (“Mamonovtsy”), Hero of the Patriotic War 1812 of the year, awarded with a golden saber for bravery. He was a Freemason, a poet and a publicist, the founder of the pre-Decembrist secret organization "Order of Russian Knights". After retirement, he closed in on himself, and in 1817 — 1823. lived in his estate near Moscow Dubrovitsy, occasionally visiting Moscow and meeting members of secret societies. Mamonov actually became the first individual separatist - he built a castle on his estate, bought guns, placed serfs under his gun, refused to comply with the requirements of the authorities. It is clear that he was suspected of preparing a rebellion, and shortly before the Decembrist uprising, the count was forcefully brought to Moscow and put under house arrest. Mamonov refused to swear allegiance to the new emperor and recognize the legitimacy of his power; he even began to challenge the rights of the Romanov dynasty to the throne. As a result, the count was declared insane and custody was established over him.

In the papers of Count Dmitriev-Mamonov, investigators will find very interesting documents. In particular, the graph offered to destroy the name of Poland and the Kingdom of Poland in circulation, to convert the Polish territories into Russian provinces. Moreover, it was supposed to "withdraw" the Polish territories from Austria and Poland, also turning them into Russian provinces. The count offered to add Hungary, Serbia and all Slavic countries to Russia. And also to expel the Ottomans from Europe and establish a Russian protectorate over the restored Greek republics. All these proposals led to a heavy and bloody war with numerous opponents on a huge front from the Baltic Sea (Prussia) to the Caucasus (Ottoman Empire). It is clear that not only Poles, Turks, Austrians, Prussians, but also England and France, who would never agree that Russia will annex all Slavic peoples, would establish control over the Balkan peninsula, Greece, would have come out as opponents of Russia. In fact, Mamonov offered to start a war with the whole of Europe.

The most interesting and important is the third programmatic document of the conspirators - the manifesto of Prince Sergei Trubetskoy, who was chosen as a dictator before the uprising. It was this document that was to be signed by the surrendered emperor or Russian senators. This document was created literally on the eve of the uprising, without lengthy preliminary preparation and comprehensive discussion. And it was he who would determine the fate of Russia in the coming years if the rebellion succeeded, until the Constituent Assembly was convened. Steingel, Bestuzhev (they wrote the introduction destroyed after the failure of the insurgency), Trubetskoy and Ryleev (the manifesto itself) participated in the creation of the document. The manifesto eliminated the "former government" and replaced it with a temporary one, until the Constituent Assembly elections. Then came the standard set of democratic values: the elimination of censorship, serfdom, recruitment and military settlements, freedom of religion, equality of all before the law, publicity of the courts and the introduction of a jury trial, reduction of military service for privates up to 15 years. It was proposed to abolish all taxes and duties, to destroy the state’s monopoly on salt, on the sale of wine, etc. Obviously, this measure deprived the state of a significant portion of the proceeds to the treasury, making it simply incapable. The Decembrists also offered to declare the right of every citizen to "do what he wants." And this is the simultaneous introduction of regional, district, county and parish local assemblies and boards. It is clear that this would lead to anarchy. What will the millions of peasants liberated almost without land, without disciplining, sacred royal power? A similar example, we know from the history of 1917 of the year in Russia, when almost all the counties after the fall of royal power, were covered by agrarian unrest, and this is before the start of the Civil War! This was after the serf system had already been destroyed in 1861, and the peasants had more substantial allotments than the conspirators wanted to allocate.

Excellent characterizes the plans of "Decembrists" and such a point of the manifesto, as the elimination of the standing army. And this is in the conditions when Russia for centuries waged a war with its neighbors for a place under the sun and a recent battle with practically the whole of Europe, united under Napoleon’s banner. Immediately I recall the efforts of the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Council in 1917 on the "democratization" of the army, which actually destroyed it. In fact, Trubetskoy's "manifesto" nullified Russian statehood. Considering the connection of the “Decembrists” with the Masonic circles, which were supervised from Europe, it is clear that in the West there were action plans in case the distemper began in Russia. Following the example of the Time of Troubles at the beginning of the 17 century and the Civil War of 1917-1920, we know that any serious weakening of Russia leads to intervention.

And such people wanted to seize power in Russia. The French Revolution and its consequences could become “flowers” ​​if Emperor Nikolai Pavlovich were from another test and the Decembrists could take power in Russia. Unfortunately, in 1917, the situation was different, and the Februarylists seized power. The result was very sad - a bloody civil war, chaos and blood, a ruined economy, a lost war, the loss of territories, millions of dead and fled from the country, crippled destinies of tens of millions of people. Russian civilization and statehood were literally saved by a miracle - “Stalinism”.

"Decembrists" wanted to seize power, having a real "mess" of the most different ideas in their heads. There was simply no clear and coordinated follow-up program. In this regard, the nobles-conspirators are very similar to the current "swamp" opposition. There is no one among them — nationalists, radical liberals, simply liberal democrats, radical communists, social democrats, unprincipled ones, etc. The coming of these companies to power in Russia will be more terrible than a nuclear explosion.

Nikita Muravyov and his associates planned to establish a limited monarchy in Russia. Another conspirator leader, Pavel Pestel, stood firmly behind the republic. Moreover, he spoke not only for the destruction of the institution of autocracy itself, but also for the total extermination of the entire imperial family, all members of the Romanov dynasty without exception. It is not difficult to imagine what the authority of the Supreme Government would have spilled (for the transitional period in 10-15 years it was supposed to establish a dictator in fact), having a similar atrocity at the base. Pestel believed that at that time “merciless severity” was necessary against all troublemakers.

The only thing that united the nobles-conspirators, this desire to overthrow the existing power. If they had won, the struggle for power between the radicals and the moderates would almost start right away - one question about the complete annihilation of the royal family, splitting the “Decembrists” and leading to a struggle between them. This led to a civil war, a catastrophe that occurred almost a hundred years earlier than in reality. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the distemper was supported from abroad. No wonder Tsar Nikolai Pavlovich will write to brother Konstantin: “The testimony that Pestel just gave me is so important that I consider it a duty to notify you about them without delay. You will clearly see from them that the matter is becoming more and more serious due to its ramifications abroad, and especially because everything that is happening here seems to be only a consequence or rather the fruits of foreign influences ... ”

We all need to remember that the Decembrist uprising is the first major attempt to crush the Russian empire from the inside, dismember it, and not the insurrection of the “heroes” dreaming of the ideal structure of Russia.
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  1. baltika-18
    baltika-18 3 December 2012 09: 22
    +1
    The article is controversial. I liked about Count Dmitriev-Mamonov. To declare war on the whole world, originally.
    1. cherkas.oe
      cherkas.oe 3 December 2012 21: 47
      -1
      Quote: baltika-18
      . To declare war on the whole world, original.

      Remember the "Zhirik" who wanted to wash his boots in the Indian Ocean. The same crap, only two hundred years later.
  2. Was mammoth
    Was mammoth 3 December 2012 09: 29
    -10
    "We all need to remember that the uprising of the Decembrists is the first major attempt to crush the Russian Empire from within, to dismember it into parts, and not a rebellion of" heroes "dreaming of an ideal structure for Russia."

    I do not agree. You refuse the Decembrists nobility and heroism. At the same time and Pushkin.

    . "Among the Russian people there will always be a dozen people who are so devoted to their ideas and so passionately feel the misfortune of their homeland that it is not sacrifice for them to die for their cause. Such people cannot be intimidated by anything." From a speech at the trial of Alexander Ulyanov.

    They did not blow up innocent people like today's terrorists. And speaking, they knew what awaited them. Article minus.
    1. kostello2004
      kostello2004 3 December 2012 18: 05
      -6
      the Decembrists of our time is Navalny, Udaltsov, they also want progress in our society, but they don’t hang them
    2. cherkas.oe
      cherkas.oe 3 December 2012 21: 55
      -1
      Quote: There was a mammoth
      They did not blow up innocent people like today's terrorists. And speaking, they knew what awaited them. Article minus

      Goonies. After the West did not succeed in destroying Russia with the nobles and intellectuals "Decembrists", the Herzen, populists, commoners, in general "bombers" went into action, so the "Decembrists" were a trial balloon. (Read history carefully the mammoth, otherwise it will remain from you one shit.)
      1. Was mammoth
        Was mammoth 4 December 2012 23: 06
        0
        Quote: cherkas.oe
        bonehead

        Are you about yourself? Where brought up in the gateway?
  3. Prometey
    Prometey 3 December 2012 09: 35
    -8
    Article - fortune telling on coffee grounds. At least, the author honestly does not hide his negative attitude towards all anti-government indignations.
    However, it is not far-sighted to deny the progressive impact of revolutionary movements on the course of development of society.
    The Decembrists spoke out, not against the state, but against the ruling regime, and more specifically, the despised by them Alexander I - the English henchman and father-killer. And what else was the reaction of the Decembrists to almost 100% of war veterans with Napoleonic France, who saw how a royal court drowned in luxury humiliates Russian soldiers in the military settlements - the recent liberators of the Fatherland and Europe?
    About France also "pleased" - it turns out before the revolution the French lived like cheeses in butter and the people rose up against the government raging with fat. Alexander, don't go overboard. The French Revolution cleared France of that stench and crap that parasitized the people (not from scratch de Sade did not scoop materials for his works). Blood and the struggle for power between the victors, unfortunately, are the costs of revolutions, so far not a single country has left it.
    1. Ross
      Ross 3 December 2012 19: 31
      +4
      Prometey,
      The revolution in France was organized and led by Freemasons. There were many Masons among the Decembrists.
      Herzen, a personal friend of Rothschild, published his subversive press in Britain, with the money of a "friend".
    2. A. Yaga
      A. Yaga 4 December 2012 22: 38
      +1
      However, it is not far-sighted to deny the progressive impact of revolutionary movements on the course of development of society.

      Perhaps so, but I personally do not know such cases. But the word "revolution" speaks for itself - it is a return to the old, degradation, etc. Revolution - re (return) + evolution. So there is no progress in the revolution. But after that there is a convulsive tension - to catch up and overtake. In this race for survival, some irreparable losses occur, for example, faith, morality, the collapse of the family unit of society, etc.
  4. wulf66
    wulf66 3 December 2012 10: 17
    +9
    However, the Bolsheviks were dusting the brains of the people deeply ... The so-called Decembrists are, first of all, traitors who violated the oath given to the Sovereign and the Fatherland. And all this romanticism is tinsel, which crumbles like gilding. But the origins of the French revolution must be understood, among other things, this revolution led to the defeat of France in the war with England ... so here the grandmother in two spoke about the origins of this coup. Personally, in the December events, I am sorry only for ordinary soldiers, whom the negligent officers, who were confused in their own fantasies, led to disgrace. The development of people's lives should be EVOLUTIONARY, without bloody twists and turns of the government, sometimes called revolutions, which bring nothing but blood, and ALWAYS come to power completely not those who participate in this bacchanalia.
    1. FREGATENKAPITAN
      FREGATENKAPITAN 3 December 2012 10: 22
      -1
      Liberalists clouding our brains ............. Decembrists pursued the only and main goal -constitution for Russia - everything else is nonsense and demagoguery-article minus!
      1. kostello2004
        kostello2004 3 December 2012 18: 07
        -3
        I put + kollega
    2. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 3 December 2012 11: 07
      0
      “All my friends were in a conspiracy, and I could not help but be with them. Only one absence saved me. ” A.S. Pushkin.
      Of course, the Bolsheviks knocked out the Decembrists in rebellion. You almost convinced me
    3. Zynaps
      Zynaps 3 December 2012 17: 19
      -1
      Quote: wulf66
      Strongly however, the Bolsheviks' brains dusted the people ...


      yeah, Pushkin A.S. and almost the whole world of Petersburg, sympathizing with the conspirators, were Bolsheviks?

      Quote: wulf66
      But the origins of the French revolution must be understood, among other things, this revolution led to the defeat of France in the war with England ...


      ... and therefore the French still consider their revolution an outstanding world event and the whole country annually celebrates Bastille Day with a mandatory military parade? Well stupid ... (c)

      the French revolution lay on prepared soil. in return for the musty Ludoviks and Napoleons, with their dynastic moss ambitions and bad governance, the much more progressive bourgeoisie and industrialists, who began in France NTR and industrialization, replaced it. without this revolution, France would not have become one of the leaders in Europe and the world. just a trifle what.

      Quote: wulf66
      The development of people's lives should be EVOLUTIONARY, without bloody twists and turns of the government, sometimes called revolutions, which bring nothing but blood, and ALWAYS come to power completely not those who participate in this bacchanalia.


      Well, just a Jura musician. he too - for all good versus all bad. and preferably right now. only theorists constantly forget that the interests of the parties can reach such a potential difference that they can’t solve the problems peacefully. some with all their paws and teeth hold on to power and the nishtyaks attached to it, while others can only die. therefore, the latter decide their fate in the ways that remain to them.

      but in the case of the Decembrists, yes. attempted coup d'etat tried to make good, smart, noble people who did not understand a damn thing in real life and did not have the slightest experience in running the country. although autocracy with serfdom have long been in the liver of a progressive audience, they did not have a serious political program and replaced it with actually good wishes. those. laid a powerful bomb under the foundation of Russia, which could tear the country to shreds in the near foreseeable future. therefore, the failure of the conspirators in this case was a blessing for the country, for maintaining the status quo with the general passivity of the masses was rather a blessing. in history, it sometimes happens that it’s sometimes more profitable to keep any reaction there when the progress is defeated, for which the majority are not ready and which threatens to tear everyone and everything to shreds.
    4. kostello2004
      kostello2004 3 December 2012 18: 06
      0
      The Bolsheviks betrayed the tsar by the way, and then the people are even worse
      1. Zynaps
        Zynaps 3 December 2012 19: 00
        +5
        fuck, give two!

        it seems that some experts did not even open a history textbook in life. the Bolsheviks were enemies of the tsar, but they did not overthrow him and were not loyal to him. the tsar was betrayed and overthrown primarily by his own generals, ministers and financial tycoons, who swore allegiance to him, led by Kornilov and Guchkov.

        and then, when the "temporary" ones finally brought the country to the handle, the Bolsheviks took power. and, which is typical, the people supported them and followed them.
  5. maxiv1979
    maxiv1979 3 December 2012 10: 33
    +2
    Quote: Prometey
    However, it is not far-sighted to deny the progressive impact of revolutionary movements on the course of development of society.


    This is where the revolutionary movement enriched the people? Just all the richest countries - developed steadily, and not as a result of cataclysms, revolutions and breaking.

    Quote: Prometey
    The Decembrists spoke out, not against the state, but against the ruling regime, and more specifically, the despised by them Alexander I - the English henchman and father-killer. And what else was the reaction of the Decembrists to almost 100% of war veterans with Napoleonic France, who saw how a royal court drowned in luxury humiliates Russian soldiers in the military settlements - the recent liberators of the Fatherland and Europe?


    The state and the ruling regime, at the time, are one and the same. Alexander was no longer the first, at the time of their speech, and the killers of Paul were the same nobles as they themselves, bought with aglitsky money. The reaction of the Decembrists is generally ridiculous; they themselves were noble and since childhood lived in luxury, almost all had serf souls, also to me, sad people. Veterans of the war of 1812-1814 were only 20%, which 100% ??

    Quote: Prometey
    About France also "pleased" - it turns out before the revolution the French lived like cheeses in butter and the people rose up against the government raging with fat. Alexander, don't go overboard. The French Revolution cleared France of that stench and crap that parasitized the people (not from scratch de Sade did not scoop materials for his works). Blood and the struggle for power between the victors, unfortunately, are the costs of revolutions, so far not a single country has left it.


    There is no need for the French themselves to ask how they happily healed under their revolutionaries.


    Quote: There was a mammoth
    I do not agree. You refuse the Decembrists nobility and heroism. At the same time and Pushkin.


    Read what Pushkin said about them, all this is, and he did not recognize any nobility and heroism for them.

    Quote: There was a mammoth
    They did not blow up innocent people like today's terrorists. And speaking, they knew what awaited them. Article minus.


    Then they had not yet learned how to make compact infernal machines, but deceiving hundreds of guards soldiers under buckshot, this is what they did with innocent people and "the first knife - for boyars and nobles, the second knife - for priests and saints, and, making prayer, the third knife - on the king "People of honor, what a bazaar
    1. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 3 December 2012 11: 31
      0
      "Read what Pushkin said about them ...". I read it.

      In the depths of Siberian ores
      Keep your patience,
      Do not lose your sorrowful work
      And we think of a great aspiration.

      Unfortunately, a faithful sister,
      Hope in a gloomy dungeon
      It will awake cheerfulness and merriment,
      The desired time will come:

      Love and friendship is up to you
      They will reach through the gloomy gates,
      As in your convict burrows
      My free voice comes.

      The chains of the heavy will fall,
      Dungeons will collapse - and freedom
      You will be cheerfully at the entrance,
      And the brothers will give you the sword.
      A.S. Pushkin 1827

      Rewriting history is a thankless job. Something you can skip.
    2. Lacoste
      Lacoste 3 December 2012 12: 26
      -3
      This is where the revolutionary movement enriched the people? Just all the richest countries - developed steadily, and not as a result of cataclysms, revolutions and breaking.


      We compare the standard of living of the 80s and the beginning of the 20th century. The difference is obvious. This is for 70 years of the reign of the Bolsheviks. Now the standard of living from the 17th to the 20th century. The difference is not too big. 300 years of tsarism. And 300 years would have lived like that.

      The reaction of the Decembrists is generally ridiculous; they themselves were noble and since childhood lived in luxury, almost all had serf souls, also to me, sad people.


      So they had a conscience and love for the people, you may not understand, since you condemn them. A lot is also known about their attitude to the peasants, God grant everyone such a gentleman.

      Read what Pushkin said about them, all this is, and he did not recognize any nobility and heroism for them.


      Lies. Read the comment below.

      Then we have not yet learned how to make compact infernal cars


      So you have not learned? How many attempts on Alexander 1 were there?
    3. Prometey
      Prometey 3 December 2012 13: 12
      -2
      Quote: maxiv1979
      This is where the revolutionary movement enriched the people? Just all the richest countries - have been developing steadily,

      I kind of wrote nothing about enrichment at all. And you can examples, what kind of rich countries that developed quietly, peacefully?
      Quote: maxiv1979
      The state and the ruling regime, at the time, are one and the same

      And now? Once again I say-the Decembrists did not oppose Russian statehood, and even more so for the collapse of the country. It’s easy now to attribute what they didn’t even think about.
      Quote: maxiv1979
      There is no need for the French themselves to ask how they happily healed under their revolutionaries.

      Ask and at the same time ask why the French still celebrate Bastille Day - the country's main national holiday.
    4. mamba
      mamba 3 December 2012 16: 52
      +1
      Quote: maxiv1979
      deceive to bring hundreds of guards soldiers under the buckshot

      And not only. And the hero of World War II, combat general Miloradovich?
      In more than fifty battles, happily escaping injury, he received two wounds that day, one of which was fatal. One bullet wound - in the back from Kakhovsky and the second, bayonet - from Obolensky.
      When, overcoming the pain, he allowed the doctors to remove the bullet that pierced his lung and got stuck under his right nipple, examined it and saw that it was released from the gun, he exclaimed:
      - Oh, thank God! This bullet is not a soldier! Now I am completely happy!
      The bullet turned out to be with a special notch; she tore apart with the passage of tissue more than usual. The dying Miloradovich, gathering his strength, joked:
      - It is a pity that after a hearty breakfast I could not digest such an insignificant spool.
      Such are the "noble" revolutionaries! They were terribly distant not only from the people, but also from honor: officer and noble.
  6. gordeew_alr
    gordeew_alr 3 December 2012 11: 37
    -4
    The article is quite good. The only thing I do not agree with is the miracle of "Stalinism". The Entente, in my opinion, did not have the strength to simultaneously deceive and suppress the people during the civil war, and a Russian response to the intervention was possible. Therefore, "Stalinism" was necessary for the gradual suppression of all forces that could rebel against enslavement. That "Stalinism" has successfully accomplished. The only thing that he failed to do was to destroy the Church. Much blood was shed, but the Church resisted. The Church of Christ itself has always been strengthened with martyr's blood. So Russian civilization and statehood were saved by the Orthodox education of the people, not "Stalinism". If it were not for “Stalinism,” there would not have been such a weakening of the people, which led to the destruction of the 90s. The main thing that "Stalinism" did was to suppress the will of the people to live, to impose a slave psychology. On the whole, the article is strong, it shows the historical connection of Western aggression against Russia 200 years ago and today.
    1. Zynaps
      Zynaps 3 December 2012 17: 45
      +3
      Quote: gordeew_alr
      The Entente, in my opinion, did not have the strength to simultaneously deceive and suppress the people during the civil war, and a Russian response to the intervention was possible.


      bullshit. to begin with, look what the white leaders promised for the help of the Entente. not only would it be necessary to pay huge debts with interest on royal loans, so England and France, who had restrained in WWI, wanted to gain control over all the assets of the Republic of Ingushetia. from Murmansk and the Trans-Siberian Railway to gold mines and Baku oil. and given the fact that WWII did not solve its goals and objectives, but only postponed them for 20 years (read the famous speech of Marshal Foch), then no Entente would save Raseyushka from Hitler. because there would be nothing to fight. the Entente was not interested in the industrial development of Russia.

      Quote: gordeew_alr
      Therefore, "Stalinism" was necessary for the gradual suppression of all forces that could rebel against enslavement.


      what nonsense. "We are 50 - 100 years behind the industrialized countries, we must overcome this gap in the next 10 years, otherwise ..." - the Stalinist program in the bottom line. the whole logic of the rigidity and cruelty of the regime lies in the fact that everyone in Europe understood that a new big war was inevitable. therefore, not only in the Stalinist USSR, but practically in all European countries, they tried to use the respite to strengthen themselves loved ones. and there was no smell of democracies there - from 1918 to 1939. at
      Europe did not have peace time and everyone was trying to bend a neighbor to get all kinds of benefits. in this situation, living with relaxed rolls is the height of insanity.

      Quote: gordeew_alr
      The only thing he failed to do was destroy the Church.


      The Russian Orthodox Church actually destroyed itself. in civilian. when, instead of becoming a peacemaker and pacifying the warring parties, she firmly and meanly spoke out for one of the parties to the conflict. and if so, then receive and sign. and then nothing to whine.

      Quote: gordeew_alr
      So Russian civilization and statehood were saved by the Orthodox education of the people, not by "Stalinism."


      the people were saved by education, civilization, medicine and capital investments in infrastructure. for, as the classics correctly said, "prayers do not help at all against bedbugs."

      Quote: gordeew_alr
      The main thing that "Stalinism" did was suppress the will of the people to live, implant a slave psychology.


      someday you will grow up and understand that such a war that our people suffered in 1941-1945 could only be truly free. freedom is inside a person. learn the words of the "Internationale". about "no one will give us deliverance." and about the fact that freedom is a conscious necessity, and I don't want - I don't want to.
      1. gordeew_alr
        gordeew_alr 8 December 2012 12: 11
        0
        I congratulate you, you are a real product of the ideology of the CPSU, about which at the 26th Congress of the CPSU Comrade Brezhnev said that a new community of people was formed in the USSR, which is called the Soviet people.
        I am Russian, and I reason in Russian.
        Maybe you will understand; this difference in belonging to the people is diametrically opposite. Members of the Soviet people destroyed the Russian people. Maybe that's why, you are "you" - like this unfinished ...
        I will only try to draw your attention to the fact that the Russian people have survived. And he will live. Where is the Soviet one?
  7. maxiv1979
    maxiv1979 3 December 2012 11: 44
    +3
    First these conspiracies
    between Lafite and Clicquot
    there were only friendly disputes
    and didn’t go deep
    rebellious science in the heart,
    it was all just boredom
    idleness of young minds
    fun adult tricks ...
    A.S. Pushkin

    “Recent incidents have revealed many sad truths. The lack of education and morality has led many young people into criminal delusions. Political changes forced from other nations by force of circumstances and long-term preparation, suddenly became our subject of intentions and malicious efforts. About 15 years ago, young people were engaged only in military service, tried to distinguish themselves by one secular education or pranks; literature (at that time so free) had no direction; education did not deviate from the original traits in anything. 10 years later, we saw liberal ideas as a necessary sign of good education, the conversation is exclusively political; literature (suppressed by the most wayward censorship), turned into political libel by the government, and outrageous songs; finally, secret societies, conspiracies, plans are more or less bloody and crazy ... education, or, better, lack of education, is the root of all evil. Not enlightenment, it is said in the Highest manifesto of July 13, 1826, but idleness of mind, more harmful than idleness of bodily strength, a lack of solid knowledge should be attributed to this self-will of thoughts, the source of violent passions, this pernicious luxury of half-knowledge, this impulse to dreamy extremes of which the beginning is the corruption of morals, and the end is destruction ... "

    This is Pushkin about the Decembrists prose

    when I already realized that by what or at least once I read their programs (Decembrists)

    "Victims of reckless thoughts" - this is Tyutchev

    “I thought the Decembrists’ speech was a kind of provocation that drove Russia almost half a century ago, interrupted the Europeanization of the country and tightened the reign of Nicholas I ”- this is Chaadaev

    “The insignificant, godless, and, so to speak, French-coachman-educated, who themselves have gotten themselves harmful pranksters, do not have the power to shake gigantic creatures, this creature is pitiful rather dangerous” - this is Skobelev, a contemporary of events, the illustrious general
    1. Lacoste
      Lacoste 3 December 2012 12: 08
      +1
      The first verse from the poem "Eugene Onegin" and has nothing to do with the Decembrists.
      This is what Pushkin said in 1826. A year later, he wrote the poem "In the depths of Siberian ores". This suggests that either he reconsidered his views, or they are trying to sniff us something completely different from what he had in mind.

      Autocracy has corrupted you
      And his sword struck you, -
      And incorruptible impartiality
      The law sealed this sentence.

      The people, shying away from treachery,
      Bears your name-
      And your memory is from offspring,
      Like a corpse in the ground, buried.

      Oh sacrifice of reckless thoughts
      You hoped maybe
      What will become your scarce blood
      To melt the eternal pole!

      As soon as she smoked, she flashed
      On the age-old mass of ice
      Winter iron died
      And no trace was left.
      Commentators of the poem are unanimous in understanding its meaning. K.V. Pigarev: “It would seem that Tyutchev is completely on the side of the government: the Decembrists for the poet are“ victims of reckless thought, ”daring to encroach on the historically established system. However, in what happened, Tyutchev blames not only the Decembrists, but also the arbitrariness of "Autocracy". And for the system itself, he did not find any other poetic images, except for the “eternal pole”, “the age-old mass of ice” and “the winter of iron” ”
      Well, Skobelev could not be a contemporary, he had not even been born at that time.
    2. Galina
      Galina 3 December 2012 12: 53
      +3
      Thank you, maxiv1979. I myself wanted to find a kind of refutation of the romanticization of Decembrism, moreover through the mouth of Pushkin himself.
      Why does not a single defender of the Decembrists say that they were all (playfully or seriously) Masons? The web of Freemasonry then embraced - entangled the Russian Empire with various societies. Freemasonry is a worldwide network. Masons were also progressives for Russia, sick of the good of the Russian peasant? After all, it was such a "romantic" globalization of those times - it is enough to read the novels of the 19th - early 20th centuries. Now it has a clear and distinct manifestation all over the world. Globalizers are still trying to hide behind beautiful signs. Another thing is that many no longer believe them.
      Therefore, I find it strange that there are people idealizing the Decembrists = Freemasons. Judge them by their fruits. For example, the terrible, so-called great French revolution. The French celebrate it with fanfare to this day: The Liquidation of the Royal Family. And before that, slander. There are countless victims among different classes. And there is a Masonic trace. Here is a quote from the encyclopedia: "The revolution led to enormous casualties. It is estimated that from 1789 to 1815, up to 2 million civilians died from the revolutionary terror in France alone, and up to 2 million soldiers and officers died in wars. [19] Thus, only in revolutionary battles and wars, 7,5% of the population of France died (in 1790 the population was 27), not counting those who died during these years from hunger and epidemics.By the end of the Napoleonic era, there were almost no adult men left in France. capable of fighting. "
      And now look at today's France, walk through its big cities ... The results of many events do not immediately respond, after decades, or even centuries.
      By the way, the Bolsheviks took Vel.Fr. as a historical model for the revolution. revolution.
      So the heroes of the Decembrists are not just failed romance. This is only a small link in a large chain. But what is this chain, where does it start, where does the continuation lead - is another question.
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 3 December 2012 13: 27
        -3
        Galina
        So Freemasonry then carried away all a little. Paul I, Alexander are also members of Masonic lodges. Then, from this point of view, the palace coups and the Decembrists ’speech are out-of-club showdowns, as well as the French revolution, apparently what
  8. maxiv1979
    maxiv1979 3 December 2012 13: 05
    0
    Quote: Lacoste
    The first verse from the poem "Eugene Onegin" and has nothing to do with the Decembrists.


    This is your opinion, but I think differently


    Then you give a poem where clearly, without any double interpretations, the position of the poet, condemnation and pity for the Decembrists and all the same is shown

    Quote: Lacoste
    Commentators of the poem are unanimous in understanding its meaning. K.V. Pigarev: “It would seem that Tyutchev is completely on the side of the government: the Decembrists for the poet are“ victims of reckless thought, ”daring to encroach on the historically established system. However, in what happened, Tyutchev blames not only the Decembrists, but also the arbitrariness of "Autocracy". And for the system itself, he did not find any other poetic images, except for the “eternal pole”, “the age-old mass of ice” and “the winter of iron” ”


    Yes, what do I care that Pigarev K.V. thinks that it turns out Tyutchev thought so, and not otherwise, how does he know that? Here is Tyutchev’s opinion, why should we understand him in the interpretations of some Pigarev? By the way, who is this?)
    And there will always be those who are dissatisfied with power, ANY power, let's kill everyone. You read what the Decembrists wanted to do with Russia, this is bullshit, and everyone sees only one word - the Constitution, the bait for fools. Drowning the country in blood for constitution


    “One hundred warrant officers want to change the entire state life of Russia” is Griboedov about the Decembrists, how will you distort his words?)


    Quote: Lacoste
    Well, Skobelev could not be a contemporary, he had not even been born at that time.


    huh? and you look for contemporaries from the Skobelev family, we may be surprised)
    1. Lacoste
      Lacoste 3 December 2012 13: 23
      +1
      This is your opinion, but I think differently


      You accuse me of perverting the words of the writers, but you yourself see the hidden meaning in Pushkin's poem, which in my opinion has nothing to do with the Decembrists. Let us then look for hidden meaning in other poems.

      You bring a poem where clearly, without any double interpretations, the position of the poet, condemnation and pity for the Decembrists and all the same is shown


      Right there you prefer to look straight ahead. This is your right, only it is not yet known who and what ravages)

      And there will always be those who are dissatisfied with power, ANY power, let's kill everyone.


      Yes, I agree, there will always be dissatisfied. And from my point of view, it’s impossible to live like you did then. Serfdom - is this generally normal? Therefore, I will always support the then revolutionaries.

      “One hundred warrant officers want to change the entire state life of Russia” is Griboedov about the Decembrists, how will you distort his words?)


      Why are you throwing me writers?) Let me start throwing statements in support of the Decembrists. This does not change anything. There are consonants, there are dissenters. Always so, talk about it yourself.
  9. maxiv1979
    maxiv1979 3 December 2012 13: 44
    -1
    Well, the argument is useless, but no one will ever convince me that people ABSOLUTELY torn from the people, living in luxury, being at that time a sweet living elite, mired in theft (for example Pestel) and other sins, like drunkenness and debauchery (reluctance in more detail, there are good books, you just need to read) - Did these people KNOW how to bring happiness to the people ??)) if even in 1861, the abolition of serfdom was regarded by the peasants as a catastrophe, but they just wanted happiness))
    This nobility, which had no idea about the needs of the Russian people, decided to bring him happiness ... well, and as usual, they themselves climb to the top of power, which they wrote about.
    Look at the history of the murders of Russian emperors in the 18th century, everywhere the mercenary interests of the nobility, and this time, you just need to cover up with a beautiful phrase
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 3 December 2012 14: 11
      0
      Quote: maxiv1979
      if even in 1861, the abolition of serfdom was regarded by the peasants as a disaster

      Not the abolition of serfdom, but how the land was allocated to the peasants + the redemption operation itself.
  10. igordok
    igordok 3 December 2012 14: 39
    -3
    The December uprising crippled Russia, even if the authorities lost confidence in the Army. Why arm and train an army that can turn bayonets.
    The Crimean War 1853 — 1856 was lost due to the Decembrists. The army (and the Navy) turned out not to be equipped or trained.
    After the December uprising, we did not have significant victories in the navy, and the army was not much better.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 3 December 2012 14: 41
      +2
      igordok
      Very interesting, and here it turns out the Decembrists are to blame.
    2. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 3 December 2012 16: 57
      +1
      Quote: igordok
      The army (and the Navy) turned out not to be equipped or trained.

      It may not be the Decembrists, but the kings. What is the popular nickname of Nikolai?
      1. kostello2004
        kostello2004 3 December 2012 18: 08
        -4
        the rag seems to be wrong. But what was Lenin's nickname? and Stalin?
  11. Kir
    Kir 3 December 2012 14: 46
    +1
    The only thing you can blame the author for is the lack of references to the sources !!!, by the way, this is not so rare here.
    And now an appeal to those who believe in the holiness of these political adventurers, if you are still capable of perceiving anything other than what you believe in, I advise you to read the book "December 14, 1825 and its interpreters2 (GERTSIN and OGAREV AGAINST BARON Korf) M.:" SCIENCE " 1994, and if this book does not dissuade you from the "sanctity of these heroes", and a direct parallel with the swamp is not just asking, but simply is a given as such !!!, then you just have a clinical case, and a dispute
    Quote: maxiv1979
    Okay, the argument is useless
    ,
    100% true, and until he forgot about the "Freemasonry" of Emperor Paul I, the Order of Malia whose master was the slain Emperor, was, if I may say so, a competitor of the Masons in terms of influence on world politics !!!
  12. 8 company
    8 company 3 December 2012 16: 59
    -5
    "Literally a miracle - "Stalinism" saved Russian civilization and statehood."

    Miracle! Miracle!! Apparently, the author not only believes in miracles, but also believes in the end of the world, and goes to fortune-tellers. Fortune-teller, tell him fortunes - when will the "miracle" return, finally, and will solve all the problems that worried the Stalinists? winked
    Stalinists, and you call Kadyrov a leader - your type is pure, will become your leader a new, new miracle-yud wink
  13. Oidsoldier
    Oidsoldier 3 December 2012 17: 42
    0
    An article on similar topics: http://www.pravoslavie.ru/smi/37398.htm I recommend.
  14. Captain45
    Captain45 3 December 2012 21: 00
    +2
    And if we consider the uprising of the Decembrists from this angle, the uprising occurred after the announcement of Nicholas as emperor, but Nicholas was not the eldest son of Alexander, the eldest son was V.K. Constantine, and according to the law on succession to the throne he should have become emperor and there is evidence that the court swore allegiance to Constantine , moreover, even rubles were minted with its profile, which are now a numismatic rarity, i.e. a fact confirmed in metal. But Constantine refused the succession to the throne because of his romantic adventures, but the so-called "advanced part of the nobility" to whom the Decembrists also wanted to see Constantine on the throne, known for his free or, as they say now, liberal views, nyo Constantine refused and they began to swear allegiance to Nicholas, this confrontation lasted about a week. Naturally, the "Decembrists", who had already sworn allegiance to Constantine, refused to swear allegiance to Nicholas and brought the troops to the same. In general, a typical palace coup, everyone was looking for their own benefit, and the srldat was used as a consumable. Something during the shooting with buckshot on the Senate, none of the leaders of the Decembrists suffered, for which later paid some neck, some freedom, some property. After all, all the materials of the Investigative Committee the commissions have not yet been fully disclosed. It was not profitable for the communists to debunk the tale of noble nobles at one time. How did the Decembrists wake up Herzen, and he thumped sleepily into his "Bell" and raised the Narodnaya Volya members from which the Union of Struggle for the Liberation of the Worker was historically born class "led by Blank-Ulyanov and in alliance with the" Bund "eventually messed up in Mother Russia. Such, at least, was the history of the revolutionary movement in Russia from the point of view of Soviet historians.
  15. Black
    Black 3 December 2012 22: 02
    -1
    Those whom we call "Decembrists" were not idealists, they did not envisage the reorganization of society. Manifestos are husk and lure for fools. The organizers were interested in money, namely, the issue of Russia's participation in the development of America.
  16. dmb
    dmb 3 December 2012 22: 03
    +2
    Well, A. Samsonov surprised. Not written, he is not the first. Read "Guards Century" A. Bushkov. The thoughts are the same. Both authors are interesting. but sometimes they "sort out" and contradict themselves. The trouble is that they carry their experience and vision of the 20th century back a century and believe that the thoughts and upbringing of the Decembrists should correspond to what was explained to them in the pioneers, and then in the "Look" program. I will cite only one quote from the article: "The Manifesto liquidated the" former government "and replaced it with a temporary one, until the elections of the Constituent Assembly. Then came the standard set of democratic values: the elimination of censorship, serfdom, conscription and military settlements, freedom of religion, equality of all before the law, publicity of courts and the introduction of a jury trial, reducing the term of military service for privates to 15 years. It was proposed to abolish all taxes and duties, to abolish the state monopoly on salt, on the sale of wine, etc. "Which of this list (besides the economic part, and perhaps even censorship ) do not like Samsonov ?. Maybe he believes that Russia continued to flourish in the presence of serfdom, selective responsibility before the law and the presence of military settlements. Then I feel sorry for him. It is clear that neither Pestel, nor Muravyov, nor Trubetskoy intended to engage in the class struggle. To convince us that they were all "damned hirelings" of Anglo-Saxon Masons is also stupidity. History knows examples when certain well-born members of society acted contrary to the interests of their homeland, but, thank God, this is a rarity (civil wars do not count). They acted in the name of freedom and justice the way they understood it. Why Lenin wrote quite rightly: "They were far from the people." And Samsonov apparently wants them to immediately start talking about a socially oriented state and the creation, even today, of an obscure innovation fund (or Pension Fund).
  17. knn54
    knn54 5 December 2012 16: 49
    +1
    And before the Decembrists, the assassination of Peter 1, Paul 1. Pugachev uprising. After the mysterious death of Nicholas 1 and Alexander 3 (allegedly from alcoholism). And the Basmach movement in Central Asia (almost a quarter of a century), the German heavy cruisers-raiders, who broke into the Black Sea during World War I, did not notice. Yes, and now the Misty Albion (read Baron Rothschild and Co.) is not asleep: dirty tricks behind a broad back US true puppeteers around the world.